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Depression is a common co-morbidity for people living with HIV (PLWH) and is associated with elevated plasma HIV RNA levels. While depression correlates with deficits in antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, little data exist to inform the relationship between depression and HIV vial load more broadly.
To examine the relationship between depression and viral load in the African Cohort Study (AFRICOS) independently of ARV adherence.
PLWH in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania underwent screening for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) upon enrollment at AFRICOS HIV care sites.
AFRICOS is an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study enrolling HIV-infected adults at HIV care centers including sites in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. These sites are administered by President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief programs.
HIV+ individuals were eligible if they were at least 18 years old, receiving HIV care at the enrolling clinic and consented to data and specimen collection.
Main outcome measure.
Among 2307 participants, 18–25% met the CESD threshold for depression. Depression was associated with decreased ARV adherence (OR 0.59, p = 0.01). Higher scores on three CESD items were significantly associated with 209–282% higher viral load, independently of ARV adherence among participants on ARVs ⩾6 months.
PLWH had high prevalence of depression on the CESD. Diverse depression symptoms were independently associated with increases in viral load, underscoring the need for comprehensive treatment of depression.
Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is a synthetic wide band gap material that has attracted attention due to its high thermal conductivity, optical transparency and optical emission. In this work, defects in cBN have been investigated using experimental and theoretical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Vacancy and O substitutional defects were considered, with O substituted at the N site (ON) to be the most energetically favorable. All defects produce unique signatures in either the B or N K-edges and can thus be identified using XANES. The calculations coupled with electron-irradiation / annealing experiments strongly suggest that ON is the dominant defect in irradiated cBN and remains after annealing. This defect is a likely source of optical emission in cBN.
Observations of CO emission (Kutner et al. 1977) have delineated a molecular cloud extending over several square degrees in the Orion region, and extensive surveys have been made of several other molecules (e.g. CN, CS, HCN, H2CO, H2H+) in the densest regions of this cloud.
In this paper we present maps showing the distribution of HCO+ (J= 1→0 transition at 89.18855 GHz) in the direction of NGC 6334 as a function of radial velocity, lhe observations were carried out in May-June 1979 as part of a larger program of HCO+ observations (Batchelor et al. 1980, 1981) using the Epping 4-m millimetre-wave radio telescope.
A 4-m telescope for mm-wave observations, particularly of spectral lines, was erected in mid-1976 at Epping by Krupp Ltd., Rheinhausen. A cooled mixer receiver was installed on the telescope in April 1977 and a series of test observations made during the remainder of the year, subject to the availability of the receiver and the multi-channel filter bank which were shared with the Parkes 64-m telescope.
We investigate the dynamics of a susceptible infected recovered (SIR) epidemic model on small networks with different topologies, as a stepping stone to determining how the structure of a contact network impacts the transmission of infection through a population. For an SIR model on a network of
nodes, there are
configurations that the network can be in. To simplify the analysis, we group the states together based on the number of nodes in each infection state and the symmetries of the network. We derive analytical expressions for the final epidemic size of an SIR model on small networks composed of three or four nodes with different topological structures. Differential equations which describe the transition of the network between states are also derived and solved numerically to confirm our analysis. A stochastic SIR model is numerically simulated on each of the small networks with the same initial conditions and infection parameters to confirm our results independently. We show that the structure of the network, degree of the initial infectious node, number of initial infectious nodes and the transmission rate all significantly impact the final epidemic size of an SIR model on small networks.
Carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc have been used to form high quality Schottky diodes on p-Si. Energetic deposition with an applied substrate bias of -1 kV and with a substrate temperature of 100 °C has produced carbon diodes with rectification ratios of ∼ 3 × 106, saturation currents of ∼0.02 nA and ideality factors close to unity (n = 1.05). Simulations were used to estimate the effective work function and the thickness of an interfacial mixed (C/SiO2) layer from the current/voltage characteristics of the diodes.
Energetically-deposited carbon contacts to n-type 6H-SiC have exhibited either insulating, rectifying or ohmic electrical characteristics depending on the average energy of the depositing flux and the substrate temperature. Deposition at room temperature and at a low-medium average energy (<500 eV) has resulted in carbon with a low graphitic content and insulating electrical contacts. With higher average energy and at a moderately elevated temperature (∼100 °C), the higher graphitic content contacts were rectifying with an ideality factor, η, of ∼1.8 and barrier height of ∼0.88 eV. Oriented graphitic carbon deposited at 200 °C with biases exceeding 300 V formed ohmic contacts.
We are undertaking an observational program using the ATCA to monitor the intraday variability (IDV) of a sample of sources at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. The sources were selected to include the known strong southern IDV sources plus a number of sources whose IDV was recently discovered. The present monitoring program will extend over a full year in order to search for any annual cycle that may be present in the long-term IDV characteristics of these sources. In this paper we discuss the observing strategy and data analysis, and present the first results from our observations.
