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This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
To identify opportunities and challenges for the promotion of healthy, sustainable oil consumption in India.
We use a framework for policy space analysis which distinguishes between policy context, process and characteristics.
We focus on the Indian edible oils sector and on factors shaping the policy space at a national level.
The study is based on the analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews with key experts and stakeholders in the edible oils sector.
We find opportunities associated with the emergence of multisectoral policy frameworks for climate adaptation and non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention at a national level which explicitly include the oils sector, the existence of structures for sectoral policy coordination, some supportive factors for the translation of nutrition evidence into practice, and the possibility of integrating nutrition-sensitive approaches within current state-led agricultural interventions. However, the trade-offs perceived across sustainability, NCD prevention and food security objectives in the vegetable oils sector are considered a barrier for policy influence and implementation. Sustainability and nutrition advocates tend to focus on different segments of the value chain, missing potential synergies. Moreover, policy priorities are dominated by historical concerns for food security, understood as energy provision, as well as economic and strategic priorities.
Systematic efforts towards identifying synergistic approaches, from agricultural production to distribution of edible oils, as well as increased involvement of nutrition advocates with upstream policies in the oils sector, could increase policy influence for advocates of both nutrition and sustainability.
Lomatogonium gaurgopalii sp. nov., a new species of Gentianaceae from Sikkim Himalaya, is described and illustrated. It can be distinguished from its morphologically closest relative, Lomatogonium cherukurianum S.K.Dey & D.Maity, mainly by its robust habit, longer internodes, much larger creamy yellow flower and much larger floral parts; the presence of many hairs in an inverted semilunar arrangement behind the filament bases; and its larger, narrowly ovoid to narrowly ellipsoid ovary. Lomatogonium gaurgopalii is also unique in having pollen grains with striate-reticulate exine ornamentation without perforations.
Hydrilla is an invasive aquatic plant that has rapidly spread through many inland water bodies across the globe by outcompeting native aquatic plants. The negative impacts of hydrilla invasion have become a concern for water resource management authorities, power companies, and environmental scientists. The early detection of hydrilla infestation is very important to reduce the costs associated with control and removal efforts of this invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a tool for rapid, frequent, and large-scale monitoring and predicting spatial extent of hydrilla habitat. This was achieved by integrating in situ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data for Lake J. Strom Thurmond, the largest US Army Corps of Engineers lake east of the Mississippi River, located on the border of Georgia and South Carolina border. The predictive model for presence of hydrilla incorporated radiometric and physical measurements, including remote-sensing reflectance, Secchi disk depth (SDD), light-attenuation coefficient (Kd), maximum depth of colonization (Zc), and percentage of light available through the water column (PLW). The model-predicted ideal habitat for hydrilla featured high SDD, Zc, and PLW values, low values of Kd. Monthly analyses based on satellite images showed that hydrilla starts growing in April, reaches peak coverage around October, begins retreating in the following months, and disappears in February. Analysis of physical and meteorological factors (i.e., water temperature, surface runoff, net inflow, precipitation) revealed that these parameters are closely associated with hydrilla extent. Management agencies can use these results not only to plan removal efforts but also to evaluate and adapt their current mitigation efforts.
