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In 2005, the Medical Treatment and Supervision (MTS) Act was enacted in Japan to hospitalize the criminally insane and to promote a self-supporting lifestyle after deinstitutionalization. As of October 2010, 490 patients remain hospitalized in 23 highly secure forensic hospitals. Most patients are diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and exhibit symptoms of drug resistance. Battering is the most common criminal act they have committed.
The increased prevalence of the combination of criminal insanity with drug dependence is a common problem in other countries as well. It is a serious problem that diversity in prison medical care has not been achieved.
A characteristic feature of care for criminally insane patients in Japan is that they must live in a residential district where a public health center is located and close to forensic hospitals after deinstitutionalization. Although there may be concerns about social prejudice against psychiatric disorders, this limited area would help support rehabilitation of patients because medical staff can easily know the whereabouts, psychiatric condition and aspects, of daily life for each patient through frequent reports obtained from home-visiting nurses. As a result, patients who have been successfully deinstitutionalized lead a self-supporting lifestyle without treatment interruption or repetition of similar criminal acts.
In this presentation, we will show the current status of forensic care in Japan, analyze its characteristics and problems described above, and make suggestions for the treatment of the criminally insane in countries with a small national land area such as Japan.
In 2005, the Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (the MTS Act) was enacted in Japan to hospitalize the criminally insane and to promote a self-supporting lifestyle after deinstitutionalization. as of October 2011, about 500 patients remain hospitalized in highly secure forensic hospitals. the increased prevalence of the combination of criminal insanity with alcohol or volatile organic solvents dependence is a serious issue, as it may be an obstacle for treatment and rehabilitation after discharge because alcohol or the paint thinner can be easily purchased everywhere. On the other hand, as presented at EPA meeting in 2011, we established a strategy that can maintain patients in a well-adjusted condition in the community through comprehensive and supportive activities by a multidisciplinary team comprising staff members of the hospital, the public health center, and other local municipal officials. This strategy named as maintaining involvement is performed inside the hospital first and then in the community after discharge and, consequently, patients can live in the community without treatment interruption or repetition of similar criminal acts. Therefore, we used this strategy for the patients with drug dependence because they are often deteriorated by treatment interruption. the aim of this treatment is that patients can maintain the insight into drug dependence. as a result, patients who have been successfully de-institutionalized lead a self-supporting lifestyle without treatment interruption or symptoms of drug dependence. We believe that maintaining involvement is an effective method for the treatment of the criminally insane with drug dependence.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
To verify the effectiveness and safety of the addition of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy.
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis models were made by cutting the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in two pigs. At day 30, 0.5 ml adipose-derived regenerative cells mixed with 1 ml autologous fat was injected into the right vocal fold of one pig, with the other receiving 0.5 ml Ringer's solution mixed with 1 ml autologous fat. At day 120, fibrescopy, laser Doppler flowmeter, computed tomography, vocal function evaluation and histological assessment were conducted.
Although histological assessment revealed atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in both pigs, there was remarkable hypertrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in the area surrounding the adipose-derived regenerative cells injection site.
The addition of a high concentration of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy has the potential to improve the treatment outcome for unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
The CANGAROO project incorporates two Čerenkov imaging telescopes at Woomera to obtain stereo images of very high-energy gamma-ray (and cosmic-ray) showers. The first stereo observations, with one imaging system, were made in March 1992, and preliminary stereo imaging observations began in July 1992. This paper describes the stereo imaging technique, the sources under investigation, and the indications from the first data sets.
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor-joining analysis reported here describes the application and confirmation of a useful tool that can accelerate identification and bioassesment of chironomid communities.
In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) – mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1±4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5±5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6±27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4±7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1±26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization.
Cicatricial pemphigoid can affect all mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; however, hypopharyngeal involvement is less frequent.
This paper presents a 69-year-old male diagnosed as having cicatricial pemphigoid who was experiencing difficulty swallowing. Videofluorography with barium swallow demonstrated narrow flow through the medial hypopharynx, but not through the lateral hypopharynx. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that the postcricoid hypopharyngeal lumen had become narrow due to circumferential scar formation. Interestingly, detached thin membranous webs were observed beyond the circumferential scar.
This report describes important videofluorographic and direct laryngoscopic findings showing rare hypopharyngeal involvement in a case of cicatricial pemphigoid.
HoxEr1-xN (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75) samples were synthesized by nitriding of HoxEr1-x alloy bars and their thermal conductivity κ were measured. The measured κ values were comparable to those of stainless steel and Er3Ni. Ho0.5Er0.5N showed the highest κ of the present three samples. The thermal diffusivity calculated from the κ and the specific heat indicates that Ho0.5Er0.5N is a very promising regenerator material for the cryocoolers. The electrical resistivity ρ was also measured as a function of temperature.
