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To examine a library-based approach to addressing food insecurity through a child and adult summer meal programme. The study examines: (i) risk of household food insecurity among participants; (ii) perspectives on the library meal programme; and (iii) barriers to utilizing other community food resources.
Quantitative surveys with adult participants and qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sub-sample of adult participants.
Ten libraries using public and private funding to serve meals to children and adults for six to eight weeks in low-income Silicon Valley communities (California, USA) during summer 2015.
Adult survey participants (≥18 years) were recruited to obtain maximum capture, while a sub-sample of interview participants was recruited through maximum variation purposeful sampling.
Survey participants (n 161) were largely Latino (71 %) and Asian (23 %). Forty-one per cent of participants screened positive for risk of food insecurity in the past 12 months. A sub-sample of programme participants engaged in qualitative interviews (n 67). Interviewees reported appreciating the library’s child enrichment programmes, resources, and open and welcoming atmosphere. Provision of adult meals was described as building community among library patrons, neighbours and staff. Participants emphasized lack of awareness, misinformation about programmes, structural barriers (i.e. transportation), immigration fears and stigma as barriers to utilizing community food resources.
Food insecurity remains high in our study population. Public libraries are ideal locations for community-based meal programmes due to their welcoming and stigma-free environment. Libraries are well positioned to link individuals to other social services given their reputation as trusted community organizations.
Fictitious proper motioms of quasars and of their surrounding stars have been determined based on plates with an epoch difference of up to 90 years. From the fact that the true proper motions of the quasar are vanishingly small, we obtain conditions for the extragalactic calibration of the preliminary Hipparcos system. We present results for the fields of 3C 273, OQ 208, 3C 371 and 3C 390.3. With the data it is possible to achieve the link with random errors smaller than 0₺ 15 per century.
Besides the link of the HIPPARCOS reference frame to extragalactic objects via radio stars or by the HST, also photographic astrometry is able to calibrate the HIPPARCOS proper motions with regard to an inertial system. Numerical simulations have shown that even with a very small number of well-distributed link fields (3 to 5) the photographic method is competitive with other techniques.
Differences of latitudes and of mean latitudes of stations located along a common meridian were studied in order to find influences of local geophysical phenomena on their variations. Some correlation of variations of the mean latitude of Belgrade with the occurrence of earthquakes in the vicinity can be noticed as well as instabilities of the mean latitude of stations located near sea coasts. Some attempts at measurements of variations of the meridian component of the vertical and a discussion of spectral analysis of latitudes and of mean latitudes of considered stations are presented.
We describe nine patients (eight aged <1 year) clinically diagnosed with pertussis yet laboratory-confirmed with Bordetella holmesii infections, a human pathogen normally isolated from blood. Most patients reported cough and cold symptoms. No death was reported. We report B. holmesii isolation in infants with respiratory symptoms in Argentina.
Antimicrobial resistance is a priority emerging public health threat, and the ability to detect promptly outbreaks caused by resistant pathogens is critical for resistance containment and disease control efforts. We describe and evaluate the use of an electronic laboratory data system (WHONET) and a space–time permutation scan statistic for semi-automated disease outbreak detection. In collaboration with WHONET-Argentina, the national network for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, we applied the system to the detection of local and regional outbreaks of Shigella spp. We searched for clusters on the basis of genus, species, and resistance phenotype and identified 19 statistical ‘events’ in a 12-month period. Of the six known outbreaks reported to the Ministry of Health, four had good or suggestive agreement with SaTScan-detected events. The most discriminating analyses were those involving resistance phenotypes. Electronic laboratory-based disease surveillance incorporating statistical cluster detection methods can enhance infectious disease outbreak detection and response.
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