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Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display cognitive deficits in acutely depressed and remitted states. Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in adults, but its impact on cognition and treatment related cognitive outcomes in adult MDD has received little consideration. We investigate whether, compared to patients without maltreatment and healthy participants, adult MDD patients with childhood maltreatment display greater cognitive deficits in acute depression, lower treatment-associated cognitive improvements, and lower cognitive performance in remission.
Healthy and acutely depressed MDD participants were enrolled in a multi-center MDD predictive marker discovery trial. MDD participants received 16 weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment. Maltreatment and cognition were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview and the CNS Vital Signs battery, respectively. Cognitive scores and change from baseline to week 16 were compared amongst MDD participants with (DM+, n = 93) and without maltreatment (DM−, n = 90), and healthy participants with (HM+, n = 22) and without maltreatment (HM−, n = 80). Separate analyses in MDD participants who remitted were conducted.
DM+ had lower baseline global cognition, processing speed, and memory v. HM−, with no significant baseline differences amongst DM−, HM+, and HM− groups. There were no significant between-group differences in cognitive change over 16 weeks. Post-treatment remitted DM+, but not remitted DM−, scored significantly lower than HM− in working memory and processing speed.
Childhood maltreatment was associated with cognitive deficits in depressed and remitted adults with MDD. Maltreatment may be a risk factor for more severe and persistent cognitive deficits in adult MDD.
In an effort to optimize patient outcomes, considerable attention is being devoted to identifying patient characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and its responsiveness to treatment. In the current study, we extend this work by evaluating whether early change in these sensitivities is associated with response to antidepressant treatment for MDD.
Participants included 210 patients with MDD who were treated with 8 weeks of escitalopram and 112 healthy comparison participants. Of the original 210 patients, 90 non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole for an additional 8 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anhedonia were assessed at the beginning of treatment and 8 weeks later in both samples. Reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed using the BIS/BAS scales measured at the initiation of treatment and 2 weeks later.
Individuals with MDD exhibited higher punishment sensitivity and lower reward sensitivity compared with healthy comparison participants. Change in reward sensitivity during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with improved depressive symptoms and anhedonia following 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Similarly, improvement in reward responsiveness during the first 2 weeks of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was associated with fewer symptoms of depression at post-treatment.
Findings highlight the predictive utility of early change in reward sensitivity during antidepressant treatment for major depression. In a clinical setting, a lack of change in early reward processing may signal a need to modify a patient's treatment plan with alternative or augmented treatment approaches.
Recent work in the Upper Cretaceous of northeastern Mexico has produced a diversity of vertebrate remains. For specimens referable to Squamata, both old and new, an annotated catalogue is here provided, wherein are summarised the geological context and morphological features of each specimen. All specimens appear to represent marine squamates, including an aigialosaur-like reptile preserving integumentary structures, several vertebrae possibly representing mosasauroids, the first Mexican mosasaur known from significant cranial material, an isolated mosasaur mandibular fragment, and the holotype of Amphekepubis johnsoni (considered to belong to Mosasaurus). These discoveries are auspicious and should deepen our understanding of palaeobiogeographic and evolutionary patterns
We observed an area of sky located within the SDSS Stripe 82 field at 1.6 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN). There are fifteen mJy/sub-mJy radio sources within the primary beam of a typical 30-m class EVN radio telescope. Our aim was to obtain information on compact radio structures of all VLBI-detectable sources within this primary beam area. The source of particular interest is the recently identified radio quasar J222843.54+011032.2 (J2228+0110) at z = 5.95. The data correlation was performed at the EVN software correlator at JIVE (SFXC). Three targets (J2228+0110, J222851.45+011203.4, J222941.76+011428.5) were detected, all three with position offsets not exceeding the 3σ accuracy of the original low-resolution radio surveys. The detection rate of 20% is consistent with other wide-field VLBI experiments carried out recently (e.g. Middelberg et al. 2013). The project presented here demonstrates the ability of EVN in multiple-phase-centre experiments and paves the way for future large-scale EVN surveys of compact structures in extragalactic radio sources using the multiple-phase-centre VLBI technique.
