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The prevalence of many diseases in pigs displays seasonal distributions. Despite growing concerns about the impacts of climate change, we do not yet have a good understanding of the role that weather factors play in explaining such seasonal patterns. In this study, national and county-level aggregated abattoir inspection data were assessed for England and Wales during 2010–2015. Seasonally-adjusted relationships were characterised between weekly ambient maximum temperature and the prevalence of both respiratory conditions and tail biting detected at slaughter. The prevalence of respiratory conditions showed cyclical annual patterns with peaks in the summer months and troughs in the winter months each year. However, there were no obvious associations with either high or low temperatures. The prevalence of tail biting generally increased as temperatures decreased, but associations were not supported by statistical evidence: across all counties there was a relative risk of 1.028 (95% CI 0.776–1.363) for every 1 °C fall in temperature. Whilst the seasonal patterns observed in this study are similar to those reported in previous studies, the lack of statistical evidence for an explicit association with ambient temperature may possibly be explained by the lack of information on date of disease onset. There is also the possibility that other time-varying factors not investigated here may be driving some of the seasonal patterns.
This paper presents a series of three patients who were identified as having partial thickness involvement of the laryngotracheal complex secondary to invasive, well-differentiated thyroid cancer. These patients were managed with full thickness window resection and reconstruction using a composite nasal septal graft.
A review of the Princess Alexandra Hospital database (comprising prospectively collated data) was undertaken to identify patients who had undergone full thickness tracheal resection and reconstruction using a composite nasal septal graft; demographic, operative technique and survival outcome data were collated.
Three patients had a composite nasal septal graft performed for reconstruction of full thickness laryngotracheal defects following the excision of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. There were no cases of local recurrence after a minimum of 18 months' follow up.
This paper describes our surgical technique for reconstruction of these defects using a composite nasal septal graft. It also presents data on our three cases to date, in which the technique has been used safely. A discussion of the surgical management of locally invasive, well-differentiated thyroid cancer is provided.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
The electronic properties of diamond, e.g. a high band-gap and high carrier mobilities, together with material properties such as a very high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness and a high radiation resistance makes diamond a unique material for many extreme electronic applications out of reach for silicon devices. This includes, e.g. microwave power devices, power devices and high temperature electronics. It is important to have an effective passivation of the surface of such devices since the passivation determines the ability of the device to withstand high surface electric fields. In addition, the passivation is used to control the surface charge which can strongly influence the electric field in the bulk of the device. It is possible to measure sample parameters such as electron and hole drift mobilities, charge carrier lifetimes or saturation velocities using Time-of-flight (ToF) method. The ToF technique has also been adapted for probing the electric field distribution and the distribution of trapped charge. In this paper we present new data from lateral ToF studies of high-purity single crystalline diamond with different surface passivations. Silicon oxide and silicon nitride are used as passivation layers in the current study. The effect of the passivation on charge transport is studied, and the results of different passivation materials are compared experimentally.
Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) with age, period and cohort as possible covariates are used to predict future mortality improvements for the Irish population. The GAMs considered are the 1-dimensional age + period and age + cohort models and the 2-dimensional age-period and age-cohort models. In each case thin plate regression splines are used as the smoothing functions. The generalized additive models are compared with the P-Spline (Currie et al., 2004) and Lee-Carter (Lee & Carter, 1992) models included in version 1.0 of the Continuous Mortality Investigation (CMI) library of mortality projections. Using the Root Mean Square Error to assess the accuracy of future predictions, the GAMs outperform the P-Spline and Lee-Carter models over intervals of 25 and 35 years in the age range 60 to 90. The GAMs allow intuitively simple models of mortality to be specified whilst also providing the flexibility to model complex relationships between the covariates. The majority of morality improvements derived from the projections of future Irish mortality yield annuity values at ages 60, 65, 70 and 80 in 2007 in the range of annuity values calculated, assuming a 2 to 4 percent annual compound improvement in mortality rates for both males and females.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of severe physical disability in childhood. Spastic hemiplegia, characterized by motor impairments largely affecting one side of the body, is the most common form of CP. The resulting impaired hand function is one of the most disabling symptoms of hemiplegia, affecting self-care activities such as feeding, dressing and grooming. Consequently, children with hemiplegic CP tend not to use the more affected extremity. This “developmental non-use” can lead to further deficits, most notably affecting bimanual coordination. To date, there is unfortunately little evidence of efficacy of any specific treatment approach. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence suggest the impairments are not static. Upper extremity performance in children with CP may improve with practice and development, indicating that hand function may well be amenable to treatment. In this chapter we review this evidence along with studies involving intensive unilateral practice; i.e. constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). We then discuss important limitations of CIMT (most importantly, bimanual impairments underlie functional limitations) and introduce a new form of intensive training to address these limitations: Hand–Arm Bimanual Intensive Training (HABIT). The clinical implications of these findings and future directions for pediatric rehabilitation research are discussed.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a development disorder of movement and posture causing limitations in activity and deficits in motor skill (Bax et al., 2005) and is attributed to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain.
