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The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastics that resembles oestrogen in organisms. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as BPA, increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal BPA exposure effects on nephrogenesis in a mouse model that was predisposed to T2DM. This study quantitatively evaluated the renal structural changes using stereology and histomorphometry methods. The OF1 pregnant mice were treated with a vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 μg/kg/day) during days 9–16 of gestation (early nephrogenesis). The 30-day-old offspring were sacrificed, and tissue samples were collected and prepared for histopathological and stereology studies. Glomerular abnormalities and reduced glomerular formation were observed in the BPA offspring. The kidneys of the BPA10 and BPA100 female offspring had a significantly lower glomerular number and density than those of the CONTROL female offspring. The glomerular histomorphometry revealed a significant difference between the female and male CONTROL offspring for the analysed glomerular parameters that disappeared in the BPA10 and BPA100 offspring. In addition, the kidney histopathological examination showed typical male cuboidal epithelial cells of the Bowman capsule in the female BPA offspring. Exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during embryonic development altered nephrogenesis. These structural changes could be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases later in life.
Strong winds from massive stars are a topic of interest to a wide range of astrophysical fields. In High-Mass X-ray Binaries the presence of an accreting compact object on the one side allows to infer wind parameters from studies of the varying properties of the emitted X-rays; but on the other side the accretor’s gravity and ionizing radiation can strongly influence the wind flow. Based on a collaborative effort of astronomers both from the stellar wind and the X-ray community, this presentation attempts to review our current state of knowledge and indicate avenues for future progress.
The prevalence of anti-HEV isotype-specific antibodies and viraemia were investigated in serum samples collected from slaughter-age pigs (aged 22–24 weeks) from 23 farms in Scotland. Of 176 serum samples tested, 29·0% (n = 51) were anti-HEV IgG positive, 36·9% (n = 65) anti-HEV IgA positive and 29·0% (n = 51) anti-HEV IgM positive. Overall seroprevalence (anti-HEV IgG+ and/or IgA+ and/or IgM+) was 61·4% (n = 108). HEV RNA was detected in 72/162 serum samples (44·4%). Partial sequence of ORF2 (98 nt) was obtained from eight HEV RNA-positive samples and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that they were all of genotype 3. This is the first report on the prevalence of HEV in pigs in Scotland. Given the increasing incidence of locally acquired HEV infection in the UK, evidence that HEV is a foodborne zoonosis emphasizes the need for surveillance in pigs.
The organogenesis of the digestive system was described in the Amazonian pimelodid catfish species Pseudoplatystoma punctifer from hatching (3.5 mm total length, TL) to 41 days post-fertilization (dpf) (58.1 mm TL) reared at 28°C. Newly hatched larvae showed a simple digestive tract, which appeared as a straight undifferentiated and unfolded tube lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells (future enterocytes). During the endogenous feeding period, comprised between 20 and 96 h post-fertilization (3.5 to 6.1 mm TL), the larval digestive system experienced a fast transformation with the almost complete development and differentiation of most of digestive organs (buccopahrynx, oesophagus, intestine, liver and exocrine pancreas). Yolk reserves were not completely depleted at the onset of exogenous feeding (4 dpf, 6.1 mm TL), and a period of mixed nutrition was observed up to 6 to 7 dpf (6.8 to 7.3 mm TL) when yolk was definitively exhausted. The stomach was the organ that latest achieved its complete differentiation, characterized by the development of abundant gastric glands in the fundic stomach between 10 and 15 dpf (10.9 to 15.8 mm TL) and the formation of the pyloric sphincter at the junction of the pyloric stomach and the anterior intestine at 15 dpf (15.8 mm TL). The above-mentioned morphological and histological features observed suggested the achievement of a digestive system characteristic of P. punctifer juveniles and adults. The ontogeny of the digestive system in P. punctifer followed the same general pattern as in most Siluriform species so far, although some species-specific differences in the timing of differentiation of several digestive structures were noted, which might be related to different reproductive guilds, egg and larval size or even different larval rearing practices. According to present findings on the histological development of the digestive system in P. punctifer, some recommendations regarding the rearing practices of this species are also provided in order to improve the actual larval rearing techniques of this fast-growing Neotropical catfish species.
