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Conventional planar manipulators have their links in a single plane. Increasing payload at the end effector/mobile platform can induce high stress in the links due to the cantilever nature of links. Thus, it limits the total vertical load that can be applied on the mobile platform. In contrast to the links in conventional planar parallel mechanisms, non-planar links are proposed in this paper, that is, links are made inclined to the horizontal plane and non-planar legs are constructed. Though the links are made non-planar, the end effectors’ planar motion is retained. For studying the application of such non-planar links in planar manipulators, new models of inertia, stiffness and leg dynamics have to be developed. In this article, these models are developed by the static analysis of the planar manipulators with non-planar links, and the performance is compared with the corresponding conventional planar manipulators.
Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
Eight ruminally-fistulated wethers were used to examine the temporal effects of afternoon (PM; 1600h) v. morning (AM; 0800 h) allocation of fresh spring herbage from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture on fermentation and microbial community dynamics. Herbage chemical composition was minimally affected by time of allocation, but daily mean ammonia concentrations were greater for the PM group. The 24-h pattern of ruminal fermentation (i.e. time of sampling relative to time of allocation), however, varied considerably for all fermentation variables (P⩽0.001). Most notably amongst ruminal fermentation characteristics, ammonia concentrations showed a substantial temporal variation; concentrations of ammonia were 1.7-, 2.0- and 2.2-fold greater in rumens of PM wethers at 4, 6 and 8h after allocation, respectively, compared with AM wethers. The relative abundances of archaeal and ciliate protozoal taxa were similar across allocation groups. In contrast, the relative abundances of members of the rumen bacterial community, like Prevotella 1 (P=0.04), Bacteroidales RF16 group (P=0.005) and Fibrobacter spp. (P=0.008) were greater for the AM group, whereas the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. was greater (P=0.04) for the PM group. Of these taxa, only Prevotella 1 (P=0.04) and Kandleria (P<0.001) showed a significant interaction between time of allocation and time of sampling relative to feed allocation. Relative abundances of Prevotella 1 were greater at 2h (P=0.05), 4h (P=0.003) and 6h (P=0.01) after AM allocation of new herbage, whereas relative abundances of Kandleria were greater at 2h (P=0.003) and 4h (P<0.001) after PM allocation. The early post-allocation rise in ammonia concentrations in PM rumens occurred simultaneously with sharp increases in the relative abundance of Kandleria spp. and with a decline in the relative abundance of Prevotella. All measures of fermentation and most microbial community composition data showed highly dynamic changes in concentrations and genus abundances, respectively, with substantial temporal changes occurring within the first 8h of allocating a new strip of herbage. The dynamic changes in the relative abundances of certain bacterial groups, in synchrony with a substantial diurnal variation in ammonia concentrations, has potential effects on the efficiency by which N is utilised by the grazing ruminant.
Sol–gel spin coating is applied to fabricate the pure and different concentrations of aluminum (Al)-doped ZnO films on high-quality silicon substrates. All films are showing high crystallinity in X-ray diffraction study, and lattice constants were obtained using PowderX software. The value of crystallite size was found in range of 20–40 nm. EDX/SEM mapping was performed for 2 wt% Al-doped ZnO film, which shows the presence of Al and its homogeneous distribution in the film. SEM investigation shows nanorods morphology all over the surface of films, and the dimension of nanorods is found to increase with Al doping. The E(g)dire. values were estimate in range of 3.25–3.29 eV for all films. Linear refractive index was found in range of 1.5–2.75. The χ1 value is found in range of 0.13–1.4 for all films. The χ3 values are found in range of 0.0053 × 10−10 to 6.24 × 10−10 esu for pure and doped films. The n2 values were also estimated. These studies clearly showed that the properties of ZnO have been enriched by Al doping, and hence doped films are more appropriate for optoelectronic applications.
Intranasal steroid sprays are fundamental in the medical management of inflammatory rhinological conditions. Side effects are common, but these may be related to the method of application rather than the medication itself.