Background: Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist and recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Emergency departments (EDs) are a key point of contact with the healthcare system for patients living with OUD. Aim Statement: We implemented a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project to screen patients for OUD, initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals, and provide rapid next business day walk-in referrals to addiction clinics in the community. Measures & Design: From May to September 2018, our team worked with three ED sites and three addiction clinics to pilot the program. Implementation involved alignment with regulatory requirements, physician education, coordination with pharmacy to ensure in-ED medication access, and nurse education. The project is supported by a full-time project manager, data analyst, operations leaders, physician champions, provincial pharmacy, and the Emergency Strategic Clinical Network leadership team. For our pilot, our evaluation objective was to determine the degree to which our initiation and referral pathway was being utilized. We used administrative data to track the number of patients given bup/nal in ED, their demographics and whether they continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their ED visit. Addiction clinics reported both the number of patients referred to them and the number of patients attending their referral. Evaluation/Results: Administrative data shows 568 opioid-related visits to ED pilot sites during the pilot phase. Bup/nal was given to 60 unique patients in the ED during 66 unique visits. There were 32 (53%) male patients and 28 (47%) female patients. Median patient age was 34 (range: 21 to 79). ED visits where bup/nal was given had a median length of stay of 6 hours 57 minutes (IQR: 6 hours 20 minutes) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scores as follows: Level 1 – 1 (2%), Level 2 – 21 (32%), Level 3 – 32 (48%), Level 4 – 11 (17%), Level 5 – 1 (2%). 51 (77%) of these visits led to discharge. 24 (47%) discharged patients given bup/nal in ED continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their index ED visit. EDs also referred 37 patients with OUD to the 3 community clinics, and 16 of those individuals (43%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Discussion/Impact: Our pilot project demonstrates that with dedicated resources and broad institutional support, ED patients with OUD can be appropriately initiated on bup/nal and referred to community care.
Dust vortices with a void at the centre are reported in this paper. The role of the spatial variation of the plasma potential in the rotation of dust particles is studied in a parallel plate glow discharge plasma. Probe measurements reveal the existence of a local potential minimum in the region of formation of the dust vortex. The minimum in the potential well attracts positively charged ions, while it repels the negatively charged dust particles. Dust rotation is caused by the interplay of the two oppositely directed ion drag and Coulomb forces. The balance between these two forces is found to play a major role in the radial confinement of the dust particles above the cathode surface. Evolution of the dust vortex is studied by increasing the discharge current from 15 to 20 mA. The local minimum of the potential profile is found to coincide with the location of the dust vortex for both values of discharge currents. Additionally, it is found that the size of the dust vortex as well as the void at the centre increases with the discharge current.
We report the synthesis and optical properties of pure ZnS and Ag doped ZnS nanostructures. ZnS(Ag) was synthesized by using the hydrothermal technique and later annealed at different temperatures under vacuum conditions. It was observed that the photoluminescence (PL) emission from the ZnS(Ag) nanostructures can be easily tuned from the blue (445 nm) to green (530 nm) region of visible light by varying the annealing temperature. This tunability has been attributed to the introduction of excess sulfur vacancy states, which is evident from the PL excitation spectra. This observed change in the PL emission wavelength can be highly beneficial in the imaging screens where ZnS is regularly used and can be easily interfaced with the silicon photodiodes showing maximum sensitivity at 550 nm.
Building on the recent advances in next-generation sequencing, the integration of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other approaches hold tremendous promise for precision medicine. The approval and adoption of these rapidly advancing technologies and methods presents several regulatory science considerations that need to be addressed. To better understand and address these regulatory science issues, a Clinical and Translational Science Award Working Group convened the Regulatory Science to Advance Precision Medicine Forum. The Forum identified an initial set of regulatory science gaps. The final set of key findings and recommendations provided here address issues related to the lack of standardization of complex tests, preclinical issues, establishing clinical validity and utility, pharmacogenomics considerations, and knowledge gaps.
The mechanism of electrical noise in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has mostly been attributed to charge carrier fluctuations between the oxide traps and the conducting channel, in accordance with the McWhorter model. However, the original McWhorter model was formulated for diffusive transport with conducting carriers having extended electronic wave functions. Our work serves to generalize the McWhorter mechanism to include strongly localized systems such as the TMDC family and provides an explanation for the unusual exponential behavior of noise magnitude with temperature.
A new species, Gentiana arunii D.Maity, S.K.Dey, J.Ghosh & Midday, from alpine pasture in Sikkim Himalaya is described and illustrated, and placed in Gentiana section Chondrophyllae Bunge. The new species is compared morphologically with two related taxa, Gentiana glabriuscula T.N.Ho and Gentiana pluviarum W.W.Sm. subsp. subtilis (Harry Sm.) T.N.Ho.
