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The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.
Determining infectious cross-transmission events in healthcare settings involves manual surveillance of case clusters by infection control personnel, followed by strain typing of clinical/environmental isolates suspected in said clusters. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and cloud computing now allow for the rapid molecular typing of infecting isolates.
To facilitate rapid recognition of transmission clusters, we aimed to assess infection control surveillance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens to identify cross-transmission events for epidemiologic review.
Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained prospectively at an academic medical center, from September 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. Isolate genomes were sequenced, followed by single-nucleotide variant analysis; a cloud-computing platform was used for whole-genome sequence analysis and cluster identification.
Most strains of the 4 studied pathogens were unrelated, and 34 potential transmission clusters were present. The characteristics of the potential clusters were complex and likely not identifiable by traditional surveillance alone. Notably, only 1 cluster had been suspected by routine manual surveillance.
Our work supports the assertion that integration of genomic and clinical epidemiologic data can augment infection control surveillance for both the identification of cross-transmission events and the inclusion of missed and exclusion of misidentified outbreaks (ie, false alarms). The integration of clinical data is essential to prioritize suspect clusters for investigation, and for existing infections, a timely review of both the clinical and WGS results can hold promise to reduce HAIs. A richer understanding of cross-transmission events within healthcare settings will require the expansion of current surveillance approaches.
Piglet mortality has a negative impact on animal welfare and public acceptance. Moreover, the number of weaned piglets per sow mainly determines the profitability of piglet production. Increased litter sizes are associated with lower birth weights and piglet survival. Decreased survival rates and performance of piglets make the control of diseases and infections within pig production even more crucial. Consequently, selection for immunocompetence becomes an important key aspect within modern breeding programmes. However, the phenotypic recording of immune traits is difficult and expensive to realize within farm routines. Even though immune traits show genetic variability, only few examples exist on their respective suitability within a breeding programme and their relationships to economically important production traits. The analysis of immune traits for an evaluation of immunocompetence to gain a generally improved immune response is promising. Generally, in-depth knowledge of the genetic background of the immune system is needed to gain helpful insights about its possible incorporation into breeding programmes. Possible physiological drawbacks for enhanced immunocompetence must be considered with regards to the allocation theory and possible trade-offs between the immune system and performance. This review aims to discuss the relationships between the immunocompetence of the pig, piglet survival as well as the potential of these traits to be included into a breeding strategy for improved robustness.
The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This case-control study aims to determine the relationships among childhood adversity, attachment style, and the likelihood of accepting or declining a referral for HV. The study will serve as a pilot to inform the power analysis of a subsequently proposed full-scale study. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using a case-control study design, 25 women who decline HV referral (cases) will be compared with 25 women who accept HV referral (controls) on their exposure to childhood adversity and attachment style. Women who are eligible for the study are English-speaking mothers who have been offered HV services by Health Care Access Maryland. Surveys are administered in-person, either in the participant’s home or at another location (e.g., public library), based on participant preference. The dependent variable is participant’s verbal response to the HV referral (accept/decline). The independent variable, childhood adversity, will be measured using the Philadelphia Urban Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Survey and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). Control variables include demographics (i.e., age, race, education, employment, housing, marital status), obstetric history (i.e., previous preterm birth, miscarriage, fetal death, infant death, abortion), and current psychosocial risk factors (i.e., history of substance use, intimate partner violence, depression). Descriptive comparisons will be done for the independent and control variables in controls versus cases. Bivariate analysis will examine associations between the odds of being a case and ACE score and ASQ score. Multivariate logistic regression models will be used to examine the relationship between ACE total and ASQ score; exposure to ACE in cases versus controls; and the odds of an avoidant and anxious attachment styles in cases versus controls. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that (a) higher ACE scores will be positively associated with a higher level of avoidant attachment; (b) higher ACE scores will be positively associated with declining a HV referral; and (c) higher levels of avoidant attachment will be associated with declining a HV referral. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Racial inequities in birth outcomes are pervasive and unjust. Non-Hispanic Black women experience births that result in infant mortality, fetal mortality, preterm birth, and low birth weight babies at more than double the rate of non-Hispanic White women in Baltimore and nationally. Prenatal and early childhood home visiting programs have been found to decrease maternal smoking and hypertensive disorder which are associated with PTB, reduce closely spaced births which is associated with fetal and infant death, and improve women’s long-term economic self-sufficiency, child health and social outcomes. However, as community-based programs, these services are not reaching the majority of eligible women in low-income urban settings—women who are also disproportionately burdened with poor pregnancy-related health outcomes. Considering the potential to improve outcomes, the importance of eliminating health disparities, and the national and local investment in HV services, it is vital to understand why some women are not enrolling in prenatal HV programs. The findings from this and subsequent studies will inform the translation of evidence-based HV program outreach efforts for women with complex social history. It will inform the design of enhanced outreach and engagement efforts of HV programs to more reliably engage women.
Antimicrobial use in pig farming is influenced by a range of risk factors, including herd characteristics, biosecurity level, farm performance, occurrence of clinical signs and vaccination scheme, as well as farmers’ attitudes and habits towards antimicrobial use. So far, the effect of these risk factors has been explored separately. Using an innovative method called multiblock partial least-squares regression, this study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 207 farrow-to-finish farms from Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, the relative importance of the six above mentioned categories or ‘blocks’ of risk factors for antimicrobial use in pig production. Four country separate models were developed; they showed that all six blocks provided useful contribution to explaining antimicrobial use in at least one country. The occurrence of clinical signs, especially of respiratory and nervous diseases in fatteners, was one of the largest contributing blocks in all four countries, whereas the effect of the other blocks differed between countries. In terms of risk management, it suggests that a holistic and country-specific mitigation strategy is likely to be more effective. However, further research is needed to validate our findings in larger and more representative samples, as well as in other countries.
