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Hepatitis E is an important zoonosis that is prevalent in China. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a pathogen that affects humans and animals and endangers public health in China. In this study, the detection of HEV epidemics in swine in Sichuan Province, China, was carried out by nested real-time PCR. A total of 174 stool samples and 160 bile samples from swine in Sichuan Province were examined. In addition, software was used to analyse the biological evolution of HEV. The results showed that within 2 years of swine HEV (SHEV) infection in China, SHEV was first detected in Sichuan Province. HEV was endemic in Sichuan; the positive rate for pig farms was 11.1%, and the total positive sample rate was 10.5%. The age of swine with the highest positive rate (17.9%) was 5–9 weeks. The examined swine species in order of highest to lowest HEV infection rates were Chenghua pig, Large White, Duroc, Pietrain, Landrace and Hampshire. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that the HEV epidemic in swine in Sichuan Province was related to genotype IV, which had the highest homology to HEV in Beijing. Sichuan strains have greater variation than Chinese representative strains, which may indicate the presence of new HEV strains.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) participate in diverse physiological processes in insects, and HSP70 is one of the most highly conserved proteins in the HSP family. In this study, full-length cDNAs of three HSP70 genes (Lthsc70, Lthsp701, and Lthsp702) were cloned and characterized from Liriomyza trifolii, an important invasive pest of vegetable crops and horticultural crops worldwide. These three HSP70s exhibited signature sequences and motifs that are typical of the HSP70 family. The expression patterns of the three Lthsp70s during temperature stress and in different insect development stages were studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Lthsp701 was strongly induced by high- and low-temperature stress, but Lthsc70 and Lthsp702 were not very sensitive to temperature changes. All three Lthsp70s were expressed during insect development stages, but the expression patterns were quite different. The expression of Lthsc70 and Lthsp702 showed significant differences in expression during leafminer development; Lthsc70 was most highly expressed in female adults, whereas Lthsp702 was abundantly expressed in larvae and prepupae. Lthsp701 expression was not significantly different among leafminer stages. These results suggest that functional differentiation within the LtHSP70 subfamily has occurred in response to thermal stress and insect development.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
The mechanism of electrical noise in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has mostly been attributed to charge carrier fluctuations between the oxide traps and the conducting channel, in accordance with the McWhorter model. However, the original McWhorter model was formulated for diffusive transport with conducting carriers having extended electronic wave functions. Our work serves to generalize the McWhorter mechanism to include strongly localized systems such as the TMDC family and provides an explanation for the unusual exponential behavior of noise magnitude with temperature.
The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of the observation of the counterjet of subluminals, for it will settle up the question whether quasars redshifts are cosmological or not. If so, from the observed wavelength of the counterjet, one is able to find out the value of Hubble constant H0. What we observe as an apparent superluminal or subluminal motion is the resultant velocity of Hubble flow and a local ejection. Taking Hubble flow into account, one can explain problems posed for the relativistic beaming model, such as the one-sidedness problem and the untolerable extension of the deprojected structure of some superluminal sources. Our method is applied to two superluminals, 4C73.18 and 3C179, and two subluminals, M87 and 3C84. Our method can also be applied to investigate the problem of the ejection of the quasar from the galaxy in the framework of kinematics. Two quasar-galaxy pairs, Markarian 205-NGC4319 and 3C455-NGC7413, are studied.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect and mode of action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YST2) on enteric methane (CH4) mitigation in pigs. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60±1 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups: a basal diet (control); and a basal diet supplemented with 3 g/YST2 (1.8×1010 live cells/g) per kg diet. At the end of 32-day experiment, pigs were sacrificed and redox potential (Eh), pH, volatile fatty acid concentration, densities of methanogens and acetogens, and expression of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene were determined in digesta contents from the cecum, colon and rectum. Results showed that S. cerevisiae YST2 decreased (P<0.05) the average daily enteric CH4 production by 25.3%, lowered the pH value from 6.99 to 6.69 in the rectum, and increased the Eh value in cecum and colon by up to −55 mV (P<0.05). Fermentation patterns were also altered by supplementation of YST2 as reflected by the lower acetate, and higher propionate molar proportion in the cecum and colon (P<0.05), resulting in lower acetate : propionate ratio (P<0.05). Moreover, there was a 61% decrease in Methanobrevibacter species in the upper colon (P<0.05) and a 19% increase in the acetogen community in the cecum (P<0.05) of treated pigs. Results of our study concluded that supplementation of S. cerevisiae YST2 at 3 g/kg substantially decreased enteric CH4 production in pigs.
