Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
To estimate the additional health and economic burden of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections in Australian hospitals.
A simulation model based on existing evidence was developed to assess the additional mortality and costs of healthcare-associated AMR Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Australian public hospitals.
Australian hospitals spent an additional AUD$5.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], $2.2–$11.2 million) per year treating ceftriaxone-resistant E.coli bloodstream infections (BSI), and an estimated AUD$5.5 million per year (95% UI, $339,633–$22.7 million) treating MRSA patients. There are no reliable estimates of excess morbidity and mortality from AMR infections in sites other than the blood and in particular for highly prevalent AMR E. coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs).
The limited evidence-base of the health impact of resistant infection in UTIs limits economic studies estimating the overall burden of AMR. Such data are increasingly important and are urgently needed to support local clinical practice as well as national and global efforts to curb the spread of AMR.
Gordion has long served as an archaeological type site for Iron Age central Anatolia and provided pioneering radiocarbon (14C) determinations as reported in the first issue of Radiocarbon (1959). Absolute dating of key events at Gordion continue to reshape our understanding of regional development and interaction in the Iron Age, with a major conflagration in the late 9th BCE century at this site the most recent focus of attention (DeVries et al. 2003). Here we present the latest series of 14C determinations for Gordion from Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age contexts. Fifteen absolute dates provide a critical new framework for establishing the timing and tempo of cultural transformation from the collapse of the Hittite Empire through to the subsequent formation of the Phrygian polity that dominated central Anatolia from the 9th to the 7th c. BCE. This chronometric revision transforms our perspective on the LBA/EIA transition at this site: from disengagement from Hittite hegemony in the 12th c. BCE, to the precocious emergence of the Phrygian capital in the early 9th c. BCE.
Objectives: The third edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-3) includes a new index termed List A versus Novel/Unrelated recognition discriminability (RD) on the Yes/No Recognition trial. Whereas the Total RD index incorporates false positive (FP) errors associated with all distractors (including List B and semantically related items), the new List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index incorporates only FP errors associated with novel, semantically unrelated distractors. Thus, in minimizing levels of source and semantic interference, the List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index may yield purer assessments of yes/no recognition memory independent of vulnerability to source memory difficulties or semantic confusion, both of which are often seen in individuals with primarily frontal-system dysfunction (e.g., early Huntington’s disease [HD]). Methods: We compared the performance of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and HD in mild and moderate stages of dementia on CVLT-3 indices of Total RD and List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD. Results: Although AD and HD subgroups exhibited deficits on both RD indices relative to healthy comparison groups, those with HD generally outperformed those with AD, and group differences were more robust on List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD than on Total RD. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the new CVLT-3 List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index, which (a) maximally assesses yes/no recognition memory independent of source and semantic interference; and (b) provides a greater differentiation between individuals whose memory disorder is primarily at the encoding/storage level (e.g., as in AD) versus at the retrieval level (e.g., as in early HD). (JINS, 2018, 24, 833–841)
The lithostratigraphy, age and human occupation of the Late Glacial and Holocene aeolian succession of a Late Palaeolithic Ahrensburg site in the excavation Geldrop-A2 (municipality of Heeze-Leende) have been investigated. The exposure revealed a stacked sequence of aeolian sand units and intercalated soils (Older Coversand II, Younger Coversand I (YCI), Usselo Soil, Younger Coversand II (YCII), Holocene podzol, drift sand). Fourteen optically stimulated luminescence dates on quartz and three radiocarbon dates provide the age control of the aeolian deposition (coversands, drift sand), landscape stability (soils) and human occupation. The upper part of the YCI unit was dated to the early Late Glacial. The well-developed Usselo Soil was formed during a phase of landscape stability during the late Allerød interstadial and onset of the Younger Dryas stadial. During the Younger Dryas, low aeolian dunes were formed locally (YCII), as a response to landscape instability due to cooling and vegetation decline. In the fine-grained lower part of the YCII unit an initial soil testifies to a decadal to centennial period of landscape stability. An Ahrensburg site in the upper part of this initial soil was dated at 10,915±35 BP (c. 12,854–12,789 cal BP). The lithostratigraphic position, radiocarbon dates of the underlying Usselo Soil and a possibly old-wood effect of up to 200 years suggest that Ahrensburg occupation of the dune environment occurred during the early Younger Dryas, shortly after c. 10,750 BP (12,750 cal BP). Landscape stability and podzol soil formation dominated the early and middle Holocene periods. Drift-sand deposition, probably related to human land use and vegetation decline, occurred in a 200-year period from the 16th to the 18th centuries.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
The baseline of East-West array of the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) has been extended from 786 metres to 1585 metres by the addition of two 13.7 metre dishes. A digital receiver has been built to accommodate the extra delay and correlation requirements, low noise FET preamplifiers have been installed on the large antennas, and a software package has been developed for processing observation data on a VAX 11/780. The FST is now capable of producing accurate wide field maps at 1415 MHz with a resolution of 20 arc seconds and a sensitivity of several milliJansky.