This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of globalization's impact on the Brazilian legal profession. Employing original data from nine empirical studies, the book details how Brazil's need to restructure its economy and manage its global relationships contributed to the emergence of a new 'corporate legal sector' - a sector marked by increasingly large and sophisticated law firms and in-house legal departments. This corporate legal sector in turn helped to reshape other parts of the Brazilian legal profession, including legal education, pro bono practices, the regulation of legal services, and the state's legal capacity in international economic law. The book, the second in a series on Globalization, Lawyers, and Emerging Economies, will be of interest to academics, lawyers, and policymakers concerned with the role that a rapidly globalizing legal profession is playing in the development of key emerging economies, and how these countries are integrating into the global market for legal services.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study is to understand factors that are associated with identifying which eligible pregnant women in Baltimore City accept a referral for HV services. Taking into account demographic and obstetrical variables, we will examine the extent to which 13 medical and 14 psychosocial risk factors differentiate pregnant women who (1) accepted a HV referral, (2) could not be located, or (3) refused a HV referral. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this observational study, we will use secondary data on 8172 pregnant women collected by Health Care Access Maryland (HCAM) between 2014 and 2016. HCAM is the single point of entry for all pregnant women in Baltimore City into HV. HV eligibility includes being a pregnant woman, residing in Baltimore City, being uninsured or receiving Medicaid, and being identified by a prenatal care provider who completed an assessment profile of the woman’s medical and psychosocial risk (prenatal risk assessment). The outcome variable, HV engagement status (ie, accepted referral, could not be located, refused referral), will be based on HCAM discharge codes. Medical risk factors include BMI, hypertension, anemia, asthma, sickle cell, diabetes, vaginal bleeding, genetic risk, sexually transmitted disease, last dental visit >1 year ago, and taking prescription medications. Psychosocial risk factors include current pregnancy unintended; <1 year since last delivery; late entry to prenatal care (>20 wk gestation); mental, physical, or developmental disability; history of abuse or violence within past 6 months; tobacco use; alcohol use; illegal substance use within the past 6 months; resides in home built before 1978; homelessness; lack of social/emotional support; exposure to long-term stress; lack of transportation; and history of depression or mental illness. All risk factor variables are categorical (yes/no). Control variables will include demographics (eg, age, race, ethnicity, marital status, educational level) and OB history (eg, history of preterm labor, history of fetal or infant death). We will conduct descriptive statistics to characterize the sample and look for interrelatedness among the risk factors. Where there is a high level of inter-relatedness we will consider combining or omitting variables to reduce redundancy. We will use multinomial regression to examine which medical and psychological factors are associated with referral category. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that (a) women with more medical risk factors will be more likely to accept a referral for HV services, (b) women with more psychosocial risk factors will be more likely to refuse HV or not be located, and (c) certain risk factors, such as depression/mental illness, history of abuse/violence, illegal substance use, homelessness, and exposure to long-term stress will be the strongest predictors of not accepting HV referral and/or not being located. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The translation of effective randomized control trials (RCTs) to successful implementation in community-based programs can be challenging. Community-based programs serving low-income communities typically lack the same resources available to recruit and retain participants in RCTs. And, exclusion criteria applied in RCTs are often not applied in real world implementation which can open program to participants with more complex social and medical characteristics. Findings from this study will inform the translation of evidence-based HV programs into real world settings through an enhanced understanding of the characteristics of women who are not engaged by HV programs. This will inform development of improved outreach methods that may more effectively engage at-risk women for prenatal HV services.
Objectives: Careful characterization of how functional decline co-evolves with cognitive decline in older adults has yet to be well described. Most models of neurodegenerative disease postulate that cognitive decline predates and potentially leads to declines in everyday functional abilities; however, there is mounting evidence that subtle decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) may be detectable in older individuals who are still cognitively normal. Methods: The present study examines how the relationship between change in cognition and change in IADLs are best characterized among older adults who participated in the ACTIVE trial. Neuropsychological and IADL data were analyzed for 2802 older adults who were cognitively normal at study baseline and followed for up to 10 years. Results: Findings demonstrate that subtle, self-perceived difficulties in performing IADLs preceded and predicted subsequent declines on cognitive tests of memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with a growing body of literature suggesting that subjective changes in everyday abilities can be associated with more precipitous decline on objective cognitive measures and the development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. (JINS, 2018, 24, 104–112)
Obtaining accurate age determinations from minerals in archaeological ash is a major unsolved issue in radiocarbon (14C) dating. This is because the original 14C content of calcite, the main component of ash, is altered by isotopic exchange. Pyrogenic aragonite, another mineral phase recently discovered in ash, might preserve its 14C signature through time. Using a new method based on density separation and step combustion, we were able to isolate and date aragonitic ash from an archaeological destruction horizon of known age. Here we show that the 14C age of aragonite matches the age of the destruction horizon. Our results demonstrate that pyrogenic aragonite is a short-lived material suitable for 14C dating and directly related to human activities involving the use of fire, thus bearing major implications for the establishment of absolute chronologies for the past 50,000 yr.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) – sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) – were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the total volatile fatty acid production was decreased with the CT-containing legumes. Protozoal count was increased with the mixtures containing LU and either SF or BTB compared with single LU. In conclusion, compared with the other legumes, SF and RC have similar advantages as they show limited proteolysis during ensiling. In addition, SF supplies more uCP relative to total CP. The CT-containing legumes also differed in their effect on ruminal fermentation and ammonia formation, probably because of their different CT contents. Thus, SF and its mixtures appear promising for improving the protein utilisation of ruminants.