To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Using an interpretative comparison in search for cross-case similarities and differences, we examine the evolution of equity of access to healthcare during the economic crisis in two potentially vulnerable Eastern and Southern European countries – Lithuania and Spain. While the type of healthcare system may have shown higher resilience, i.e. equity of access to care during the crisis should have been affected more in Lithuania – a relatively immature health insurance system – than in Spain – a consolidated national health service, the intensity and length of the crisis and types of adjustment measures undertaken may have led, in turn, to different results in terms of equity of access. The analysis focuses on the respective institutional designs and healthcare reforms under austerity as well as subjective and objective indicators of access to care. We conclude that the Lithuanian healthcare system, despite potential comparative disadvantage, has shown greater performance than the Spanish one during the crisis.
Background:ATP8A2 mutations have only recently been associated with human disease. We present the clinical features from the largest cohort of patients with this disorder reported to date. Methods: An observational study of 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations was carried out at multiple centres. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 9.4 years old (range: 2.5-28 yrs). All patients demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders: chorea/choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) or facial dyskinesia (18%). Hypotonia was apparent at birth (70%) or before 6 months old (100%). Optic atrophy was observed in 75% of patients who had a funduscopic examination. MRI of the brain was normal for most patients with a small proportion showing mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Epilepsy was seen in two older patients. Conclusions:ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as a cause of a novel phenotype characterized by developmental delay, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this disorder.
We present a methodology to forecast mortality rates and estimate longevity and mortality risks. The methodology uses generalized dynamic factor models fitted to the differences in the log-mortality rates. We compare their prediction performance with that of models previously described in the literature, including the traditional static factor model fitted to log-mortality rates. We also construct risk measures using vine-copula simulations, which take into account the dependence between the idiosyncratic components of the mortality rates. The methodology is applied to forecast mortality rates for a population portfolio for the UK and to estimate longevity and mortality risks.
Some potential applications of the nanoribbons and nanorods occur in the medical field, using gold nanoribbon therapies against cancer cells because they have absorption in the near infrared region. In this paper, the nanoribbons were obtained by physical-chemical method based on multilayer carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic radical groups (-COOH). The obtained material was characterized by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained nanoribbons have a diameter of 320 nm with preferably 126° angle in their morphology.
The role of magnetic field in late type stars such as proto-planetary and planetary nebulae (PPNe/PNe), is poorly known from an observational point of view. We present submillimetric observations realized with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) which unveil the dust continuum polarization in the envelopes of two well known PPNe: CRL 618 and OH 231.8+4.2. Assuming the current grain alignment theory, we were then able to trace the geometry of the magnetic field.
We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustrate that the price of an interest guarantee is high in pension products that are currently commercialised in the market. We have found that the customer loses up to about 0.75% yearly in the rate of return when an interest guarantee is purchased, compared to the return of an equivalent saving strategy with the same risk at the level 95%. This can explain why such arrangements are not widely popular. Our approach can be used to inform clients, who are not experts in modern financial models, the impact of paying for an interest guarantee.
EhNCABP166 is an Entamoeba histolytica actin-binding protein that localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Bioinformatic analysis of the EhNCABP166 amino acid sequence shows the presence of 3 bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES). The present study aimed to investigate the functionality of these signals in 3 ways. First, we fused each potential NLS to a cytoplasmic domain of ehFLN to determine whether the localization of this domain could be altered by the presence of the NLSs. Furthermore, the localization of each domain of EhNCABP166 was determined. Similarly, we generated mutations in the first block of bipartite signals from the domains that contained these signals. Additionally, we added an NES to 2 constructs that were then evaluated. We confirmed the intranuclear localization of EhNCABP166 using transmission electron microscopy. Fusion of each NLS resulted in shuttling of the cytoplasmic domain to the nucleus. With the exception of 2 domains, all of the evaluated domains localized within the nucleus. A mutation in the first block of bipartite signals affected the localization of the domains containing an NLS. The addition of an NES shifted the localization of these domains to the cytoplasm. The results presented here establish EhNCABP166 as a protein containing functional nuclear localization signals and a nuclear export signal.
The Walnut Husk Fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to North America (Midwestern US and north-eastern Mexico) and has invaded several European countries in the past decades by likely crossing the alpine divide separating most parts of Switzerland from Italy. Here, we determined its current distribution in Switzerland by sampling walnuts (Juglans regia L.) in ecologically and climatically distinct regions along potential invasion corridors. R. completa was found to be firmly established in most low altitude areas of Switzerland where walnuts thrive, but notably not a single parasitoid was recovered from any of the samples. Infested fruit was recovered in 42 of the 71 localities that were surveyed, with mean fruit infestation rate varying greatly among sites. The incidence of R. completa in Switzerland is closely related to meteorological mean spring temperature patterns influencing growing season length, but not to winter temperatures, reflecting survival potential during hibernation. Importantly, areas in which the fly is absent correspond with localities where the mean spring temperatures fall below 7°C. Historical data records show that the natural cold barrier around the Alpine divide in the central Swiss Alps corresponding to such minimal temperatures has shrunk significantly from a width of more than 40 km before 1990 to around 20 km after 2000. We hypothesize on possible invasion/expansion routes along alpine valleys, dwell on distribution patterns in relation to climate, and outline future research needs as the incursion of R. completa into Switzerland; and, more recently, other European countries, such as Germany, Austria, France and Slovenia, represent an example of alien species that settle first in the Mediterranean Basin and from there become invasive by crossing the Alps.
