To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Document the healthcare resource utilization and costs by severity for persons in the workforce with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Using the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication data, workforce respondents (n=4,465) were categorized by clinical severity (not clinically depressed, mild, moderate, severe) using standard scales (CIDI/QIDS-SR). Outcomes measured over 12 months included prevalence of medical services/antidepressant use, average number of visits and days on antidepressants, prevalence of treatment adequacy, and medical/drug costs. Costs represent insurer payments to providers and were estimated by weighting utilization measures by unit costs obtained for similar services used by depressed patients in a U.S. employer claims database for the corresponding period (2000-2001). Outcomes were compared across depression severity groups using multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics.
Among the 539 depressed workforce respondents, 13.8% were mildly, 38.5% moderately and 47.7% severely depressed. A significant association existed between severity and prevalence of mental health services usage (19.1%, 27.2%, and 40.3% respectively, p< 0.01) and average number of mental health practitioner visits. The use of antidepressants increased with depression severity (21.1%, 27.3%, and 39.5% respectively, p< 0.01). Similarly, the adequacy of mental health services increased with depression severity (6.2%, 11.8%, and 21.3% respectively, p< 0.05). Average 12-month costs per MDD patient were substantially higher for severe vs. mild (mental health services: $697 vs. $388; general medical services: $138 vs. $53; anti-depressant usage $256 vs. $88).
Among workforce respondents, there was a significant association between depression severity and treatment usage and costs, and between treatment adequacy and severity.
Assess effects of antidepressant compliance on healthcare and workplace costs.
Using workplace survey data for 2 large employers’ healthcare claims (2004-2006), patient selection criteria considered depression diagnosis and antidepressant claims history. Employed respondents working in the past month were categorized by Medication Possession Ratio into compliance groups by quartiles; bottom/top quartiles were defined as compliant/non-compliant. Direct (medical/drug) costs were measured as insurer payments to providers; indirect (absenteeism/presenteeism) costs were based on one-month recall of workplace performance (hours worked/missed, self-rated performance), estimated as (hours missed x self-reported hourly income). Annualized, inflation-adjusted (2006) costs were compared between compliant/non-compliant groups using multivariate models controlling for baseline characteristics. Analyses were conducted for all patients and a subsample of diagnosed depression patients.
Among all patients (n=1,224), medical costs were numerically lower for compliant vs. non-compliant patients ($4,857 vs. $5,926, p=0.221); drug costs were significantly higher for compliant patients ($2,329 vs. $1,570, p=0.001). Indirect costs were not statistically different between compliant/non-compliant patients ($22,278 vs. $20,714, p=0.237). Among the depression subgroup (N=488), medical costs were numerically lower for compliant vs. non-compliant patients ($5,005 vs. $7,630, p=0.152) while drug costs were numerically higher for compliant patients ($2,550 vs. $1,829, p=0.153). Absenteeism costs were 30% lower for compliant patients ($7,725 vs. $11,040, p=0.038); presenteeism costs were not significantly different ($19,079 vs. $17,457, p=0.441).
Absenteeism costs decrease significantly with compliance among depressed patients as do medical costs (not significantly). Further research is warranted regarding reason for poor antidepressant compliance and influence of compliance on costs.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
Little is known about the prevalence of mental health outcomes in UK personnel at the end of the British involvement in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts.
We examined the prevalence of mental disorders and alcohol misuse, whether this differed between serving and ex-serving regular personnel and by deployment status.
This is the third phase of a military cohort study (2014–2016; n = 8093). The sample was based on participants from previous phases (2004–2006 and 2007–2009) and a new randomly selected sample of those who had joined the UK armed forces since 2009.
The prevalence was 6.2% for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, 21.9% for common mental disorders and 10.0% for alcohol misuse. Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan and a combat role during deployment were associated with significantly worse mental health outcomes and alcohol misuse in ex-serving regular personnel but not in currently serving regular personnel.
The findings highlight an increasing prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and a lowering prevalence of alcohol misuse compared with our previous findings and stresses the importance of continued surveillance during service and beyond.
Declaration of interest:
All authors are based at King's College London which, for the purpose of this study and other military-related studies, receives funding from the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD). S.A.M.S., M.J., L.H., D.P., S.M. and R.J.R. salaries were totally or partially paid by the UK MoD. The UK MoD provides support to the Academic Department of Military Mental Health, and the salaries of N.J., N.G. and N.T.F. are covered totally or partly by this contribution. D.Mu. is employed by Combat Stress, a national UK charity that provides clinical mental health services to veterans. D.MacM. is the lead consultant for an NHS Veteran Mental Health Service. N.G. is the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Lead for Military and Veterans’ Health, a trustee of Walking with the Wounded, and an independent director at the Forces in Mind Trust; however, he was not directed by these organisations in any way in relation to his contribution to this paper. N.J. is a full-time member of the armed forces seconded to King's College London. N.T.F. reports grants from the US Department of Defense and the UK MoD, is a trustee (unpaid) of The Warrior Programme and an independent advisor to the Independent Group Advising on the Release of Data (IGARD). S.W. is a trustee (unpaid) of Combat Stress and Honorary Civilian Consultant Advisor in Psychiatry for the British Army (unpaid). S.W. is affiliated to the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Emergency Preparedness and Response at King's College London in partnership with Public Health England, in collaboration with the University of East Anglia and Newcastle University. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, the NIHR, the Department of Health, Public Health England or the UK MoD.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
Dementia is currently incurable, irreversible and a major cause of disability for the world's older population. The association between mental health difficulties, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and dementia has a long history within the civilian population. Despite the increased importance of this link within the military veteran population, who suffer a greater propensity of mental health difficulties and consist largely of over 65s, attention is only recently being paid to the salience of such an association for this group. This paper aims to explore the relationship between PTSD and MDD with dementia within the military veteran population.
