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Marteilia refringens causes marteiliosis in oysters, mussels and other bivalve molluscs. This parasite previously comprised two species, M. refringens and Marteilia maurini, which were synonymized in 2007 and subsequently referred to as M. refringens ‘O-type’ and ‘M-type’. O-type has caused mass mortalities of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. We used high throughput sequencing and histology to intensively screen flat oysters and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the UK, Sweden and Norway for infection by both types and to generate multi-gene datasets to clarify their genetic distinctiveness. Mussels from the UK, Norway and Sweden were more frequently polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for M-type (75/849) than oysters (11/542). We did not detect O-type in any northern European samples, and no histology-confirmed Marteilia-infected oysters were found in the UK, Norway and Sweden, even where co-habiting mussels were infected by the M-type. The two genetic lineages within ‘M. refringens’ are robustly distinguishable at species level. We therefore formally define them as separate species: M. refringens (previously O-type) and Marteilia pararefringens sp. nov. (M-type). We designed and tested new Marteilia-specific PCR primers amplifying from the 3’ end of the 18S rRNA gene through to the 5.8S gene, which specifically amplified the target region from both tissue and environmental samples.
Avilamycin (antibiotic growth promoter) and zinc oxide are both included in the diets of newly weaned piglets to enhance growth performance and reduce the incidence of diarrhoea (MLC, 2000). It is thought that both compounds positively influence the bacterial populations residing in the gastrointestinal tract. However, growing concerns regarding antibiotic resistance and environmental pollution are likely to result in the banning of these dietary additives within the EU. This experiment, therefore, aimed to investigate what effect removing both avilamycin and zinc oxide from the post-weaning diet would have on the growth performance of weaned piglets.
The present report is drastically shorter and, therefore, different in form from previous reports. While galactic research has increased considerably in recent years, the financial situation in the IAU made it necessary to reduce the size of the reports to half their previous size. This obliged us to adopt an almost telegraphic style in our report. However, an extended version of the report, including also the necessary references, will be published by the University of Thessaloniki and distributed to members of Commission 33. Any other interested astronomer may write to ask for a copy.
The report has been prepared by G. Contopoulos (Sections I, V, VI) and S. McCuskey (Sections II, III, IV). In our work we have been helped by Drs Kerr (radio astronomy) and Haradze (Russian contributions). Dr Elvius has written the Report of the Committee “Selected Areas”. We could cover the literature up to the fall of 1969, plus work in progress, reported by members of our commission.
As usual, this report contains contributions from a number of authors, as follows: § 2, P. D. Jackson and M. P. FitzGerald; §§ 3 and 4, F. J. Kerr and D. L. Crawford; §5, P. O. Lindblad; §§ 6A and C, R. Wielen; §§ 6B and 7, J. Einasto; §§ 6D and E, K. C. Freeman, § 6F, M Fujimoto. The layout follows previous practice, except that a new Section 7 on the galactic environment has been added. A longer version of the Report will be published by the University of Maryland and will be distributed to all members of Commission 33 and to astronomical institutions.
Throughout this century we have become accustomed to regular improvement in mortality rates at most ages. For life office actuaries this trend could be regarded as a potential source of profit for assurance business, but as a possible source of loss for annuities. However, since the movements in mortality were gradual then mortality rates at any given time could be estimated with a fair degree of confidence.
In this relatively stable environment, there was little concern over the first report of a death caused by complete and unaccountable failure of the immune system in the United States of America in 1981. When the number of such deaths began to grow and to migrate to Europe than actuaries had to take notice. Here was a disease (called AIDS) which was causing deaths at an alarmingly increasing rate and which medical science seemed powerless to counter. Concern grew about the effect which a major increase in mortality rates caused by AIDS would have on the financial health of life offices.
In addition to the hundreds of known visual-wavelength Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), a number of DIBs in the near-infrared (NIR) are now also known to exist. We present here high-resolution UKIRT echelle spectroscopy of two of the NIR DIBs toward sightlines exhibiting a range of visual extinctions. Variations in the strengths and profile shapes of the bands are considered in the context of known properties of the narrow DIBs at visual wavelengths.
Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on consumers and potential barriers to its uptake. A sample of worldwide SS guidance schemes (n 87) were identified using targeted and untargeted searches, overall these were found to communicate various inconsistent and often conflicting messages about PS selection. The available data suggest that consumers have difficulty in understanding terms such as ‘portion size’ and ‘serving size’, as these tend to be used interchangeably. In addition, discrepancies between recommended SS and those present on food labels add to the confusion. Consumers generally understand and visualise SS best when expressed in terms of household measures rather than actual weights. Only a limited number of studies have examined the direct impact of SS guidance on consumer behaviour with equivocal results. Although consumers recognise that guidance on selecting SS would be helpful, they are often unwilling to act on such guidance. The challenge of achieving consumer adherence to SS guidance is formidable due to several barriers including chronic exposure to larger PS, distorted consumption norms and perceptions, the habit of ‘cleaning one's plate’ and language barriers for ethnic minorities. In conclusion, the impact of SS guidance on consumers merits further investigation to ensure that future guidance resonates with consumers by being more understandable, usable and acceptable.
We examined and described colonization of MRSA in the anterior nares and throat from 184 community-recruited injection drug users. Thirty-seven (20%) were positive for MRSA: most (34, 92%) were carriers in the nares; while only three (8%) were carriers detected by throat swabs alone. The majority (29, 78%) of MRSA isolates were PVL positive.
This paper presents a review of recent research conducted at the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL)/Materials Laboratory to develop iron-aluminides as elevated temperature structural materials. The research consisted of investigations on the microstructure, tensile behavior, deformation, and fracture mechanisms of the DO3 and B2 ironaluminides. Binary Fe-Al alloys with a wide range of Al contents, solidsolution ternary alloys and precipitation- and dispersion-strengthened two-phase alloys have been investigated. It is shown that iron-aluminides have a potential to be structural materials at least up to 650°C.
Detailed analyses of positron lifetimes in GaAs have shown that an omnipresent type of defect acts as a shallow positron trap. This trap modifies the experimentally determined bulk lifetime to higher values and also influences the trapping rate into deep traps such as vacancies. It is suggested that the shallow trap likely is associated with boron. An annealing stage around 450°C is found.
In the Nb-Si system, the terminal Nb5 Si3 phase and the Nb Si phase are virtually immiscible up to approximately 2033K. This system offers the potential of producing composites consisting of a ductile refractory metal phase and a strong intermetallic phase. In-situ composites containing different volume fractions of the ductile Nb phase were produced via vacuum arc-casting. Microhardness testing as well as smooth bend bar testing was conducted at temperatures ranging from 298K to 1673K in an attempt to determine microstructural effects on the yield strength and smooth bar fracture strength. Notched bend specimens were similarly tested to determine the effects of the ductile phase (i.e. Nb) on enhancing the notched bend toughness. It is shown that the Nb phase often behaves in a ductile manner during testing, thereby toughening the in-situ composite. The mechanism of toughening appears to be due to crack bridging.
Injection drug users (IDUs) have an elevated risk for carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cutaneous injection-related infections are common in IDUs but detailed studies are few. Based on a subsample of 218 individuals from a community-recruited cohort of IDUs at a supervised injection facility, we investigated the microbiology and related antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from 59 wounds. Twenty-seven percent of subjects had at least one wound and 25 (43%) were culture positive for S. aureus alone [14 MRSA and 11 (19%) methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates]. Sixteen of 18 MRSA isolates were classified as community associated (CA) by the presence of genes encoding for PVL. MRSA and MSSA occurred in mixed infection with other organisms on three and six occasions, respectively. All CA-MRSA isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, vancomycin and linezolid but only 13% were susceptible to clindamycin compared to 63% of MSSA isolates. The frequency of CA-MRSA is a cause for concern in wound infection in the IDU setting.
Faecal egg counts were examined in 2 flocks of naturally infected Scottish Blackface sheep in southern and central Scotland. The distribution of mean counts was right skewed and similar to a gamma distribution. The counts varied with month, with mean counts rising from May to July, then falling but rising again in October, although data within each year did not always show such a clear pattern. There was no significant difference in mean egg count between the 2 farms examined. The distribution of egg count variances was also right skewed and conformed to a gamma distribution. There was a strong relationship between the mean and the variance for each population, implying that variation among populations in variances largely mirrored variation in mean egg counts. Populations with high mean egg counts and variances did not necessarily have more adult nematodes but had a greater number of adult nematodes from species other than Teladorsagia circumcincta, particularly Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus. The contribution of different parasite species to the egg count explains the relatively poor and inconsistent fit of the negative binomial distribution to faecal egg counts in lambs.