Høgh, Linton and Nielsen (2006) showed that the famous result in the award winning paper of Froot and Stein (1998) is not correct in the sense that their result does not follow from their assumptions. In this paper we show that the economic intuition behind the paper of Froot and Stein (1998) is correct and that their result can be obtained when the market is reformulated in a continuous time setting and modern market theory is employed.
Varicella is a very common childhood disease responsible for an important number of hospitalizations every year in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of chickenpox hospitalizations in Spain in the 7-year period between 1999 and 2005. Data of hospital discharges relating to varicella were obtained from the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD), the Spanish surveillance system for hospital data. All paediatric hospitalizations for primary varicella that occurred between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2005 were selected. The hospitalization rate for the 7-year study period was 23·06 hospitalizations/100 000 population. The highest incidences of hospitalizations were observed in the youngest groups (60·79 and 55·65/100 000 population for ages 0–12 months and 1–2 years respectively). Nineteen deaths were reported during the study period. The median length of stay in hospital was 4 days (interquartile range 3–7 days). Despite the availability of effective varicella vaccines, chickenpox remains an important cause of hospitalizations in Spain.
The hypothesis that the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil dramatically influences hepatic gene expression was tested in mice. Two olive oils, obtained from the same olive cultivar but by different technological procedures, were characterized to show that they differed mainly in terms of the composition/quantity of this unsaponifiable fraction. Using DNA microarrays, hepatic gene expression was analysed in apoE-deficient mice fed one of two isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing either 10 % (w/w) olive oil or unsaponifiable fraction-enriched olive oil. To provide an initial screening of potential candidate genes involved in a differential response, only genes with remarkably modified expression (signal log2 ratio >3 or < − 3) were further considered. The eleven genes fulfilling these prerequisites were confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR, and then analysed in apoE-deficient mice with a C57BL/6J genetic background. Orosomucoid and serum amyloid A2 were upregulated (to variable extents depending on the genetic background) in the absence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Fabp5 and Mt2 were also strongly upregulated. Several proteases were highly suppressed by the unsaponifiable-enriched olive diet, independent of the genetic background. The findings indicate that change in the expression of these genes is a good marker of the intake of the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil. The results highlight the important biological effects of the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil. The term ‘monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched oil’ no longer appears appropriate for describing all the oils to which it is currently applied since it does not adequately reflect that they have different biological effects.
Almost all over the world, decreasing mortality rates and increasing life expectancy have led to greater interest in estimating and predicting mortality. Here we describe some of the pitfalls which can result from the use of the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) while evaluating the development of mortality over time, in particular when SMRs are applied to insurance portfolios varying dramatically over time. Although an excellent comparative study of a single-figure index for a number of countries was recently done by Macdonald et al. (1998), we advocate care when attempting to extend this type of method to insurance data. Here we promote the use of genuine multiplicative modelling such as in Felipe et al. (2001), who compared the mortality rates in Denmark and Spain. The starting point for our study was the two-dimensional mortality estimator of Nielsen & Linton (1995), which considers mortality as a function of chronological time and age. From the principle of marginal integration (see Nielsen & Linton, 1995, and Linton et al., 2003), estimators of the multiplicative model can be obtained from this two-dimensional estimator. An application of the method is provided for mortality data of the United States of America, England & Wales, France, Italy, Japan and Russia.
A self-consistent elastic-plastic model has been developed for the analysis
of the behaviour of rolled samples of zirconium 702 during mechanical loading.
The thermal residual stresses produced by cooling from the annealing temperature
to room temperature have been determined and compared to X-ray diffraction results.
The elastoplastic behaviour of zirconium in tensile tests along the rolling and
transverse directions has been simulated and compared to the experimental results.
The influence of texture and of existing thermal stresses on the response of the material
could be studied and explained by this approach.
In multiphase materials, X-Ray Elasticity Constants (XEC) depend on the nature
and volume fraction of each phase constituting the polycrystal. These XEC play a
leading role during X-Ray diffraction stress analysis. Self-consistent scale transition
models have been developed in order to simulate the XEC characteristics of several
two-phase alloys. This work makes possible the quantitative study of the influence
of the second phase on the results of X-Ray stress analysis.
Zn is an essential mineral. The role of Zn in atherosclerosis is not clear. Epidemiological studies, which have reported contradictory results, are limited by the use of serum Zn levels as a marker of intake. We assessed the association of toenail Zn, which integrates dietary Zn intake over 3 to 12 months, with the risk of a first myocardial infarction. Toenail Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis in the European multi-centre case–control study on antioxidants, myocardial infarction and breast cancer. This multi-centre case–control study included 684 cases and 724 controls from eight European countries and Israel. Toenail Zn levels of controls (adjusted for age and study centre) were positively associated with age, α-tocopherol and Se, but not with additional dietary variables or with classical risk factors for CHD. Average toenail Zn was 106·0 mg/kg in cases (95 % CI 103·1, 108·9) and 107·5 mg/kg in controls (95 % CI 104·5, 110·7). After controlling for cardiovascular risk factors and for centre, the adjusted odds ratios of myocardial infarction for quintiles 2–5 of toenail Zn with respect to the first quintile were 0·97 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·58), 1·15 (95 % CI 0·72, 1·85), 0·91 (95 % CI 0·56, 1·50), and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·39). The P for trend was 0·45. In conclusion toenail Zn levels (reflecting long-term dietary intake) were not significantly associated with acute myocardial infarction.
Our research deals with the way that calendar time affects mortality patterns in the Spanish population, and how this information can be used to elaborate predictions. A description of the observed mortality evolution has been worked out using data from 1975 to 1993. We have used Heligman-Pollard Law number two to model the evolution of Spanish mortality over the period and using univariate time series analysis, we have obtained a prognosis for years 1994 to 2010.