Based on unstructured hybrid grid and dynamic overlapping grid technique, numerical simulations of Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations were performed and investigation on isolated propeller aerodynamic characteristics and effects of propeller slipstream on turboprops were undertaken. The computational grid consisted of rotational subzone of propeller and stationary major-zone of aircraft, and walls criterion was used in the automatic hole-cutting procedure. Distance weight interpolation and tri-linear interpolation were developed to transfer information between the rotational and stationary subzones. The boundaries of overlapping grids were optimized for fixed axis rotation. The governing equations were solved by dual-time method and Lower Upper-Symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. The method and grid technique were verified by isolated propeller configuration and the computational results were in well agreement with the experimental data. The grid independence was studied to establish the numerical results. Finally, the flow around a turboprop case was simulated and the influence of propeller slipstream was presented by analyzing the surface pressure contours, profile pressure distribution, vorticity contours and profile streamline. It's indicated that the slipstream accelerates and rotates the free stream flow, changing the local angle of attack, enhancing the downwash effects, affecting the pressure distribution on wing and horizontal tail, as well as increasing the drag coefficient, pitching moment coefficient and the slope of lift coefficient.
Introduction: Burnout rates for emergency physicians (EP) continue to be amongst the highest in medicine. One of the commonly cited sources of stress contributing to disillusionment is bureaucratic tasks that distract EPs from direct patient care in the emergency department (ED). The novel position of Physician Navigator was created to help EPs decrease their non-clinical workload during shifts, and improve productivity. Physician Navigators are non-licensed healthcare team members that assist in activities which are often clerical in nature, but directly impact patient care. This program was implemented at no net-cost to the hospital or healthcare system. Methods: In this retrospective study, 6845 clinical shifts worked by 20 EPs over 39 months from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2015 were evaluated. The program was implemented on April 1, 2013. The primary objective was to quantify the effect of Physician Navigators on measures of EP productivity: patient seen per hour (Pt/hr), and turn-around-time (TAT) to discharge. Secondary objectives included examining the impact of Physician Navigators on measures of ED throughput for non-resuscitative patients: emergency department length of stay (LOS), physician-initial-assessment times (PIA), and left-without-being-seen rates (LWBS). A mixed linear model was used to evaluate changes in productivity measures between shifts with and without Physician Navigators in a clustered design, by EP. Autoregressive modelling was performed to compare ED throughput metrics before and after the implementation of Physician Navigators for non-resuscitative patients. Results: Across 20 EPs, 2469 shifts before, and 4376 shifts after April 1, 2013 were analyzed. Daily patient volumes increased 8.7% during the period with Physician Navigators. For the EPs who used Physician Navigators, Pt/hr increased by 1.07 patients per hour (0.98 to 1.16, p<0.001), and TAT to discharge decreased by 10.6 minutes (-13.2 to -8.0, p<0.001). After the implementation of the Physician Navigators, overall LOS for non-resuscitative patients decreased by 2.6 minutes (1.0%, p=0.007), and average PIA decreased by 7.4 minutes (12.0%, p<0.001). LBWS rates decreased by 43.9% (0.50% of daily patient volume, p<0.001). Conclusion: The use of a Physician Navigator was associated with increased EP productivity as measured by Pt/hr, and TAT to discharge, and reductions in ED throughput metrics for non-resuscitative patients.
The multiple colliding laser pulse concept formulated by Bulanov et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 104, 2010b, 220404) is beneficial for achieving an extremely high amplitude of coherent electromagnetic field. Since the topology of electric and magnetic fields of multiple colliding laser pulses oscillating in time is far from trivial and the radiation friction effects are significant in the high field limit, the dynamics of charged particles interacting with the multiple colliding laser pulses demonstrates remarkable features corresponding to random walk trajectories, limit circles, attractors, regular patterns and Lévy flights. Under extremely high intensity conditions the nonlinear dissipation mechanism stabilizes the particle motion resulting in the charged particle trajectory being located within narrow regions and in the occurrence of a new class of regular patterns made by the particle ensembles.