II-VI compound semiconductor ZnO has a potential for high radiation hardness since large threshold displacement energy of constituent atoms can be expected due to the small unit-cell volume and large bandgap energy of 3.37 eV. In order to study the radiation hardness, singlecrystalline c-axis-oriented O-polar ZnO films with and without two-dimensional electron gas, a Zn-polar ZnO bulk crystal, and a Ga-polar GaN bulk crystal for comparison, were irradiated by an 8 MeV proton beam using a tandem-type accelerator. The radiation damage increased the electrical resistance and decreased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of these samples with the increase of proton fluence over specific threshold values. In agreement with the expectation, ZnO samples were revealed to have superior radiation hardness; the threshold fluences for the deterioration of PL intensity were 3×1013 p/cm2 for the GaN bulk crystal, 2×1014 p/cm2 for the ZnO bulk crystal, and 5×1014 p/cm2 for the two ZnO films, in accordance with the order of the threshold fluences for the electrical resistance increase. The effect of post-irradiation annealing was also studied for these damaged bulk crystals; both electrical and optical properties of the ZnO bulk crystal were almost recovered to the pre-irradiation values, however, only the electrical properties of the GaN bulk crystal were recovered, by the annealing up to 700°C. Such a rapid recovery of the ZnO bulk crystal indicates the easy annihilation of Zn vacancy complexes acting as non-radiative centers by the recombination with interstitial Zn atoms. Since the migration barrier height energy of interstitial Zn atoms is known to be so small that it might occur even at room temperature, we ascribed the superior radiation hardness of ZnO crystals to the restoration of damage-induced defects by a self-annealing effect during irradiation.
The paper deals with a specific aspect of a general survey, that is being carried out during last ten years in several regions of Serbia (former Yugoslavia, former Serbia and Montenegro) to assess population exposure to natural radioactivity based on geochemical and integrative pattern research approach. The originality regarding this work is related to the facts such as follows: the first identification and assessment of high areas of natural radiation in Serbia which provides insight into its regional characteristics, the interpretation of the results in terms of geological aspects, building types and human habits, the first introduction and field applicability of both (surface and volume trap) retro techniques in Serbia and assessment of doses and risks to the population in investigated high natural radiation rural communities.
In the trough silicon via (TSV) structure for 3-dimensional integration (3DI), large thermal-mechanical stress acts in the TSV caused by the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the TSV materials. In this study, the stress of multi-stacked thin silicon wafers composed of copper TSV and copper/low-k BEOL structure was analyzed by the finite element method (FEM), aiming to reduce the stress of TSV of 3D-IC. The results of sensitivity analysis using design of experiment (DOE) indicated that the thickness of the silicon and adhesive layer are the key factors for the structural integration of TSV design.
Four kinds of L12-type Ni3(Si,Ti) intermetallic alloys with a quaternary element X (X: Al, Cr, Co and Mo) were warm rolled accompanied by intermediate annealing and then cold rolled to thin foils. The effects of alloying element on microstructure, tensile properties and oxidation resistance of the cold-rolled Ni3(Si,Ti) foils were investigated. The Al-added Ni3(Si,Ti) alloy showed an L12 single-phase microstructure, while the Cr-, Co- and Mo-added Ni3(Si,Ti) alloys exhibited a two-phase microstructure consisting of L12 and fcc Ni solid solution phases. Room-temperature strength of the Ni3(Si,Ti) foils was slightly enhanced by the addition of quaternary element, whereas high-temperature strength was significantly enhanced especially by the addition of Mo and Co. High-temperature tensile elongation was remarkably improved by the addition of all the elements investigated. On the other hand, oxidation resistance was improved by the addition of Al and Cr.
Reaction phase diagram of pseudo four-components Li-Ni-Co-Ti oxides was established for finding new chemical composition and functional materials by the combinatorial high-throughput preparation system “M-ist Combi,” based on electrostatic spray deposition process and the combinatorial x-ray powder diffraction apparatus. The new layered-type compounds were found wider composition region than the previous reported composition region of LiNi0.8-yCo0.2TiyO2 (0≤y≤0.1). Furthermore, the new composition regions of single phase for spinel-type and rock salt-type compounds in pseudo four-components Li-Ni-Co-Ti oxides system were also found in a short time.
It is well-known that SiC crystal deficiencies are delaying the realization of outstandingly superior SiC power electronics. Efforts to date have centered on eradicating micropipes, and 4H-SiC substrates with extremely low micropipe densities have been achieved. Nevertheless, SiC substrates and epilayers still contain several types of dislocations in densities on the order of thousands per square centimetres, which are nearly 100-fold micropipe densities. While not nearly as detrimental to SiC device performance as micropipes, it has recently been demonstrated that dislocations existing in SiC crystals degrade several characteristics of SiC devices, e.g., the forward bias characteristics of SiC pin diodes and the gate oxide reliability of SiC MOSFETs.
This paper reports several dislocation processes occurring during the growth of hexagonal SiC bulk crystals. Particularly, we focus on the dislocation formation and propagation processes in SiC crystals. We have investigated dislocation processes in 4H-SiC bulk crystals grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method, using defect selective etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
It was found that foreign polytype inclusions introduced a high density of dislocations at the polytype boundary. In the polytype-transformed areas of the crystal, very few medium size hexagonal etch pits due to threading screw dislocations were observed, indicating that the polytype transformation ceased the propagation of threading screw dislocations. The oval-shaped etch pit arrays observed on the etched vicinal (0001)Si surface, indicative of the dislocation multiplication in the basal plane, showed characteristic distribution around micropipes and low angle grain boundaries. Based on the results, we will argue the dislocation behavior in PVT grown SiC crystals, suggesting that dislocation interaction and conversion are relevant processes to understanding the behavior.