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Pinoxaden is a POST acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor in the phenylpyrazolin chemical family and is labelled for turfgrass use at broadcast rates of 35.5 to 71 g ai ha−1 and spot spray rates of 156 to 310 g ai ha−1. A greenhouse rate-response study was conducted to characterize the efficacy of pinoxaden against common grassy weeds. Weed species examined in this study were yellow foxtail, southern sandbur, annual bluegrass, roughstalk bluegrass, large crabgrass, dallisgrass, bahiagrass, goosegrass, and perennial ryegrass. Nonlinear regressions were modelled to determine visible injury rates (the application rate at which 50% of the weed species were injured and the 90% [I90] rate) and weight reduction rates (the application rate at which there was a 50% reduction in fresh weight and 90% reduction [WR90]) for each weed species. Only annual bluegrass, bahiagrass, and goosegrass had visible injury I90 values greater than the maximum labelled spot spray rate of 310 g ai ha−1. Annual bluegrass, bahiagrass, southern sandbur, and goosegrass all had WR90 values greater than the maximum labelled spot spray rate of 310 g ai ha−1. Results from this study indicate that the evaluated weed species can be ranked, according to visible injury I90 values, from most to least susceptible: perennial ryegrass > yellow foxtail > dallisgrass > large crabgrass > southern sandbur > roughstalk bluegrass > bahiagrass > goosegrass > annual bluegrass.
A design rationale is a representation of the reasoning behind a design concept, explaining why the solution is designed the way it is. This makes design rationale a critical part of concept development. However, there is little exploration on how to build a design rationale. This study sheds light on professional designers’ reasoning in conceptual design, as we examine how design rationales for different concepts are built based on a longitudinal study in the context of two design studios. Particularly the study provides insight into how a design rationale is initiated, matured and finalized.
The plasma channel formation in the focus of a knife-like nanosecond laser pulse irradiating a gas target is studied theoretically, and in gas-dynamics computer simulations. The distribution of the electromagnetic field in the focus region, obtained analytically, is used to calculate the energy deposition in the plasma, which then is implemented in the magnetohydrodynamic computer code. The modelling of the channel evolution shows that the plasma profile, which can guide the laser pulse, is formed by the tightly focused short knife-like lasers. The results of the simulations show that a proper choice of the convergence angle of a knife-like laser beam (determined by the focal length of the last cylindrical lens), and laser pulse duration may provide a sufficient degree of azimuthal symmetry of the formed plasma channel.
This research communication describes the influence of diet, mammary quarter position and milking process on the temperature of teats and udder of cows fed diets containing different lipid sources. Five primiparous cows were fed diets containing cottonseed, sunflower seed, soybeans or soybean oil as a source of lipids and a reference diet without the inclusion of lipid sources in a 5 × 5 Latin Square design. Milk yield was determined in the last five days of each period. Milk samples were collected for SCC analysis on the last two days of each experimental period. The images of the mammary gland were obtained using an infrared camera and were analyzed with appropriate computer software. Milk yield was 14.8% higher for cows fed soybeans as a source of lipids. Diets and somatic cell counts did not influence the temperature of teats and udder. The milking process reduced the temperature of teats and udder by 0.79°C. Rear teats and rear quarters had higher surface temperatures than front teats and fore quarters. Changes in temperature of teats and mammary quarters occurred as a function of the milking process and quarter position. However, the diet and the SCC did not influence the temperature of teats and mammary quarters in this experiment.
Anxiety in elderly can be diagnosed based on a detailed history and cognitive examination using various instruments. These instruments aim to obtain information that supports both the syndromic and etiological diagnosis and the planning and execution of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures to be used in each case. During the nursing consultation with elderly people in the Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), many patients with cognitive impairment showed anxious behavior. The study objectives to describe the factors related to the nursing diagnose anxiety in elderly patients attended in the nursing consultation. The consultations are based in the application of the nursing process. After the symptoms analysis, the nursing diagnosis anxiety is complemented with the related factors. The principals are death threat (64%), stressors (19%) and not needs met (17%). The data found are associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment in the elderly can lead to anxiety, depression and hopelessness, according to many studies.
Working the cognitive needs, and reducing stressors are appropriate strategies to reduce the anxiety. The care with the health professionals is important to notice the related factors early and improve the strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In the context of untimely access to community formal services, unmet needs of persons with dementia (PwD) and their carers may compromise their quality of life.