The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps.
Commensal epizoozoans and episkeletozoans are rarely preserved attached to the external exoskeleton of the Late Ordovician trilobite Flexicalymene. Of nearly 15,000 Flexicalymene specimens examined, 0.1% show epizoozoans or episkeletozoans. Factors limiting Flexicalymene fouling include a shallow burrowing life style, frequent molting of the host, larval preference for other substrates, observational bias caused by overlooking small fouling organisms, and the loss of the non-calcified, outermost cuticle prior to fossilization or as the trilobite weathers from the encasing sediment. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, cornulitids, and a tube-dwelling/boring nonbiomineralized organism represent the preserved members of the Late Ordovician marine hard substrate community fouling Flexicalymene. This assemblage of organisms is less diverse than the hard substrate community fouling Late Ordovician sessile epibenthic organisms. Fouling is not restricted to only large Flexicalymene specimens as observed in previous studies but occurs in medium to large individuals interpreted as early to late holaspid specimens.
Epizoozoans fouling the carcasses or molt ensembles of 16 Flexicalymene specimens provide insight into the life habits of the host and these fouling organisms. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, and cornulitids preferentially attached to elevated portions of the dorsal exoskeleton, and preferentially aligned in either the direct line or lee side of currents generated by Flexicalymene walking on the sea floor or swimming through the water column.
Modern geoinformatic techniques allow the automated creation of detailed glacier inventory data from glacier outlines and digital terrain models (DTMs). Once glacier entities are defined and an appropriate DTM is available, several methods exist to derive the inventory data (e.g. minimum, maximum and mean elevation; mean slope and aspect) for each glacier from digital intersection of both datasets. Compared to the former manual methods, the new grid-based statistical calculations are very fast and reproducible. The major aim of this contribution is to help in standardizing the related calculations to enhance the integrity of the Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) database. The recommendations were prepared by a working group and also contribute to the European Space Agency project GlobGlacier. The document follows the former UNESCO manual for the production of the World Glacier Inventory published in 1970, identifies the potential pitfalls, and describes the differences from the former methods of compilation. The online background material for this paper (see http://www.glims.org) contains example scripts for calculation of each parameter and will be updated when required.
There is a lack of knowledge about the genetic background of eczema due to insect bite hypersensitivity, also called summer eczema, in horses. The condition is known in several horse breeds and countries and it causes reduced welfare of the horse and economic losses to the owner. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for summer eczema in Swedish-born Icelandic horses. A questionnaire was sent to owners of horses sired by stallions with more than 50 offspring born in Sweden between 1991 and 2001. Variance components of summer eczema classified as healthy, mild, moderate or severe were estimated using the threshold methodology with sire models. In addition, summer eczema was analysed as a binary trait (healthy v. affected). The analyses included 1250 horses sired by 33 stallions. The prevalence of summer eczema was 8%, with a range of 0% to 30% in different paternal half-sib groups. Offspring of dams suffering from eczema had a higher risk of developing eczema. The heritability for severity of summer eczema was estimated at 0.3 (s.d. < 0.2) with a threshold sire model. In contrast to the age of the horse, different geographic areas and gender were significantly associated with severity of the eczema. We conclude that genetic selection could decrease the prevalence of summer eczema among Swedish-born Icelandic horses. The amount and quality of data are, however, crucial for the possibility to introduce a genetic evaluation of summer eczema. The symptoms should be classified in several classes according to severity, and this classification could be made by the horse owner.