Carbon nanoclusters produced by high-repetition-rate laser ablation of graphite and glassy carbon in Ar exhibits para- and ferromagnetic behaviour at low temperature. The results show that the degree of remanent order is strongly dependent on the magnetic history, i.e. whether the samples were cooled under zero-field or field conditions. Such behaviour is typical for a spin glass structure where the system can exist in many different roughly equivalent spin configurations. The spin-freezing temperature is unusually high (50–300 K) compared with ≤ 15 K for typical spin glasses. The maximum in the zero-field magnetic susceptibility experiments and their field dependence indicate that there is competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange pathways, accounting for the spin glass behavior and/or a low-dimensionality of the system.
PKS 1830–211 is the strongest known radio gravitational lens by almost an order of magnitude and has the potential to provide a measurement of H0, provided the lensing system can be parameterized. Attempts to identify optical counterparts, to measure redshifts, have so far proved unsuccessful and this has lead to radio and millimetre spectral line observations. We present our discovery of an absorption system at z = 0.19. A brief description is also made of our ATCA observations to measure the lensing time delay for this source.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
From the combination of VLBI phase-referenced observations and Hipparcos satellite data, we have found evidence of a low-mass object orbiting the late-type star AB Doradus. The mass of the new object is near the hydrogen burning limit and will constitute a precise point for calibrating the low end of the main sequence. This represents the first detection of a low-mass stellar companion using the VLBI technique, which could become an important tool in future searches for planets and brown dwarfs orbiting other stars.
Two important factors for understanding the physical nature of compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources are determining the correct radio morphological classification of these objects together with their characteristics in wavebands different from the radio (Fanti et al. 1995, A&A, 302, 317). Seven CSS sources (linear dimensions < 30kpc for Ho = 50 kms–1Mpc–1 and α > 0.5, S ≃ v–α) have been found in a complete sample of strong southern radio sources. This group of CSS sources is particularly interesting because some optical and X-ray information is already available as part of a more general study of southern radio sources (Morganti et al. & Siebert et al. these Proceedings). The spectra of all the sources were presented in Tadhunter et al. (1993, MNRAS, 263, 999.) Here we present VLBI observations for three of these sources (0252-71, 1306-09 and 1814-63). The remaining four have already been imaged with VLBI (King et al. these Proceedings).
This investigation measured the physical fitness and anthropometrie parameters of a sample of 100 Saskatchewan women and men, aged 65 to 75 years. Subjects were grouped by age (65–69 years and 70–75 years) and these data were compared to the results from the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS) for women and men aged 65 to 69 years. In general, the Saskatchewan women in this study demonstrated an age-associated decline in the fitness and anthropometric variables measured. The Saskatchewan men, aged 65–69 years were significantly poorer in four variables (weight, sum of trunk skinfolds, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V02 MAX)) compared to the age-matched men tested in the CFS. However, the Saskatchewan men, aged 70–75 were not significantly different from the younger CFS subjects for these variables. Within limitations of the cross-sectional design, the results of this study indicate that Saskatchewan men in their early retirement years may require particular attention and further study with respect to their physical activity behaviour and fitness.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
This paper discusses the nonhermetic performance of polymer thin film coatings derived from 1,3-bis(2-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-3-ylethenyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane (mixed isomers, CAS 117732-87-3), known also as divinyl siloxane bis-benzocyclobutene or DVS bis-BCB. The stability of the dielectric constant and the mechanical properties have been examined before and during high temperature exposures of the polymer films to air for extended periods of time at high and low humidity. Infrared absorbance spectra and dielectric constant measurements have been correlated.
Formulations of the DVS bis-BCB prepolymer with a polymeric oxidation inhibitor are predicted to yield polymer films which display less than a 10% change in the dielectric constant after 40 years in air at 85°C. These films have excellent potential for use as the dielectric coating layer in nonhermetic packaging applications for Multi Chip Module (MCM) circuits.
Single photon emission tomography (SPET) with the lipophilic blood flow marker 99mTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) has been used to determine regional uptake of radiolabel into brain regions of patients with presenile Alzheimer's disease and Korsakoff's psychosis, and age-matched controls. Using occipital cortical uptake as reference area, the pattern of relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined in other cortical areas and basal ganglia. In Alzheimer's disease, reduction in rCBF occurred most strikingly in posterior temporal and parietal areas. By contrast, in Korsakoff's psychosis, posterior temporal rCBF was maintained, although there was a trend to reduced tracer uptake in other cortical areas. These impairments of flow were correlated with impairments of neuropsychological function. In Alzheimer's disease, left posterior temporal and left parietal regions in particular showed rCBF to be strongly correlated with most aspects of cognitive function. In Korsakoff's psychosis, however, impaired flow in frontal regions was correlated with impaired performance on tests of memory and orientation. The findings in Alzheimer's disease show quantitative parallels with those from studies using Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and extend our understanding of the relationship between cognition and regional brain function in dementia. The findings in Korsakoff's psychosis offer the first direct evidence linking frontal lobe dysfunction with the cognitive impairment seen in the disorder.