A novel approach for synthesis of few layer graphene films on SiC has been developed which uses halogen based inductively coupled-reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in atmospheric pressure argon. These films have been characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Surface characterization by XPS reveals the presence of defects similar to those observed for graphene oxide (GO) but at a much lower levels that those observed for GO. As in the case for GO, the defect density could be further reduced by chemical methods which improved carbon to defect ratio based on XPS analyses. Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of D, G and 2D peaks at 1330 cm-1, 1599 cm-1 and 2671 cm-1, respectively, which is comparable with similar graphene films formed by thermal annealing of SiC. The full widths at half max (FWHM) for these peaks was, however, comparable to those observed for GO. Electrical characterization of these graphene films using collinear four point probe measurements showed the electrical resistivity of these films is consistent with the observed values for few layer exfoliated graphene. Gas sensor structures were fabricated using lithography free methods, and initial gas response studies were performed for H2.
Novel free boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states with spontaneous three-dimensional (3-D) deformations of the plasma–vacuum interface are computed. The structures obtained look like saturated ideal external kink/peeling modes. Large edge pressure gradients yield toroidal mode number
distortions when the edge bootstrap current is large and higher
corrugations when this current is small. Linear ideal MHD stability analyses confirm the nonlinear saturated ideal kink equilibrium states produced and we can identify the Pfirsch–Schlüter current as the main linear instability driving mechanism when the edge pressure gradient is large. The dominant non-axisymmetric component of this Pfirsch–Schlüter current drives a near resonant helical parallel current density ribbon that aligns with the near vanishing magnetic shear region caused by the edge bootstrap current. This current ribbon is a manifestation of the outer mode previously found on JET (Solano 2010). We claim that the equilibrium corrugations describe structures that are commonly observed in quiescent H-mode tokamak discharges.
JET experiments have compared the efficacy of low- and high-field side ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) as an actuator to deliberately minimise the sawtooth period. It is found that low-field side ICRH with low minority concentration is optimal for sawtooth control for two main reasons. Firstly, low-field side heating means that any toroidal phasing of the ICRH (
or dipole) has a destabilising effect on the sawteeth, meaning that dipole phasing can be employed, since this is preferable due to less plasma wall interaction from Resonant Frequency (RF) sheaths. Secondly, the resonance position of the low-field side ICRH does not have to be very accurately placed to achieve sawtooth control, relaxing the requirement for real-time control of the RF frequency. These empirical observations have been confirmed by hybrid kinetic–magnetohydrodynamic modelling, and suggest that the ICRH antenna design for ITER is well positioned to provide a control actuator capable of having a significant effect on the sawtooth behaviour.
We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a role in instigating outflows in other systems, deep imaging of NGC 1266 as well as stellar kinematic observations from SAURON, have failed to provide evidence that NGC 1266 has recently been involved in a major interaction. The molecular gas and the instantaneous SF tracers indicate that the current sites of star formation are located in a hypercompact disk within 200 pc of the nucleus (Fig. 1; SF rate ≈ 2 M⊙ yr−1). On the other hand, tracers of recent star formation, such as the Hβ absorption map from SAURON and stellar population analysis show that the young stars are distributed throughout a larger area of the galaxy than current star formation. As the AGN at the center of NGC 1266 continues to drive cold gas out of the galaxy, we expect star formation rates to decline as the star formation is ultimately quenched. Thus, NGC 1266 is in the midst of a key portion of its evolution and continued studies of this unique galaxy may help improve our understanding of how galaxies transition from the blue to the red sequence (Alatalo et al. 2011).
NGC 1266 is a nearby field galaxy observed as part of the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011). NGC 1266 has been shown to host a compact (< 200 pc) molecular disk and a mass-loaded molecular outflow driven by the AGN (Alatalo et al. 2011). Very Long Basline Array (VLBA) observations at 1.65 GHz revealed a compact (diameter < 1.2 pc), high brightness temperature continuum source most consistent with a low-level AGN origin. The VLBA continuum source is positioned at the center of the molecular disk and may be responsible for the expulsion of molecular gas in NGC 1266. Thus, the candidate AGN-driven molecular outflow in NGC 1266 supports the picture in which AGNs do play a significant role in the quenching of star formation and ultimately the evolution of the red sequence of galaxies.