A systematic review was conducted on articles from 1990 to July 2016 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO and Web of Science electronic databases with an update conducted in February 2017.
Six empirical studies were identified from the review, the majority of which originated from the USA. Five of the studies asserted that veterans with a diagnosis of either PTSD or MDD are at a significantly greater risk of developing dementia than ‘healthy’ controls. The final study, conducted in Australia, found only a small, but non-significant, correlation between earlier MDD and future dementia, but no concurrent correlation.
While causality cannot be determined, it is likely that PTSD and depressive disorders are related to an increased risk of dementia in military veterans. Potential pathological explanations and risk factors are reviewed and the clinical and neuroscience implications of these findings are explored.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.
In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.
This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight <1500 g who were discharged after day of life 7 from 362 neonatal ICU from 1997 to 2013. The primary outcome was death between day of life 7 and discharge. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, and grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage.
This study included a total of 48,551 infants with a median gestational age of 27 weeks (interquartile range 25, 28) and birth weight 870 g (706, 1050). Early echocardiography – that is, performed during days of life 2 to 6 – was performed in 15,971/48,551 (33%) infants, and patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, early echocardiography was not associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.89–1.05). Results were similar in the subset of infants who received therapy for patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90–1.15).
Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.
Substance misuse and associated health-risking behaviors are prevalent in emerging adulthood. There is a knowledge gap concerning the post-high school effects of community-based delivery systems for universal preventive interventions implemented during young adolescence. This study reports effects of the PROSPER delivery system through age 19, 7.5 years past baseline.
A cohort sequential design included 28 public school districts randomly assigned to the PROSPER partnership delivery system or usual-programming conditions. PROSPER community teams implemented a family-focused intervention in 6th grade and a school-based intervention in 7th grade. Outcomes for the age 19, post-high school report included lifetime, current, and frequency of substance misuse, as well as antisocial and health-risking sexual behaviors. Intent-to-treat, multi-level analyses of covariance of point-in-time outcomes were conducted, along with analyses of risk-related moderation of intervention effects.
Results showed emerging adults from PROSPER communities reported significantly lower substance misuse across a range of types of substances, with relative reduction rates of up to 41.0%. No significant findings were observed for associated antisocial and health-risking sexual behavior indices; or for lifetime rates of sexually transmitted infections. Risk-related moderation effects were non-significant, suggesting generally comparable outcomes across higher- and lower-risk subgroups of emerging adults.
The PROSPER delivery system for brief universal preventive interventions has potential for public health impact by reducing long-term substance misuse, with positive results extending beyond high school.
A recent quantitative review in the area of stigma and help seeking in the armed forces has questioned the association between these factors (Sharp et al. 2015). To date, the contribution of qualitative literature in this area has largely been ignored, despite the value this research brings to the understanding of complex social constructs such as stigma. The aim of the current systematic review of qualitative studies was to identify appropriate literature, assess the quality and synthesize findings across studies regarding evidence of stigma-related barriers and facilitators to help seeking for mental health issues within the armed forces. A multi-database text word search incorporating searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Social Policy and Practice, Social Work Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC and EBM Review databases between 1980 and April 2015 was conducted. Literature was quality assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Thematic synthesis was conducted across the literature. The review identified eight studies with 1012 participants meeting the inclusion criteria. Five overarching themes were identified across the literature: (1) non-disclosure; (2) individual beliefs about mental health; (3) anticipated and personal experience of stigma; (4) career concerns; and (5) factors influencing stigma. The findings from the current systematic review found that unlike inconsistent findings in the quantitative literature, there was substantial evidence of a negative relationship between stigma and help seeking for mental health difficulties within the armed forces. The study advocates for refinement of measures to accurately capture the complexity of stigma and help seeking in future quantitative studies.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
Accidental hypothermia can lead to untoward cardiac manifestations and arrest. This report presents a case series of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac complications in three emergency patients who were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and survived after re-warming. The aim of this discussion was to encourage more clinicians to consider ECMO as a re-warming therapy for severe hypothermia with circulatory collapse and to prompt discussion about decreasing the barriers to its use.
NiehausMT, PechulisRM, WuJK, FreiS, HongJJ, SandhuRS, GreenbergMR. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Hypothermic Cardiac Deterioration: A Case Series. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):570–571.
Background: Menkes disease is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder of the ATP7A gene, a copper transporter; resulting in systemic copper deficiency. The deficient function of copper-dependent enzymes manifests clinically with failure to thrive, seizures, hypotonia, coarse hair, connective tissue abnormalities, and neurodegeneration. Cerebral arteries are often elongated, tortuous, and fragile. Methods: This case report was prepared using the patient’s hospital chart, and a review of the literature undertaken using PubMed. Our case was subsequently compared and contrasted to known Menkes’ literature. Results: We present the case of a 2 month old male with Menkes disease who presented with new seizure onset in the setting of a Grade III intraventricular hemorrhage with hydrocephalus. He deteriorated into status epilepticus, and palliative care was instituted. On autopsy, pronounced tortuosity of his cerebral vasculature was noted, as well as a bilaterally cystic brain with an organizing hemorrhage on the ventral surface of the brainstem. Conclusions: Although Menkes disease often presents with seizures, neurologic deterioration, and abnormal cerebral vasculature; the quick demise subsequent to an intraventricular hemorrhage is somewhat unusual and discussed.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260