The Actifcare EU-JPND project (www.actifcare.eu) focuses on access to and (non) utilization of dementia formal care in eight countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Italy, Portugal), as related to unmet needs and quality of life. Evaluations included systematic reviews, qualitative explorations, and a European cohort study (PwD in early/intermediate phases and their primary carers; n = 453 days; 1 year follow-up). Preliminary Portuguese results are presented here (FCT-JPND-HC/0001/2012).
(1) extensive systematic searches on access to/utilization of services; (2) focus groups of PwD, carers and health/social professionals; (3) prospective study (n = 66 days from e.g., primary care, hospital outpatient services, Alzheimer Portugal).
In Portugal, nationally representative data is scarce regarding health/social services utilization in dementia. There are important barriers to access to community services, according to users, carers and professionals, whose views not always coincide. The Portuguese cohort participants were 66 PwD (62.1% female, 77.3 ± 6.2 years, 55.5% Alzheimer's/mixed subtypes, MMSE 17.8 ± 4.8, CDR1 89.4%) and 66 carers (66.7% female, 64.9 ± 15.0 years, 56.1% spouses), with considerable unmet needs in some domains.
All Actifcare milestones are being reached. The consortium is now analyzing international differences in (un) timely access to services and its impact on quality of life and needs for care (e.g., formal community support is weaker in Portugal than in many European countries). National best-practice recommendations in dementia are also in preparation.
Abstract submitted on behalf of the Actifcare Eu-JPND consortium.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Southern crabgrass [Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler] is an annual grass weed that commonly infests turfgrass, roadsides, wastelands, and cropping systems throughout the southeastern United States. Two biotypes of D. ciliaris (R1 and R2) with known resistance to cyclohexanediones (DIMs) and aryloxyphenoxypropionates (FOPs) previously collected from sod production fields in Georgia were compared with a separate susceptible biotype (S) collected from Alabama for the responses to pinoxaden and to explore the possible mechanisms of resistance. Increasing rates of pinoxaden (0.1 to 23.5 kg ha−1) were evaluated for control of R1, R2, and S. The resistant biotypes, R1 and R2, were resistant to pinoxaden relative to S. The S biotype was completely controlled at rates of 11.8 and 23.5 kg ha−1, resulting in no aboveground biomass at 14 d after treatment. Pinoxaden rates at which tiller length and aboveground biomass would be reduced 50% (I50) and 90% (I90) for R1, R2, and S ranged from 7.2 to 13.2 kg ha−1, 6.9 to 8.6 kg ha−1, and 0.7 to 2.1 kg ha−1, respectively, for tiller length, and 7.7 to 10.2 kg ha−1, 7.2 to 7.9 kg ha−1, and 1.6 to 2.3 kg ha−1, respectively, for aboveground biomass. Prior selection pressure from DIM and FOP herbicides could result in the evolution of D. ciliaris cross-resistance to pinoxaden herbicides. Amplification of the carboxyl-transferase domain of the plastidic ACCase by standard PCR identified a point mutation resulting in an Ile-1781-Leu amino acid substitution only for the resistant biotype, R1. Further cloning of PCR product surrounding the 1781 region yielded two distinct ACCase gene sequences, Ile-1781 and Leu-1781. The amino acid substitution, Ile-1781-Leu in both resistant biotypes (R1 and R2), however, was revealed by next-generation sequencing of RNA using Illumina platform. A point mutation in the Ile-1781 codon leading to herbicide insensitivity in the ACCase enzyme has been previously reported in other grass species. Our research confirms that the Ile-1781-Leu substitution is present in pinoxaden-resistant D. ciliaris.
The rate of deforestation in the Amazon is increasing. Predictive models estimate that as a result of agricultural expansion 40% of these forests will be lost by 2050. As a consequence the habitat of forest-dwelling species such as the Endangered black-faced black spider monkey Ateles chamek is being lost, particularly along the arc of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We used species distribution modelling to (1) define the distribution of this spider monkey, using environmental predictors, (2) calculate the area of this distribution covered by the protected area network, and (3) calculate the expected loss of the species’ habitat under future scenarios of deforestation. We found that the species occupies only c. 28% of its extent of occurrence. Only 32% of the species’ area of occupancy is legally protected, and the modelling suggests that 31–40% of the species’ habitat will be lost by 2050. We highlight three unprotected regions with extensive forest cover that are predicted to become severely deforested by 2050 as priority regions for expanding the protected area network. We also propose landscape management and restoration in three human-modified regions. Our study provides an example of how species distribution modelling can be applied to assess threats to species and support decision makers in implementing conservation actions.