The final stages of low-mass stellar evolution are characterized by significant mass loss due to stellar pulsations during the AGB phase, which lead to the development of planetary nebulae. Molecular masers of H2O, SiO, and ground state OH transitions are commonly detected in oxygen-rich late-type stars (OH/IR objects). In contrast, excited OH maser transitions are rare. We discuss our study of the carbon-rich pre-planetary nebula CRL618 (a prototypical post-AGB star). Observations conducted in May 2008 with the 305m Arecibo Telescope resulted in the first detection of a 4765MHz OH maser line in a late-type stellar object; the detection was confirmed a few months later also with Arecibo. Subsequent observations in 2015 and 2017 resulted in non-detection of the 4765MHz OH line. Our observations indicate that the 4765MHz OH maser in CRL 618 is highly variable, possibly tracing a short-lived phenomenon during the development of a pre-planetary nebula.
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother–infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.
Objectives: The Forced Choice Recognition (FCR) trial of the California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition, was designed as an embedded performance validity test (PVT). To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of classification accuracy against reference PVTs. Methods: Results from peer-reviewed studies with FCR data published since 2002 encompassing a variety of clinical, research, and forensic samples were summarized, including 37 studies with FCR failure rates (N=7575) and 17 with concordance rates with established PVTs (N=4432). Results: All healthy controls scored >14 on FCR. On average, 16.9% of the entire sample scored ≤14, while 25.9% failed reference PVTs. Presence or absence of external incentives to appear impaired (as identified by researchers) resulted in different failure rates (13.6% vs. 3.5%), as did failing or passing reference PVTs (49.0% vs. 6.4%). FCR ≤14 produced an overall classification accuracy of 72%, demonstrating higher specificity (.93) than sensitivity (.50) to invalid performance. Failure rates increased with the severity of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: In the absence of serious neurocognitive disorder, FCR ≤14 is highly specific, but only moderately sensitive to invalid responding. Passing FCR does not rule out a non-credible presentation, but failing FCR rules it in with high accuracy. The heterogeneity in sample characteristics and reference PVTs, as well as the quality of the criterion measure across studies, is a major limitation of this review and the basic methodology of PVT research in general. (JINS, 2016, 22, 851–858)
We apply the immersed boundary (or IB) method to simulate deformation and detachment of a periodic array of wall-bounded biofilm colonies in response to a linear shear flow. The biofilm material is represented as a network of Hookean springs that are placed along the edges of a triangulation of the biofilm region. The interfacial shear stress, lift and drag forces acting on the biofilm colony are computed by using fluid stress jump method developed by Williams, Fauci and Gaver [Disc. Con-tin. Dyn. Sys. B 11(2):519–540, 2009], with a modified version of their exclusion filter. Our detachment criterion is based on the novel concept of an averaged equivalent continuum stress tensor defined at each IB point in the biofilm which is then used to determine a corresponding von Mises yield stress; wherever this yield stress exceeds a given critical threshold the connections to that node are severed, thereby signalling the onset of a detachment event. In order to capture the deformation and detachment behaviour of a biofilm colony at different stages of growth, we consider a family of four biofilm shapes with varying aspect ratio. For each aspect ratio, we varied the spacing between colonies to investigate role of spatial clustering in offering protection against detachment. Our numerical simulations focus on the behaviour of weak biofilms (with relatively low yield stress threshold) and investigate features of the fluid-structure interaction such as locations of maximum shear and increased drag. The most important conclusions of this work are: (a) reducing the spacing between colonies reduces drag by from 50 to 100% and alters the interfacial shear stress profile, suggesting that even weak biofilms may be able to grow into tall structures because of the protection they gain from spatial proximity with other colonies; (b) the commonly employed detachment strategy in biofilm models based only on interfacial shear stress can lead to incorrect or inaccurate results when applied to the study of shear induced detachment of weak biofilms. Our detachment strategy based on equivalent continuum stresses provides a unified and consistent IB framework that handles both sloughing and erosion modes of biofilm detachment, and is consistent with strategies employed in many other continuum based biofilm models.