The study was designed to determine comparatively the prognostic value of immunoblotting and ELISA in the serological follow-up of young cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients exhibiting either a cured or a progredient (non-cured) course of disease after treatment. A total of 54 patients (mean age 9 years, range from 3 to 15 years) with surgically, radiologically and/or histologically proven CE were studied for a period up to 60 months after surgery. Additionally, some of the patients underwent chemotherapy. Based on the clinical course and outcome, as well as on imaging findings, patients were clustered into 2 groups of either cured (CCE), or non-cured (NCCE) CE patients. ELISA showed a high rate of seropositivity 4 to 5 years post-surgery for both CCE (57·1%) and NCCE (100%) patients, the difference found between the two groups was statistically not significant. Immunoblotting based upon recognition of AgB subcomponents (8 and 16 kDa bands) showed a decrease of respective antibody reactivities after 4 years post-surgery. Only sera from 14·3% of CCE patients recognized the subcomponents of AgB after 4 years, while none (0%) of these sera was still reactive at 5 years post-surgery. At variance, immunoblotting remained positive for AgB subcomponents in 100% of the NCCE cases as tested between 4 and 5 years after surgical treatment. Immunoblotting therefore proved to be a useful approach for monitoring post-surgical follow-ups of human CCE and NCCE in young patients when based upon the recognition of AgB subcomponents.
Magnetic refrigeration based on the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been proposed as an attractive alternative to gas compression technology. Some calculations suggest that MCE can be obtained with higher efficiencies than compressor driven refrigeration. We examine the MCE in a system of nickel ferrite nanoparticles with size range of 6 to 15 nm. A peak in the MCE at 55 K is observed that increases with higher magnetic fields. This gives this system a relatively high peak entropy change compared to other ferrite systems. A sensitive radio-frequency (RF) transverse susceptibility measurement has also been used to study the magnetic anisotropy. We show that the MCE peak is not associated with the blocking temperature and is likely a field-driven surface spin reorientation which also has a signature in the transverse susceptibility. Work supported by NSF-CTS-0408933 and ARO- W911NF-05-1-0354
From August 2002 to February 2003 25 cases of hepatitis A were notified from one town in Jutland. The first cases were children of three families who returned from an endemic country. The infection spread subsequently in the local community and within households. A case-control study among household index cases showed that hepatitis A was associated with contact to a case in an after-school group (OR 29·6) and with contact to a case household member in a school class or day-care centre group (OR 9·5). From a serosurvey it was estimated that for each notified patient approximately one additional infection has occurred in the households. The infection was imported by children of immigrants, born in Denmark, returning from a visit to friends and relatives in the high-incidence country of origin of their parents and was then propagated through contact between children in after-school groups, schools and their families. Immunoprophylaxis should be given to children prior to visits to friends and relatives in endemic countries and to case contacts.
The idea that the radio jets in AGN contain material
in relativistic motion is supported by many lines of observational
evidence, including morphology, brightness temperature estimated
with interferometers and with intrinsic variations, interstellar
scintillations, X-rays, and superluminal motion. These are largely
independent, and taken together make an irrefutable case for relativistic
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
A new method for surface functionalization of inherently reactive polymers such as polyesters has been developed. It is based on the direct nucleophilic attack on the ester group in the polyethyleneterephtalate backbone by the acid moiety of polyacrylic acid (PAA) catalyzed by titaniumisopropoxide. The PAA grafted surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to demonstrated the presence of a thin grafted layer rendering the substrates hydrophilic. Subsequent acid group activation using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride allowed for in-situ collagen immobilization rendering the surfaces cell adhesive. Human smooth muscle and urothelial cells successfully seeded these surfaces, reaching confluence after 7 days.
By liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) we have grown silicon layers on silicon and partially masked silicon at temperatures below 450 °C from Ga and Ga-In solutions. Oxidation of the cleaned silicon substrate surfaces before epitaxial growth has been prevented by a buffered hydrofluoric acid treatment. The epitaxial layers reached a thickness of 7 jim and were free of extended defects.
Low growth temperatures make it possible to grow silicon layers also on pre-treated glass substrates. The amorphous glass is first coated with a thin nano-crystalline silicon layer which is deposited by plasma processes from a mixture of SiH4/H2 gas. The grains in the silicon layers grown from Ga solution on glass have reached sizes up to 100 μm.