A survey was distributed to patients using intranasal steroid sprays at the ENT out-patient clinic at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary over three months. This evaluated the spray technique used, side effects and compliance.
Of 103 patients, 22 patients (21.4 per cent) reported side effects, including nasal irritation and epistaxis. Of the 20 patients with epistaxis, 80 per cent used an ipsilateral hand technique (p = 0.01). Thirty patients demonstrated poor compliance because of lack of symptom improvement or side effects. Seventy-seven per cent of this group used the ipsilateral hand technique.
Patients who used their ipsilateral hand to apply the intranasal steroid spray were more likely to develop epistaxis and have poor compliance than those who used other techniques. Patients who struggle with compliance because of side effects should avoid this method of intranasal steroid application.
Six benthic biotic indices (Shannon–Wiener H′log2, W-statistics, BOPA, BENTIX, AMBI and M-AMBI), based on different ecological principles, were applied to assess the health of variously disturbed tropical intertidal habitats of the Port Blair coastline. A total of 243 replicate samples were collected during the dry period (January, February and March) of 2014–2016. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, sediment pH, total organic matter content and texture were analysed. A high mean abundance of opportunistic species (Orbinia sp. 748, Capitella singularis 237 and Armandia sp. 114 ind. m−2) was observed at Phoenix Bay, a gradual decline in diversity at Junglighat and a comparatively high diversity and moderate biomass at Wandoor, reflecting a human pressure gradient. Results showed an annual decline of benthic quality from 2014 to 2016 (good to moderate). Overall BOPA failed to distinguish the magnitude of disturbances, while the rest of the indices classified the benthic quality from undisturbed/high (WD), slightly disturbed/good (JG), to moderately disturbed/moderate to poor (PB). The subjective analysis demonstrated that the urban centres corresponded to disturbed benthic communities of dominant first and second order opportunistic species, while sensitive (EGI) and indifferent (EGII) were associated with the least disturbed or undisturbed site. The study successfully demonstrated the performance of temperate indices in intertidal habitats against the mild organic enrichment. However, for an effective assessment, setting natural reference conditions and sampling in stable dry periods (strong seasonality in tropics) is desirable. In order to test the performance of biotic indices, a long-term monitoring approach of taking abiotic and biotic descriptors into account is recommended.
Dietary protein is considered more satiating than carbohydrate, and whey protein is more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to direct effects of the unique mixture of proteins in whey, due to the effects of peptides released upon digestion and/or its amino acid composition. The objective of the present study was to compare the satiating effects of intact whey protein isolate (WPI) or a free amino acid mixture (AAM) simulating the amino acid composition of the WPI. A single-blind completely randomised block design included twenty, healthy, adult women (age 24·2 (sem 0·8) years) of normal weight (BMI 22·7 (sem 0·4) kg/m2). Following consumption of isoenergetic (approximately 1800 kJ) preload meals enriched (52 g amino acid equivalent) with WPI or AAM, consumption of an ad libitum test meal 120 min later and subjective feelings of appetite using visual analogue scales (VAS) were determined. There were no significant differences (P=0·24) in the ad libitum test meal intakes between the WPI (268·5 (sem 27·3) g) and the AAM (238·4 (sem 22·7) g) preload meals. Subjective VAS ratings of appetite did not differ significantly between the WPI and the AAM preload meals (P>0·05). Intact whey protein and a free AAM simulating the whey protein showed similar effects on satiety. This suggests that the satiating effect of whey protein may be related to its specific amino acid composition.
Optimization is an important step in the design and development of a planar parallel manipulator. For optimization processes, workspace analysis is a crucial and preliminary objective. Generally, the workspace analysis for such manipulators is carried out using a non-dimensional approach. For planar parallel manipulators of two degrees of freedom (2-DOF), a non-dimensional workspace analysis is very advantageous. However, it becomes very difficult in the case of 3-DOF and higher DOF manipulators because of the complex shape of the workspace. In this study, the workspace shape is classified as a function of the geometric parameters, and the closed-form area expressions are derived for a constant orientation workspace of a three revolute–revolute–revolute (3-RRR) planar manipulator. The approach is also shown to be feasible for different orientations of a mobile platform. An optimization procedure for the design of planar 3-RRR manipulators is proposed for a prescribed workspace area. It is observed that the closed-form area expression for all the possible shapes of the workspace provides a larger solution space, which is further optimized considering singularity, mass of the manipulator, and a force transmission index.
Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) traits share part of their genetic variance with cognitive traits. Here, we use genetic association results from large meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association (GWA) for brain infarcts (BI), white matter hyperintensities, intracranial, hippocampal, and total brain volumes to estimate polygenic scores for these traits in three Scottish samples: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS), and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1936 (LBC1936) and 1921 (LBC1921). These five brain MRI trait polygenic scores were then used to: (1) predict corresponding MRI traits in the LBC1936 (numbers ranged 573 to 630 across traits), and (2) predict cognitive traits in all three cohorts (in 8,115–8,250 persons). In the LBC1936, all MRI phenotypic traits were correlated with at least one cognitive measure, and polygenic prediction of MRI traits was observed for intracranial volume. Meta-analysis of the correlations between MRI polygenic scores and cognitive traits revealed a significant negative correlation (maximal r = 0.08) between the HV polygenic score and measures of global cognitive ability collected in childhood and in old age in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. The lack of association to a related general cognitive measure when including the GS:SFHS points to either type 1 error or the importance of using prediction samples that closely match the demographics of the GWA samples from which prediction is based. Ideally, these analyses should be repeated in larger samples with data on both MRI and cognition, and using MRI GWA results from even larger meta-analysis studies.
We examine the linear stability of a homogeneous gas–solid suspension of small Stokes number particles, with a moderate mass loading, subject to a simple shear flow. The modulation of the gravitational force exerted on the suspension, due to preferential concentration of particles in regions of low vorticity, in response to an imposed velocity perturbation, can lead to an algebraic instability. Since the fastest growing modes have wavelengths small compared with the characteristic length scale (
) and oscillate with frequencies large compared with
being the settling velocity and
the shear rate, we apply the WKB method, a multiple scale technique. This analysis reveals the existence of a number density mode which travels due to the settling of the particles and a momentum mode which travels due to the cross-streamline momentum transport caused by settling. These modes are coupled at a turning point which occurs when the wavevector is nearly horizontal and the most amplified perturbations are those in which a momentum wave upstream of the turning point creates a downstream number density wave. The particle number density perturbations reach a finite, but large amplitude that persists after the wave becomes aligned with the velocity gradient. The growth of the amplitude of particle concentration and fluid velocity disturbances is characterised as a function of the wavenumber and Reynolds number (
) using both asymptotic theory and a numerical solution of the linearised equations.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermosensitive polymer that is well-known for its behavior at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 305 K. Below the LCST, PNIPAM is soluble in water, and above this temperature, polymer chains collapse and transform into a globule state. The conformational dynamics of single chains of polymer in a solution is known to be different from those of grafted structures that comprise of an ensemble of such single chains. In this study, we have carried out MD simulations of a mesoscopic nanostructure of PNIPAM polymer chains consisting of 60 monomer units grafted onto gold nanoparticles of different diameters, to study the effect of temperature and core particle size on the polymer conformations. Additionally, we have also studied the effect of grafting density on the coil-to-globule transition exhibited by PNIPAM through the LCST. The systems investigated consisted of ∼3 and ∼6 million atoms. Simulations were carried out below and above the LCST of PNIPAM, at 275K and 325K. Simulation trajectories were analyzed for radius of gyration of PNIPAM chains.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermo-sensitive polymer that exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 305 K. Below the LCST, PNIPAM is soluble in water and above this temperature polymer chains collapse prior to aggregation. In the presence of methanol, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy suggests that, LCST of PNIPAM is depressed up to certain mole fraction of methanol (0.35 mole fraction) and it is speculated that addition of methanol affects the PNIPAM-water interactions. Above 0.35 mole fraction of methanol, LCST gets elevated to temperatures above ∼305 K (32°C) and cannot be detected up to 373 K (100 °C). The atomistic origin of this co-solvency effect on the LCST behavior is not completely understood. In the present study, we have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the effect of methanol-water mixtures on conformational transitions and the LCST of PNIPAM. We employ two different force fields i.e. polymer consistent force-field (PCFF) and CHARMM to study solvation dynamics and the PNIPAM LCST phase transition in various methanol-water mixture compositions (0.018, 0.09, 0.27, 0.5, and 0.98 mole fractions). Simulations are conducted at fully atomistic level for three different temperatures (260, 278, and 310 K) and radius of gyration (Rg) of PNIPAM chains was computed for determination of LCST behavior of PNIPAM.
