The functional adaptability of the digestive system to the level of feed intake was investigated in the young rabbits by comparing two groups of 12 litters each, weaned at 21 (W21) or 35 (W35) days of age. From 14 days onwards, rabbits were fed a pelleted feed (NDF: 332 g/kg, CP: 177 g/kg, starch: 98 g/kg, as-fed basis). Until 49 days of age, the profile of digestive enzymes was weekly determined in the small intestinal content and mucosa, as well as caecal fermentation traits and fibrolytic activities. In the W21 group, the solid feed intake was increased by 57% between 21 and 35 days (P < 0.01), while the daily body growth was lower from 21 till 42 days (−17%, P < 0.05) when compared with the W35 group. Activities of enzymes of pancreatic origin were only scarcely influenced by the weaning age. In the W21 group, amylase activity tended to be lower at 28 days of age (−36%, P = 0.064), and trypsin activity was decreased by 31% at 49 days of age (P < 0.01). Lipase activity was similar in both weaning groups. Duodenal and jejunal activities of maltase and aminopeptidase N (APN) were higher on day 28 in the W21 group as compared with the W35 group (×1.4 to ×2.4, respectively, P < 0.05). On day 35, duodenal APN activity was twice as higher in the W21 group than in the W35 group (P < 0.01). In caecum, major differences between both weaning groups were observed at 28 days of age with a decrease in ammonia concentration (−43%, P < 0.01) in W21 compared with W35 rabbits. Conversely, the acetate proportion was 5% higher in the W21 group (P < 0.01) on day 28. In conclusion, the digestive tract of early-weaned rabbits showed some adaptative properties in response to nutritional environment changes, but they were insufficient to maintain their growth rate.