Participants in Commission 29 study various aspects of stellar spectra and the information that can be extracted from spectra. The list of fields of interest of the Organizing Committee members suggest some major current research topics in this area are stellar chemical compositions and surface/envelope phenomena. Some of the topics of this commission have overlap with other commissions, such as Commission 14 (Atomic and Molecular Data), 26 (Double and Multiple Stars), 27 (Variable Stars), 30 (Radial Velocities), 36 (Theory of Stellar Atmospheres), and 37 (Star Clusters and Associations). Many Commission 29 members are also members of these other commissions.
In this work, we present the first successful fabrication of an etched grooved GaN-based permeable-base transistor structure. Growth of the device structures was done by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on thick HVPE GaN quasi-substrates. The fabrication process took advantage of isolations pads via He implantation and SiN deposition, as well as submicron ICP etching of collector fingers patterned via e-beam lithography. SEM of the finished devices shows smooth etched finger structures and base layer surface with finger sidewall angles of ∼85° for 1:1 and 1:3 finger spacing. Specific contact resistivities of ∼ 3 × 10-6 Ω•cm2 for the ohmic contacts were achieved with Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization scheme. Preliminary DC testing of the devices show a collector current IC = 140 mA/mm at VCE of 5V and VBE of +0.5V. The maximum transconductance gm is ∼111 mS/mm in the measured collector-emitter bias range. These values are comparable, within the measurement tolerance, to physics-based modeling results.
We investigated 563 German–English nouns for the purposes of identifying cognates, false cognates and non-cognates. Two techniques for identifying cognates were used and compared: (i) De Groot and Nas's (1991) similarity-rating technique and (ii) a translation-elicitation task similar to that of Kroll and Stewart (1994). The results obtained with English-speaking participants produced 112 cognates, 94 false cognates, and 357 non cognates and indicated that the two techniques yielded similar findings. Rated similarity of German–English translation pairs and translation accuracy were positively correlated. We also investigated whether the presence of German-specific characters and the availability of German pronunciation information influenced similarity ratings and translation accuracy. Ratings for translation pairs in which the German word contained a language-specific character were lower and the word was translated less accurately. Participants provided with pronunciation information rated German–English translation pairs as being more similar and translated German words correctly more often than participants who did not receive pronunciation information. We also report the relationships among word frequency, rated imageability and the performance measures. The resulting database of information is intended to be a resource for researchers interested in cognitive processing in German–English bilinguals.
Irish participation in the EU-supported DAta Food NEtworking (DAFNE) project required compliance with the overall aims and objectives. The Irish Household Budget Survey (HBS) expenditure data had to be transformed into a format compatible with the collaborative effort, by converting them into quantities of foodstuffs available per person per day.
The Irish 1987 HBS expenditure data on all commodities for 7705 households in the Republic of Ireland, collected using a 14-day diary kept by all members of the household aged 15 years and over.
Following identification of 188 food items in the HBS dataset, retail prices per unit weight were sought for each food. Adjustment of prices, collected from a number of different sources, was made to those of 1987 using the Consumer Price Index. Simple models were used to estimate household food availability through application of the adjusted retail prices per unit weight to the expenditure data. The household level data were converted to food availability per person per day. An internal validation of quantities estimated using the retail prices was made using the 12 foodstuffs for which the Irish HBS collects expenses and quantities.
The comparison of quantities published by the Irish Central Statistics Office for 12 foodstuffs in the Irish 1987 Household Budget Survey with the quantities estimated using equivalent expenditure data and corresponding retail prices showed agreement, with less than a 10% margin of error for 10 of the foods.
In spite some difficulty in converting HBS food expenditure data into food availability per person per day, the DAFNE approach is potentially useful for Irish nutrition surveillance purposes and for facilitating comparisons of the Irish HBS food data with those of other European countries.
Recasting the role of fruit and vegetables (F&V) in the diet, and planning national and international campaigns to enhance their consumption are major public health service objectives. The present study seeks to describe F&V availability patterns in ten European countries and examine compliance with current recommendations. The mean and median F&V availability (g/person per d) was estimated based on household budget survey data retrieved from the Data Food Networking (DAFNE) databank. Low F&V consumers were identified based on WHO international recommendations (minimum combined F&V intake of about 400 g/person per d) and current conservative guidelines of a minimum daily intake of three portions of vegetables and two portions of fruit. Considerable disparities in F&V availability were found among the surveyed European populations. Only in Mediterranean countries did the mean daily population intake clearly exceed combined F&V recommendations. Dietary patterns were positively skewed in all populations studied, on account of the presence of exceptionally high values among segments of the populations. Moreover, the correlation was unexpectedly weak between the proportion of low fruit and low vegetable consumers (Spearman's correlation coefficient +0·18). More than 50 % of the households in the surveyed populations are likely to consume less than the recommended daily vegetable intake of three portions, and this applies even to the two Mediterranean populations. The efficiency of F&V promoting strategies may be enhanced if F&V are addressed separately; furthermore, interventions that would specifically focus on vegetables are probably needed.
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