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A new approach is presented for the boundary optimal control of the MHD equations in which the boundary control problem is transformed into an extended distributed control problem. This can be achieved by considering boundary controls in the form of lifting functions which extend from the boundary into the interior. The optimal solution is then sought by exploring all possible extended functions. This approach gives robustness to the boundary control algorithm which can be solved by standard distributed control techniques over the interior of the domain.
Infectious diarrhoea is common in young Australian Aborigines [1–3] and is one of the main causes for their unsatisfactory health standards with consequent widespread failure to thrive and undernutrition [4–5]. Most published reports relate to patients in hospital or to hospital admission statistics and give little indication of the extent or severity of diarrhoeal disease in children in Aboriginal communities.
The present investigation involved more than 100 Aboriginal children up to 5 years of age living in remote communities in the tropical north of Western Australia who were studied prospectively over a 12–month period.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were the most frequently identified enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoea in 0–5 year old Aboriginal children in tropical north-west Australia with an incidence similar to those from other tropical regions. Heat-stable toxin-producing (ST + ) strains were associated with diarrhoea throughout the year but heat-labile toxin-producing (LT + ) strains were more important in the monsoonal summer season. ST + strains were commonest in children with diarrhoea between 6 and 18 months of age while LT + strains were associated with diarrhoea in children aged 18–24 months. Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) which produced VT1, but not VT2, and enteroadherent (EAF + ) E. coli were significant causes of diarrhoea, mainly in children below 18 months but without a seasonal pattern.
The existence of periodic ion-acoustic waves propagating through an inhomogeneous moving plasma is studied. For supersonic flow speeds it is shown that periodic excitations result in periodic responses independent of the nature of the media properties and the initial conditions. For subsonic flow speeds, periodic responses exist only under certain restrictions on the media and the initial conditions. However, most cases of physical interest are in the class of problems for which periodic or asymptotically periodic responses exist.
An analytical solution is obtained for the flow field due to the impinging of a plane shock wave of arbitrary strength by a thin wing moving in the opposite direction. The planform and the thickness distribution of the wing can be arbitrary and the speed of the wing can be either supersonic or subsonic relative to the undisturbed stream ahead of the shock or to that behind the shock. The solution is a generalization of the previous solution of Ting & Ludloff for the diffraction of shock wave by a two-dimensional stationary airfoil to a three-dimensional wing moving with supersonic or subsonic speed relative to the stream ahead of or behind the shock. The solution is employed for the analysis of the changes in aerodynamic forces when an airplane encounters a blast wave or a shock wave of another airplane. It is also used to study the diffraction of a shock wave or an N-wave advancing over flat terrains.
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