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Foodborne salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the United States. In the summer of 2017, we investigated four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with Maradol papayas imported from four Mexican farms. PulseNet initially identified a cluster of Salmonella Kiambu infections in June 2017, and early interviews identified papayas as an exposure of interest. Investigators from Maryland, Virginia and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected papayas for testing. Several strains of Salmonella were isolated from papayas sourced from Mexican Farm A, including Salmonella Agona, Gaminara, Kiambu, Thompson and Senftenberg. Traceback from two points of service associated with illness sub-clusters in two states identified Farm A as a common source of papayas, and three voluntary recalls of Farm A papayas were issued. FDA sampling isolated four additional Salmonella strains from papayas sourced from Mexican Farms B, C and D. In total, four outbreaks were identified, resulting in 244 cases with illness onset dates from 20 December 2016 to 20 September 2017. The sampling of papayas and the collaborative work of investigative partners were instrumental in identifying the source of these outbreaks and preventing additional illnesses. Evaluating epidemiological, laboratory and traceback evidence together during investigations is critical to solving and stopping outbreaks.
Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.
Coordinated UV and visual observations of 59 Cyg in 1978–81 show strong mass ejection activity and strong variability in displacements and profiles of superionized lines during the new Be phase, starting from a “quasi normal B” phase in 1977, and increasing irregularly through 1981 to a low and then moderate Hα emission. These data show that visual data alone cannot describe the activity of the star.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
The emergence of mental health services for older people is a relatively recent development in Ireland. Therefore, it is important to determine strengths and limitations of this modern-day care service. A starting point is to enquire from those who have been in receipt of their service and/or their respective carers.
This study aims to identify and describe the perceptions and experiences of past service users (SUs) and their carers, while in receipt of services from an acute mental health day hospital for Psychiatry of Later Life and to explore their needs/supports.
A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was employed. Purposive sampling achieved a sample of 13 SUs and six carers. Inclusion criteria set were that the SU had a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder; had the capacity to make an informed consent and communicate verbally and the SU was discharged from the service between January and July 2011. Finally, carers of SUs in receipt of the service during this time were also included. Data were subjected to thematic, field analysis.
‘Person centredness’ emerged as an overarching theme. Six inter-related subthemes revealing how SUs and carers viewed their care emerged from the interviews: ‘therapeutic engagement’; ‘preservation of self-integrity’; ‘collaborative care’; ‘integrated care’; ‘social gains’; and ‘the relationship between the expectation, subsequent engagement and the perceived outcome of care’.
Findings concluded that high levels of care exist within this service. Strengths lie in the development of a therapeutic relationship, preservation of self-integrity, social gains and robust elements of person-centred holistic, integrated and collaborative care
Recommendations support the enhancement of a cohesive planned approach to admission, discharge/transition (integrated pathway).
There are several investigational drugs in development for the treatment of depression. Some of the novel antidepressants in development target monoaminergic neurotransmission in accordance with the “monoamine hypothesis of depression.” However, the current conceptualization of antidepressant actions is that it is the downstream effects on protein synthesis and neuroplasticity that account for therapeutic efficacy, rather than the immediate effects on synaptic monoamine levels. Thus, a number of novel agents in development directly target components of this “neuroplasticity hypothesis of depression,” including hypothetically overactive glutamatergic neurotransmission and dysfunctional hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning.
Vitamin D and folate are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and their association with colorectal cancer prognosis is under investigation. We assessed the levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), folate and vitamin B12 in an international pilot study in order to determine variability of these biomarkers based on geographical location. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured in 149 invasive, newly diagnosed colorectal cancer cases from Heidelberg (Germany), Seattle (WA, USA), and Tampa (FL, USA) and in ninety-one age- and sex-matched controls. Their associations with potential predictors were assessed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations differed by location. Other predictors were season for 25(OH)D3 and tumour stage (vitamin B12). Season-corrected average 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in Heidelberg (31·7 ng/ml; range 11·0–83·0 ng/ml) than in Seattle (23·3 ng/ml; range 4·0–80·0 ng/ml) and Tampa (21·1 ng/ml; range 4·6–51·6 ng/ml). In Heidelberg, a strong seasonal variation was observed. Folate (11·1 ng/ml) and vitamin B12 (395 pg/ml) concentrations in Heidelberg were lower than those in Seattle (25·3 ng/ml and 740 pg/ml, respectively) and Tampa (23·8 ng/ml and 522 pg/ml, respectively). Differences in plasma 25(OH)D3 and folate concentrations between Heidelberg and the US sites were observed, probably reflecting variation in outdoor activities and sun-avoidance behaviour during summer as well as in folic acid fortification and supplement use. Intra-site differences at each study location were greater than between-location variability, suggesting that individual health behaviours play a significant role. Nevertheless, the intra-site differences we observed may be due to chance because of the limited sample size. Our pilot study illustrates the value of an international cohort in studying colorectal cancer prognosis to discern geographical differences in a broad range of exposures.
• A substance use disorder can be conceptualized as a progression from an impulsive to a compulsive disorder
• This progression is linked to alterations not only in dopamine and the reward circuit, but also in other neurotransmitters and circuits involved in memory, motivation, executive function, and stress
• Of particular importance is the opioid system, which mediates the hedonic evaluation of natural rewards and also seems to play a role in drug reinforcement for numerous substances
• The management of SUDs can differ by substance, but it generally involves both psychosocial and pharmacological treatment
• The substances with evidence-based pharmacological treatments are alcohol, nicotine, and opioids
• Although there is some evidence in support of the concept of behavioral addiction, controversy remains as to whether the evidence is strong enough to warrant categorizing certain behaviors as addictions
• Currently, only pathological gambling is being recategorized as an addictive disorder