Morinda reticulata Gamble and Morinda umbellata Linn. (Rubiaceae) are medicinally important climbers distributed as a mixed population in southern Western Ghats of India. A close morphological resemblance of these two species misleads the harvester in the identification of plant parts for preparation of herbal medicines. Though both species contain anthraquinone derivatives and share common medicinal properties for treating stomach disorders, each of these species has unique curative properties for treating selective diseases. Conventional methods are not reliable for identification of these species due to similarities in morphology. Thus, misidentification often leads to the deterioration of the quality of medicines. Thus, authentication utilizing conserved gene sequences in the chloroplast genome of these two Morinda spp. has been attempted for precise identification. Here we report the use of two barcoding genes (maturase kinase and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit) to distinguish M. reticulata and M. umbellata based on single nucleotide polymorphism. The present findings can be used for authenticating leaf samples of M. reticulata and M. umbellata.
nGimat has commercialized a number of nanotechnology applications with all being based on its core competence of fabricating low cost high quality nanomaterials. The company offers a wide range of compositions as coatings and also in both nanopowder and dispersion forms. A few of these nanomaterials and applications will be covered as examples including superhydrophobic coatings, various nanopowders (including Li-battery based), high temperature thin wire coatings, and tunable RF components.
The combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique, which is the thin film NanoSpraySM combustion process, can be easily scaled up to large substrates and integrated into an existing production line, thus enabling a license business model. The combustion chemical vapor condensation (CCVC) technique or NanoSpraySM CCVC (nCCVC), which is the nanopowder NanoSpraySM combustion process, is also readily scalable. The manufacture of these nanopowder based products is internationally competitive even when made in the USA.
An electron diffraction technique called D-STEM has been developed in a transmission electron microscopy/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) instrument to obtain spot electron diffraction patterns from nanostructures, as small as ∼3 nm. The electron ray path achieved by configuring the pre- and postspecimen illumination lenses enables the formation of a 1–2 nm near-parallel probe, which is used to obtain bright-field/dark-field STEM images. Under these conditions, the beam can be controlled and accurately positioned on the STEM image, at the nanostructure of interest, while sharp spot diffraction patterns can be simultaneously recorded on the charge-coupled device camera. When integrated with softwares such as GatanTM STEM diffraction imaging and Automated Crystallography for TEM or DigistarTM, NanoMEGAS, the D-STEM technique is very powerful for obtaining automated orientation and phase maps based on diffraction information acquired on a pixel by pixel basis. The versatility of the D-STEM technique is demonstrated by applying this technique to nanoparticles, nanowires, and nano interconnect structures.
Faecal specimens of diarrhoea cases (n=2495, collected between November 2007 and October 2009) from Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General (ID&BG) Hospital, Kolkata, India, were screened by RT–PCR using specific primers targeting region C of the capsid gene of noroviruses (NoVs) to determine the seasonal distribution and clinical characteristics of NoVs associated with diarrhoea. NoV infection was detected in 78 cases, mostly in children aged <2 years. In 22/78 positive cases, the virus was detected as the sole agent; others were as mixed infections with other enteric pathogens. Sequencing of NVGII strains showed clustering with GII.4 NoVs followed by GII.13 and GII.6 NoVs. Clinical characteristics of the diarrhoeic children and adults in Kolkata indicated that NoV infections were detected throughout the year and were associated with a mild degree of dehydration.