The problem of volume test, V/Vm, in zero pressure and matter dominated Friedmann universe model is explored under various values of deceleration parameter qo. The following conclusions are drawn. (i) For different values of qo, the change of V/Vm is sensitive at small values of z. Since values of V/Vm are very small at small values of z, this change exerts little effect on the average values of V/Vm. (ii) when values of z and zm are fixed for each member of a sample, large values of qo yield larger values of V/Vm, especially in the case of large z. (iii) For qo<1, the method of volume test is reliable. When qo>2, especially qo>3, this method has to be used with caution at large z.
Introduction: The Physician Navigator (PN) is a novel position created to manage patient flow in real-time at a very-high volume emergency department (ED). When paired with an emergency physician, PNs actively track patient wait times, and direct the physician to see and re-assess patients in a particular order to improve measures of emergency department efficiency, and maximize patient flow. Anecdotal evidence has shown that PNs decrease length-of-stay times for non-resuscitative patients in the setting of increased patient volumes, and without additional nursing or physician hours. The objective was to study the operational impact of PN on emergency department patient flow. Methods: A 48-month pre-/post-intervention retrospective chart review at an urban community emergency department from September 2011 to September 2015. The PN program started on March 1, 2013. The main outcome is emergency department length-of-stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes include time to physician-initial-assessment (PIA), left-without-being-seen rates (LWBS), left-against-medical-advice (LAMA), and physician satisfaction rates. Autoregressive integrated moving average models were generated for Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) 2 to 5 patients to quantify the immediate impact of the intervention on the outcome levels, and whether the impact was sustained over time. Results: Interim results are provided. 399,958 patients attended the ED during the study period. Daily patient volumes increased 11.2% during the post-intervention period. There were no significant increases in the number of physicians shifts/day, and physician hours/day during the post-intervention period. Post-intervention, for CTAS 2-5 patients, there was a reduction in average LOS by 0.04 hours/PN (p<0.05), and 90th-percentile LOS by 0.14 hours/PN (p<0.05). For secondary outcomes, there was a decrease in overall average PIA by 6.37 minutes/PN (p<0.05), and 90th-percentile PIA by 8.29 minutes/PN (p<0.05). LWBS rates decreased by 40.8% (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in LAMA rates. Conclusion: The implementation of Physician Navigators is associated with significant reductions in LOS, PIA, and LWBS rates for non-resuscitative patients at a very-high volume emergency department.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a global public health problem. Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors for HCV infection. However, some of these studies reported inconsistent results. Using data collected from 11 methadone clinics, we fit both a non-spatial logistical regression and a geographically weighted logistic regression to analyse the association between HCV infection and some factors at the individual level. This study enrolled 5401 patients with 30·0% HCV infection prevalence. The non-spatial logistical regression found that injection history, drug rehabilitation history and senior high-school education or above were related to HCV infection; and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection. Using the spatial model, we found that Yi ethnicity was negatively related to HCV infection in 62·0% of townships, and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection in 81·0% of townships. Senior high-school education or above was positively associated with HCV infection in 55·2% of townships of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture. The spatial model offers better understanding of the geographical variations of the risk factors associated with HCV infection. The geographical variations may be useful for customizing intervention strategies for local regions for more efficient allocation of limited resources to control transmission of HCV.
Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2–2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142–198 g/d or 5–7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325–488 ml/d or 11–16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25–35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( − 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80–90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV.
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD) share considerable overlap in clinical features, genetic risk factors and co-occurrence among relatives. The common and unique functional cerebral deficits in these disorders, and in unaffected relatives, remain to be identified.
A total of 59 healthy controls, 37 SCZ and 57 PBD probands and their unaffected first-degree relatives (38 and 28, respectively) were studied using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI). Regional cerebral function was evaluated by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF). Areas with ALFF alterations were used as seeds in whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. We then tested whether abnormalities identified in probands were present in unaffected relatives.
SCZ and PBD probands both demonstrated regional hypoactivity in the orbital frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, as well as abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. SCZ probands showed greater and more widely distributed ALFF alterations including the thalamus and bilateral parahippocampal gyri. Increased parahippocampal ALFF was related to positive symptoms and cognitive deficit. PBD patients showed uniquely increased functional connectivity between the thalamus and bilateral insula. Only PBD relatives showed abnormal connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks seen in both proband groups.
The present findings reveal a common pattern of deficits in frontostriatal circuitry across SCZ and PBD, and unique regional and functional connectivity abnormalities that distinguish them. The abnormal network connectivity in PBD relatives that was present in both proband groups may reflect genetic susceptibility associated with risk for psychosis, but within-family associations of this measure were not high.