The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity evidence of scores on the Spanish version of Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II). The instrument was administered in a sample of 2022 Spanish students (51.1% boys) from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine validity evidence based on internal structure drawn from the scores on the SDQ-II. CFA replicated the correlated 11 first-order factor structure. Furthermore, hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) was used to examine the hierarchical ordering of self-concept, as measured by scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II. Although a series of HCFA models were tested to assess academic and non-academic components organization, support for those hierarchical models was weaker than for the correlated 11 first-order factor structure. Results also indicated that scores on the Spanish version of the SDQ-II had internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates within an acceptable range.
The cytopathogenicity of 22 Legionella pneumophila isolates from 17 hospitals was determined by assessing the dose of bacteria necessary to produce 50% cytopathic effect (CPED50) in U937 human-derived macrophages. All isolates were able to infect and grow in macrophage-like cells (range log10 CPED50: 2·67–6·73 c.f.u./ml). Five groups were established and related to the serogroup, the number of PFGE patterns coexisting in the same hospital water distribution system, and the possible reporting of hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease cases. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates had the highest cytopathogenicity (P=0·003). Moreover, a trend to more cytopathogenic groups (groups 1–3) in hospitals with more than one PFGE pattern of L. pneumophila in the water distribution system (60% vs. 17%) and in hospitals reporting cases of hospital-acquired Legionnaires' disease (36·3% vs. 16·6%) was observed. We conclude that the cytopathogenicty of environmental L. pneumophila should be taken into account in evaluating the risk of a contaminated water reservoir in a hospital and hospital acquisition of Legionnaires' disease.
To determine whether environmental cultures for Legionella increase the index of suspicion for legionnaires' disease (LD).
Five-year prospective study.
Twenty hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.
From 1994 to 1996, the potable water systems of 20 hospitals in Catalonia were tested for Legionella, Cases of hospital-acquired LD and availability of an “in-house” Legionella test in the previous 4 years were assessed. After the hospitals were informed of the results of their water cultures, a prospective 5-year-study was conducted focusing on the detection of new cases of nosocomial legionellosis and the availability and use of Legionella testing.
Before environmental cultures were started, only one hospital had conducted active surveillance of hospital-acquired pneumonia and used Legionella tests including Legionella urinary antigen in all pneumonia cases. Only one other hospital had used the latter test at all. In six hospitals, Legionella tests had been completely unavailable. Cases of nosocomial LD had been diagnosed in the previous 4 years in only two hospitals. During prospective surveillance, 12 hospitals (60%) used Legionella urinary antigen testing in house and 11 (55%) found cases of nosocomial legionellosis, representing 64.7% (11 of 17) of those with positive water cultures. Hospitals with negative water cultures did not find nosocomial LD.
The environmental study increased the index of suspicion for nosocomial LD. The number of cases of nosocomial LD increased significantly during the prospective follow-up period, and most hospitals began using the Legionella urinary antigen test in their laboratories.
Using data from the new EBASIM spectrograph at the 2.1-m telescope of the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), two rather sharp-lined B stars 5 Aqr (=HD 198667, B9 III) and 30 Peg (=HD 211924, B5 IV) are being studied. The measurements are compared with those from the coudé spectrograph of the 1.22-m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO). The equivalent width scales of the EBASIM and the DAO data are similar. As we found that the line profiles of 30 Peg are variable, we are trying to determine whether this star is a slowly pulsating B star. 5 Aqr has abundances close to those of the Sun.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
To investigate the presence and clonal distribution of Legionella species in the water supply of 20 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain.
20 hospitals in Catalonia, an area of 32,000 km2, located in northeast Spain.
Environmental cultures of 186 points of potable water supply and 10 cooling towers were performed for the presence of Legionella species. Following filtration and acid treatment, the samples were seeded in selective MWY (modified Wadowsky Yee)-buffered charcoal yeast extract-a agar. All isolates obtained were characterized microbiologically and genotyped by Sfil pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
73 of 196 water samples, representing 17 of the 20 hospitals included in the study, were positive for Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1, 2-14, or both). The degree of contamination ranged from 200 to 74,250 colony-forming units/L. Twenty-five chromosomal DNA subtypes were detected by PFGE. A single DNA subtype was identified in 10 hospitals, 2 DNA subtypes were observed in 6 hospitals, and 1 hospital exhibited 3 different DNA subtypes. Each hospital had its own Legionella DNA subtype, which was not shared with any other hospitals.
Legionella was present in the water of most of the hospitals studied; each such hospital had a unique, dominant chromosomal DNA subtype. The verification of several genomic DNA restriction profiles in such a small geographic area demonstrates the great genetic diversity of Legionella in the aquatic environment.
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