There have been few studies realized that evaluate the effects of adopting
different nutritional systems in more than one phase of cattle production on
carcass and meat characteristics. This study was realized to evaluate carcass
and meat characteristics from bulls submitted to different nutritional systems
during two production phases. The experiment was conducted at
Figueira’s farm during two production phases: I (cow–calf)
– 80 calves (99.6±2.72 days of age and
109.7±2.99 kg of BW) with their mothers were randomly assigned into
two supplemental diets: cow–calf mineral supplement
(n=40) or cow–calf creep-feeding
(n=40); II (stocker) – the same 80
calves (201.2±2.11 days of age and 190.2±3.37 kg of BW)
were redistributed into two production systems: stocker pasture
(n=40) or stocker feedlot (SF;
n=40). After, all 80 animals were kept on a pasture
system (III) for 290 days, and then finished in a feedlot system (IV) for more
33 days. Then, they were slaughtered at an average 764.2±3.06 days of
age and at 499.2±3.33 kg of final BW. After slaughter, the average
daily gain was calculated, and the carcass and meat characteristics were
measured. The statistical model design used was completely randomized in a
2×2 factorial arrangement (two treatment groups on
cow–calf phase and two treatment groups on stocker phase). The single
effects between the groups in each phase and the interactions between both
phases (cow–calf v. stocker) were analyzed. The
results were compared by Fisher’s test, using the R statistical
software. A cow–calf by stocker phases interaction occurred for
carcass conformation and fiber diameter. For single effects, the greatest
influences observed were in the stocker phase. The feedlot group was slaughtered
17 days earlier, with greater final BW (3.8%), hot carcass weight
(5.7%), average daily gain (6.9%), dressing percentage
(1.8%), carcass length (1.8%), carcass width
(1.5%), longissimus muscle area (4.8%)
and muscle depth (2.3%) than pasture group. The SF group also had
influence on fat color; showing higher L* and lower
b* values. These results reveal that bulls
reared in feedlot at the stocker phase have higher muscle development and that
the stocker phase has the greatest potential to influence carcass
characteristics and meat quality.
Phenotypic differentiation among fish populations may be used for management of distinct stocks and helps in conserving biodiversity. We compared morphometric and meristic characters of the anchovy Anchoa januaria from shallow semi-closed bays between the south-eastern (Tropical, 23°S) and southern (Subtropical, 25°S) Brazilian coast. We hypothesized that differences between habitats and environmental conditions result in morphological divergence between conspecific populations. Fish size did not differ significantly between the two areas. Significant differences in the meristic and morphological characters were detected for individuals between the two areas, with specimens from the Subtropical region having significant larger head height, pectoral fin length and eye diameter compared with those from the Tropical region. Conversely, specimens from the Tropical region had significantly larger maxillary length, mouth length and body height than those from the Subtropical region. The number of rays for the dorsal and pectoral fins were higher for the specimens from the Subtropical region, whereas for the anal fin was higher for individuals from the Tropical region. Different morphological groups between the two regions were depicted by principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, which suggest that morphological divergence is occurring. Local environmental influences and the lack of genetic interchange are likely to be the causes of such divergence. This is facilitated by the low tolerance of this species to marine waters that prevents connectivity between these stocks/populations.
This study evaluated the impact of maternal vaccination against rubella on the levels of specific rubella IgG (rIgG) in 198 newborn cord sera samples. Detailed maternal vaccination data were available. Specific rIgG was measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Most mothers (78.8%) had been vaccinated against rubella at least once in their lives. In 15 (7.6%) cord sera samples, the concentration of specific rIgG was below 11 IU/ml, which was classified as seronegative. Statistical analysis using multiple logistic regression (n = 198) showed that newborns of mothers born between 1986 and 1995, and those born to unvaccinated mothers, were more likely to be seronegative (odds ratio (ORs) 5.2 and 4.9, respectively, adjusted for sex and gestational age). For vaccinated mothers (n = 156), those born between 1986 and 1995 were more likely to have seronegative newborns (OR 11.5 adjusting for sex, gestational age and time since last vaccination). Mothers of the 15 (7.6%) seronegative newborns might have been susceptible to rubella during pregnancy. Checking the vaccination status therefore recommended.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
In Portugal, the recommended age for the second dose of MMR (MMR2) was changed from 10–13 years to 5–6 years for those born in 1994 and afterwards. This study aimed to assess if MMR schedule and time elapsed from the last dose are associated with the concentration of rubella and mumps IgG antibodies. Three Portuguese birth cohorts (convenience samples) were selected for this study (66, 59 and 41 participants born respectively in 1990–1993, 1994–1995 and 2001–2003). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for mumps IgG were respectively 36, 30 and 38 RU/ml (P = 0·236) and for rubella IgG were 18, 20 and 17 IU/ml (P = 0·641). For both specific antibodies, no differences were observed with time since MMR2. Receiving MMR2 at 5–6 or 10–13 years was not associated with concentration of both antibodies. The GMC of rubella IgG was lower in males (P = 0·029). Taking into account previous evidence and the logistics needed to change vaccination schedules, it seems reasonable that sustaining very high coverage with two doses of MMR is currently the most pragmatic way to control mumps and rubella rather than any changes to the schedule.