Hierarchically porous materials are of interest in a wide range of applications. If the materials are electronic, or ionic conductors, such materials are of interest as electrodes for use in fuel cells. Using hierarchically porous silica as templates, we have demonstrated the formation of hierarchically porous metal and metal oxide structures. Through the control of the synthesis conditions, we have produced partial replicas ca. 1 cubic centimeter in volume, in which two macroporous networks are separated by a nanoporous membrane. The macroporous network in the silica template is known to be bicontinuous. Our underlying model predicts that the second, induced, macroporous network should be similarly bicontinuous.
Micrometer resolution X-ray tomography of the whole sample confirms that the synthesis produces one bicontinuous macroporous network, and is consistent with the existence of a second set of macropores. Preliminary experiments were carried out using FIB/SEM serial tomography to image the second macropore network, however, the length scale of the structures is such that this approach it is unable to firmly establish that the second macropore network is bicontinuous throughout the entire sample volume.
Aggregated villages with large, central plazas appeared across the Western Pueblo region of the US Southwest by the fourteenth century AD. We view the adoption of this settlement form not strictly as an adaptive response to economic and social circumstances, but rather as a reflection of changes in the social relations of power and conceptualizations of community in the Pueblo world. Enclosed plazas became a form of panoptic architecture, structuring what were intrinsically unequal social relations between individuals or groups and the entire communities of which they were a part. This process has implications for the emergence of new power relations in pre-state societies.
In this study, the near-surface region of air-exposed thin 3C-SiC films grown on 50-mm (2-in.) diameter Si(111) and Si(211) substrates have been investigated. Carbonization to create the film in a radio-frequency (RF) induction-heated horizontal atmospheric-pressure chemicalvapor- deposition reactor utilized a propane-hydrogen mix (3% C3H8 in ultra-high purity hydrogen) with a hydrogen carrier. Elemental and chemical-state identification of the thin-films are presented. Several structure sensitive techniques including X-ray diffractaion (XRD) in ω-2θ as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine crystal structure, surface morphology and film thickness are included.
We report the results of epitaxial growth experiments on AlxGa1−xN (0≤ x ≤ 1) on Si(111) and sapphire substrates aimed at understanding the origin and elimination of cracking. We describe growth procedures resulting in thick layers of AlxGa1−xN, grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy with ammonia, that are free of cracks. In GaN layers with the thickness of ∼2.5 µm, we find the background electron concentration of (1-2)×1016 cm−3 and mobility of (800±100) cm2/Vs. In AlxGa1−xN (0.2 < x < 0.6) with the film thickness of 0.5-0.7 µm the electron concentration of (2-3)×1016 cm−3 is obtained. Low background concentrations in GaN allow for formation of p-n junctions by doping with Mg. Light emitting diodes with the peak emission at 380 nm have been demonstrated.
Bend strength, compression strength, and fracture toughness of niobium beryllide intermetallic compounds have been assessed at temperatures from ambient to 1200°C. Hot-isostatically-pressed (HIP) Be12Nb showed significantly improved lowand high-temperature mechanical properties over vacuum-hot-pressed (VHP) material. Strengths at 20°C were 250 MPa in bending and 2750 MPa in compression with a fracture toughness of ∼4 Mpa√m, much higher than previously measured for this compound. High-temperature (≥ 1000°C) mechanical properties were also improved with bend strengths of 250 MPa at 1200°C as compared to only 70 to 100 MPa for the VHP material. However, severe pest embrittlement was detected in the HIP material at temperatures between 650 and 1000°C.
Room-temperature intermetallic compound formation occurs when one of the component metals has a very low melting point or when two metals in close contact interdiffuse very rapidly. Compound formation at room temperature at the interface of superposed thin films has been observed in several instances, often in systems relating to electronic materials. The overall amount of compound produced in such configurations, however, is limited, due to the intrinsic limitations involved in the thin layer geometry. Bulk quantities of intermetallic can be produced at ambient temperature in solids by increasing the interface area between the components that interdiffuse rapidly. This condition can be achieved by having small size powder particles of one component coated with a layer of the second component. The very large interface area leads to rapid formation of bulk quantities of compounds even at ambient temperature. By appropriate control of the initial constituents and the coating parameters, it is possible to custom-prepare various intennetallic compounds present in binary systems such as silver-tin, gold-tin and silver-indium in which fast interdiffusion takes place.