Monoclonal antibodies raised against antigens present in the excretions/secretions (E/S) of larval Trichinella spiralis, polyclonal antibodies raised against E/S and antisera from rabbits and pigs infected with T. spiralis were used in conjunction with immunocytochemical techniques to detect antigens in sections of muscle from mice that had been infected with T. spiralis for 15 or 30 days. The antibodies recognized epitopes in the stichocytes, on the surface of the cuticle, in the lumen of the oesophagus and in the lumen of the intestine of encysted larvae. Monoclonal antibodies 7C2C5 and 1H7 and the polyclonal antibodies recognized epitopes in the cavity occupied by the larva, in the cytoplasm of the nurse cell, and in the hypertrophic nuclei of the nurse cell, but did not recognize material in the smaller nuclei of the nurse cell, in the cyst wall or in the surrounding muscle. Monoclonals 3B2E6 and 1D11G8B2, which recognized epitopes in the stichocytes and on the surface of the cuticle of the larvae, gave negative results with the cytoplasm and nuclei of the nurse cell. A polyclonal antibody raised against Trichuris suis recognized epitopes in the muscle and hypodermis of encysted T. spiralis but gave negative results with material in the nurse cell and nurse cell nuclei. The possibility that the antigen detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the nurse cell is produced by the stichocytes of the nematode and that it is controlling genes of the altered muscle fibre, either directly or indirectly, is discussed.