Episodes of depression and anxiety (D&A) during the transition from late adolescence to adulthood, particularly when persistent, are predictive of long-term disorders and associated public health burden. Understanding risk factors at this time is important to guide intervention. The current objective was to investigate the associations between maternal symptoms of D&A with offspring symptoms during their transition to adulthood.
Data from a large population-based birth cohort study, in South Brazil, were used. Prospective associations between maternal D&A and offspring risk of these symptoms during the transition to adulthood (18/19, 24 and 30 years) were estimated.
Maternal D&A in adolescence was associated with offspring symptoms across the transition to adulthood, associations were consistently stronger for females than for males. Daughters whose mothers reported D&A were 4.6 times (95% confidence interval 2.71–7.84) as likely to report D&A at all three time-points, than daughters of symptom-free mothers.
Maternal D&A is associated with persistent D&A during the daughter's transition to adulthood. Intervention strategies should consider the mother's mental health.
To report a case of successful bone-anchored hearing aid implantation in an adult patient with type III osteogenesis imperfecta, which is commonly regarded as a contraindication to this procedure.
A 45-year-old man with type III osteogenesis imperfecta presented with mixed hearing loss. There was a mild sensorineural component in both ears, with an air–bone gap between 45 and 50 dB HL. He was implanted with a bone-anchored hearing aid. The audiological outcome was good, with no complications and good implant stability (as measured by resonance frequency analysis).
To our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of bone-anchored hearing aid implantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.
This paper proposes an alternative environment mapping method for accurate robotic navigation based on 3D information. Typical techniques for 3D mapping using occupancy grid require intensive computational workloads in order to both build and store the map. This work introduces an Occupancy-Elevation Grid (OEG) mapping technique, which is a discrete mapping approach where each cell represents the occupancy probability, the height of the terrain and its variance. This representation allows a mobile robot to know with an accurate degree of certainty whether a place in the environment is occupied by an obstacle and the height of such obstacle. Thus, based on its hardware characteristics, it can make calculations to decide if it is possible to traverse that specific place. In general, the map representation introduced can be used in conjunction with any kind of distance sensor. In this work, we use laser range data and stereo system data with a probabilistic treatment. The resulting maps allow the execution of tasks as decision making for autonomous navigation, exploration, localization and path planning, considering the existence and the height of the obstacles. Experiments carried out with real data demonstrate that the proposed approach yields useful maps for autonomous navigation.
This paper deals with the stiffness analysis of multibody systems using the Matrix Structural Analysis—MSA. This methodology allows us to obtain the stiffness matrix of the structure from the stiffness properties of each element. First the MSA method is described and its application is detailed using an L-structure in order to make easy its understanding. Numerical and experimental results obtained for the L-structure and a 6-RSS parallel manipulator, follow to prove the validity of the methodology.
The ASTEP project aims at detecting and characterizing transiting planets from Dome C, Antarctica, and qualifying this site for photometry in the visible. The first phase of the project, ASTEP South, is a fixed 10 cm diameter instrument pointing continuously towards the celestial South Pole. Observations were made almost continuously during 4 winters, from 2008 to 2011. The point-to-point RMS of 1-day photometric lightcurves can be explained by a combination of expected statistical noises, dominated by the photon noise up to magnitude 14. This RMS is large, from 2.5 mmag at R = 8 to 6% at R = 14, because of the small size of ASTEP South and the short exposure time (30 s). Statistical noises should be considerably reduced using the large amount of collected data. A 9.9-day period eclipsing binary is detected, with a magnitude R = 9.85. The 2-season lightcurve folded in phase and binned into 1,000 points has a RMS of 1.09 mmag, for an expected photon noise of 0.29 mmag. The use of the 4 seasons of data with a better detrending algorithm should yield a sub-millimagnitude precision for this folded lightcurve. Radial velocity follow-up observations reveal a F-M binary system. The detection of this 9.9-day period system with a small instrument such as ASTEP South and the precision of the folded lightcurve show the quality of Dome C for continuous photometric observations, and its potential for the detection of planets with orbital periods longer than those usually detected from the ground.