With the ongoing expansion of palliative care services throughout the United States, meeting the needs of socioeconomically marginalized populations, as in all domains of healthcare, continues to be a challenge. Our specific aim here was to help meet some of these needs through expanding delivery of pain and palliative care services by establishing a new clinic for underserved patients and collecting descriptive data about its operation.
In November of 2014, the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center's Pain and Palliative Care Service (PPCS) launched a bimonthly offsite pain and palliative care outpatient clinic in collaboration with Mobile Medical Care Inc. (MobileMed), a private not-for-profit primary care provider in Montgomery County, Maryland, serving underserved area residents since 1968. Staffed by NIH hospice and palliative medicine clinical fellows and faculty, the clinic provides specialty pain and palliative care consultation services to patients referred by their primary care healthcare providers. A patient log was maintained, charts reviewed, and referring providers surveyed on their satisfaction with the service.
The clinic had 27 patient encounters with 10 patients (6 males, 4 females, aged 23–67) during its first 7 months of operation. The reason for referral for all but one patient was chronic pain of multiple etiologies. Patients had numerous psychosocial stressors and comorbidities. All primary care providers who returned surveys (n = 4) rated their level of satisfaction with the consultation service as “very satisfied” or “extremely satisfied.”
Significance of Results:
This brief descriptive report outlines the steps taken and logistical issues addressed to launch and continue the clinic, the characteristics of patients treated, and the results of quality-improvement projects. Lessons learned are highlighted and future directions suggested for the clinic and others that may come along like it.
A single specimen of the African spadefish, Tripterodon orbis, was landed in a gill net operating off Visakhapatnam on 13 December 2013. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimen are described and discussed herein. This is the first occurrence of the species from the north-east coast of India, exhibiting an extension in distribution from the southern to the northern region, along the Bay of Bengal.
We study the settling of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid contained within a two-dimensional channel, where the mass density of the particles is greater than that of the fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is simulated numerically using the immersed boundary method, where the added mass is incorporated using a Boussinesq approximation. Simulations are performed with a single circular particle, and also with two particles in various initial configurations. The terminal particle settling velocity and drag coefficient correspond closely with other theoretical, experimental and numerical results, and the particle trajectories reproduce the expected behavior qualitatively. In particular, simulations of a pair of interacting particles similar drafting-kissing-tumbling dynamics to that observed in other experimental and numerical studies.
The work presents a comparative study on GaN/AlGaN type-II heterostructures grown on c-plane Al2O3 and Si (111) substrates by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The in-depth structural characterizations of these samples were performed by High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, X-ray Reflectivity and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The in-plane and out-of plane strains were determined from measured c- and a-lattice parameters of the epilayers from reciprocal space mapping of both symmetric triple axis (002) and asymmetric grazing incidence (105) double axis mode. The mosaicity parameters like tilt and correlation lengths were also calculated from reciprocal space mapping. Moreover, the twist angle was measured from skew symmetric off axis scan of (102), (103), and (105) planes along with (002) symmetric plane. The defect density were measured from the full width at half maxima of skew symmetric scan of (002) and (102) reflection planes. Also, the strained states of all the layers were analyzed and corresponding Al mole fraction was calculated based on anisotropic elastic theory. The thicknesses of the layers were measured from simulation of the nominal structure by fitting with X-ray Reflectivity experimental curves and also by comparing with cross sectional Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs.
In this paper, the design and test of a single-chip RF pulse-width modulator and driver (PWMD) aimed at exciting a high-power class-E GaN high-power stage at 435 MHz is described. For the required buffer size, avoiding potential ringing of the pulses within the buffer structure presents a major challenge in the design process. Therefore, a smaller test chip capable of driving capacitive loads of up to 5 pF was initially designed, fabricated, and tested. An approach based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations was used to validate the test results and offers excellent simulation accuracy. Based on the results obtained for test chip an enlarged PWMD chip capable of driving a 40 W high-power stage has been designed and tested on passive loads representing the targeted final stage.
Two specimens of Stegastes fasciolatus of total length 110.1 mm and 112.2 mm were collected from gillnet at Visakhapatnam fishing harbour, north-east coast of India on 5 January 2013. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed.