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On January 1, 1988, the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (the Convention) became effective in the United States. In general, the Convention (also referred to as the “Vienna Sales Convention,” the “Sales Convention,” the “CISG,” or the “UN Convention”) applies to contracts for the sale of goods between enterprises having their places of business in different countries, provided these countries have adopted the Convention. Freedom of contract, however, is a fundamental principle of the Convention, and the parties may opt out or modify the effects of its provisions.
This article presents an overview of the public policy issues surrounding digital libraries, and describes some current trends, such as Web 2.0, the social network. It discusses the impact of globalization and the Internet on international and foreign law information, the free access to law movement and open access scholarship, and mass digitization projects, then turns to some concerns, focusing on preservation and long term access to born digital legal information and authentication of official digital legal information. It finally discusses new roles for librarians, called upon to evaluate the quality of information teach legal research methodology and be advocates in information policy. Law librarians are encouraged to join professional associations and undergo continuous professional education. A recent development in the U.S.A., to add a legal research test on the bar exam, is of interest to the whole world, because it signifies the importance of sound legal research training to the competent practice of law.
In the United States today, digital versions of current decisions, bills, statutes, and regulations issued by federal and state governments are widely available on publicly accessible Web sites. Worldwide, official (defined as “authoritative,” or “the official” word of the law) legal information issued by international organizations and foreign governments is also becoming available on the Web. However, there are currently no standards for the production and authentication of digital documents. Moreover, the information is sometimes available only for a short time and then disappears from the site. No guidelines exist either to promote a uniform way to cite to digital legal materials.
This article examines the contents of legal data and information on the Internet, with a special focus on the United States. It then evaluates the quality of the data, its impact on legal research and access to legal information, and addresses some issues raised by the digital medium, such as its reliability and permanent access concerns.
A problem in mapping the polar sea-ice covers in both hemispheres has been the sporadic false indication of sea ice over the open ocean and at the ice edge. These spurious sea-ice concentrations result from variations in sea-surface roughening by surface winds, atmospheric water vapor and both precipitating and non-precipitating liquid water. This problem was addressed for sea-ice concentrations derived from the Nimbus-7 scanning multi-channel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data through the development of a weather filter based on spectral information from the 18.0 and 37.0 GHz vertical polarization SMMR channels. Application of a similar filter for use with sea-ice concentration maps derived with the special-sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) sensor is less successful. This results from the position of the 19.35 GHz SSM/I channels, which are closer to the center of the 22.2 GHz atmospheric water-vapor line than are the SMMR 18.0 GHz channels. Thus, the SSM/I 19.35 GHz channels are more sensitive to changes in atmospheric water vapor, which results in greater contamination problems. An additional filter has been developed, based on a combination of the 19.35 and 22.2GHz. SSM/I channels. Examples of the effectiveness of the new filter are presented and limitations are discussed.
We present linear radii for four Cepheid variable stars, spanning a pulsation period range from 3 to 11 d, measured with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI). We compare these radii to those found using traditional indirect methods, and to various period–radius relations found in the literature.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
Prior studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest abnormal functioning of prefrontal and limbic regions. Cumulative childhood and adult trauma exposures are major risk factors for developing adult PTSD, yet their contribution to neural dysfunction in PTSD remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the neural correlates of childhood and adult trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) within a single model.
Medication-free male combat veterans (n = 28, average age 26.6 years) with a wide range of PTSS were recruited from the community between 2010 and 2011. Subjects completed an emotional face-morphing task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical ratings included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). A priori regions were examined through multivariate voxelwise regression in SPM8, using depressive symptoms and IQ as covariates.
In the angry condition, CAPS scores correlated positively with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC; Brodmann area (BA) 10, z = 3.51], hippocampus (z = 3.47), insula (z = 3.62) and, in earlier blocks, the amygdala. CES and CTQ correlated positively with activation in adjacent areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; BA 32, z = 3.70 and BA 24, z = 3.88 respectively). In the happy condition, CAPS, CTQ and CES were not correlated significantly with activation patterns.
dACC activation observed in prior studies of PTSD may be attributable to the cumulative effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure. By contrast, insula, hippocampus and amygdala activation may be specific to PTSS. The specificity of these results to threat stimuli, but not to positive stimuli, is consistent with abnormalities in threat processing associated with PTSS.
Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection found in various parts of the world. A review of literature for Quebec, Canada revealed only few case reports with the most recent one dating back to 1993. However, whether Quebec represents an important endemic region for blastomycosis in North America is unknown. In this work we reviewed 158 cases of human blastomycosis documented in Quebec during 1988–2011 using microbiological records available from the provincial public health laboratory. The estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis in the province is was ∼0·133 cases per 100 000 individuals with the highest rates of 0·79 and 0·46 cases per 100 000 recorded in South-eastern and South-western Quebec. Moreover, the annual incidence rate significantly increased over the past 20 years. This study for the first time establishes Quebec as an important endemic region for Blastomyces dermatitidis.
The aim of this contribution is to determine theoretically the maximum mobility that can be expected in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells as soon as the free carriers are only submitted to intrinsic scattering mechanisms associated with phonons and the carrier-carrier interaction. In our model, we consider that the carrier-carrier two bodies collisions do not constitute by themselves a relaxation mechanism since they conserve the momentum and the energy of the electron system. Thus, we assume that the free carriers act only through their contribution to the dynamical dielectric response of the material and, at least, through their collective behavior resulting into plasmons which, when damped, constitute now a real relaxation mechanism. The full scattering strength is connected with the imaginary part of the total reversed dielectric function including the lattice and the free carrier contributions. This approach automatically includes the scattering mechanisms associated with hybrid phonon/plasmon particles.
The performance of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility (HEMT) transistors is directly related to the electrical characteristics of the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface thanks to the piezoelectric field. Modification of the Al content or thickness of the AlGaN layer can within a certain limit modify the carrier density and mobility in the 2DEG. However, further reduction of the sheet resistance requires strain engineering of the heterostructure. An effective way to reduce the sheet resistance, as well as to lower the threading dislocation (TD) density, is to perform strain engineering through the use of low temperature AlN interlayers inserted in the GaN buffer layer. From correlation of AFM, TEM and HRXRD mapping of the HEMT layers, the strain modification, as well as the mechanism reducing the TD density, can be explained by the highly defected nature of the AlN interlayer grown at low temperature, as well as its very small thickness. The LT AlN acts as a second nucleation layer for the GaN grown on top. Contrarily, when the AlN interlayer is grown at 1050°C, its high crystalline quality and the possibility to grow pseudomorphic and abrupt interfaces, allows its use at the AlGaN/GaN interface. Optimal combination of the AlGaN and AlN layer thickness leads to record values of the mobility at room temperature of 2050 cm2/Vs, for heterostructures grown on sapphire, which is approaching state-of-the-art for HEMT grown on SiC.
Application of SiC substrates instead of the most commonly used sapphire for the heteroepitaxial growth of III-Nitrides offers advantages as better lattice matching, higher thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. This namely offers interesting perspectives for the development of vertical III-Nitride devices for switching purposes. For example, an AlGaN/SiC heterojunction could improve the performance of SiC bipolar transistors. In this work, n-type GaN layers have been grown by MOVPE on p-type 4H-SiC substrates using Si doped Al0.08Ga0.92N or Al0.3Ga0.7N nucleation layers. They have been characterized with temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V-T), capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).