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We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) of increased intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) on fatty acid status and health outcomes in humans. We identified twenty-two articles from fourteen RCT. Most studies were conducted in adults. These used between 80 and 2000 mg ARA per d and were of 1–12 weeks duration. Supplementation with ARA doses as low as 80 mg/d increased the content of ARA in different blood fractions. Overall there seem to be few marked benefits for adults of increasing ARA intake from the typical usual intake of 100–200 mg/d to as much as 1000 mg/d; the few studies using higher doses (1500 or 2000 mg/d) also report little benefit. However, there may be an impact of ARA on cognitive and muscle function which could be particularly relevant in the ageing population. The studies reviewed here suggest no adverse effects in adults of increased ARA intake up to at least 1000–1500 mg/d on blood lipids, platelet aggregation and blood clotting, immune function, inflammation or urinary excretion of ARA metabolites. However, in many areas there are insufficient studies to make firm conclusions, and higher intakes of ARA are deserving of further study. Based on the RCT reviewed, there are not enough data to make any recommendations for specific health effects of ARA intake.
Six streams of dust were unexpectedly detected by the Ulysses dust detector while this spacecraft was approximately within one AU distance from Jupiter (Grün et al., 1993). Stream durations ranged from hours to days for individual streams. It was clear that the dust in these streams (or bursts), from their directionality of approach to the spacecraft and from the nearness of stream occurrences to Jupiter, emanated from the Jovian system.
Following the original report, Baguhl et al. (1994) later relaxed the criteria for differentiating true dust impacts from “noise pulses” and found almost triple the number of dust impacts in the six streams already found. They also found 5 more streams that, except for one stream, clearly emanated from the Jovian system. The criteria were relaxed in such a way as to not introduce “noise events” into the data.
People released from prison are at higher risk of mortality from potentially preventable causes than their peers in the general population. Because most studies of this phenomenon are reliant on registry data, there is little health and behavioural information available on those at risk, hampering the development of targeted, evidence-based preventive responses. Our aim was to identify modifiable risk and protective factors for external cause and cause-specific mortality after release from prison.
We undertook a nested case–control study using data from a larger retrospective cohort study of mortality after release from prison in Queensland, Australia between 1994 and 2007. Cases were 286 individuals who had died from external causes (drug overdose, suicide, transport accidents, or violence) matched with 286 controls on sex, Indigenous status, and release date. We extracted data from detention, case-management, and prison medical records.
Factors associated with increased risk of external cause mortality included use of heroin and other opioids in the community [odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% CI 1.41–3.43, p < 0.001], a prescription for antidepressants during the current prison sentence (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02–3.67, p = 0.042), a history of problematic alcohol use in the community (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05–2.26, p = 0.028), and having ever served two or more custodial sentences (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01–2.25, p = 0.045). Being married (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.29–0.70, p < 0.001) was protective. Fewer predictors were associated with cause-specific mortality.
We identified several behavioural, psychosocial, and clinical markers associated with mortality from preventable causes in people released from prison. Emerging evidence points to interventions that could be targeted at those at increased risk of external cause mortality. These include treatment and harm reduction programmes (for substance use), improving transitional support programmes and continuity of care (for mental health), diversion and drug reform (for repeat incarceration) and nurturing stable relationships during incarceration. The period of imprisonment and shortly after release provides a unique opportunity to improve the long-term health of ex-prisoners and overcome the disadvantage associated with imprisonment.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
This article investigates the difficulties in transplanting global legal norms into developing countries, specifically the problem of ‘false friends.’ This is a linguistics concept describing the situation where there is a striking resemblance between two words in two different languages, leading speakers of each language to assume, incorrectly, that they understand the word's meaning in the other language. Even more problematically, the misunderstanding is hidden by the assumption of understanding. We argue that similar problems can occur when there is a superficial similarity (but a fundamental mismatch) between particular global and local norms. We illustrate this through the example of global intellectual property regimes and their reception in Vanuatu and Mexico, showing how reforms are sometimes welcomed into developing countries on the basis of false assumptions that their aims are congruent with existing understandings. Finally, the paper develops some policy implications for avoiding the ‘false friends’ problem in a transnational legal context.
Bi-functional oxygen electrodes are an enabling component for rechargeable metal-air batteries and regenerative fuel cells, both of which are regarded as the next-generation energy devices with zero emission. Nonetheless, at the present, no single metal oxide component can catalyze both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) with high performance which leads to large overpotential between ORR and OER. This work strives to address this limitation by studying the bi-functional electrocatalytic activity of the composite of a good ORR catalyst compound (e.g. palladium oxide, PdO) and a good OER catalyst compound (e.g. ruthenium oxide, RuO2) in alkaline solution (0.1M KOH) utilizing a thin-film rotating disk electrode technique. The studied compositions include PdO, RuO2, PdO/RuO2 (25wt.%/75wt.%), PdO/RuO2 (50wt.%/50wt.%) and PdO/RuO2 (75wt.%/25wt.%). The lowest overpotential (e.g. E (2 mA cm−2) - E (-2 mA cm−2)) of 0.82 V is obtained for PdO/RuO2 (25wt.%/75wt.%) (versus Ag|AgCl (3M NaCl) reference electrode).
There is increasing epidemiological evidence linking sub-optimal vitamin D status with overweight and obesity. Although increasing BMI and adiposity have also been negatively associated with the change in vitamin D status following supplementation, results have been equivocal. The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures of adiposity and the wintertime serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) response to 15 μg cholecalciferol per d in healthy young and older Irish adults. A total of 110 young adults (20–40 years) and 102 older adults ( ≥ 64 years) completed the 22-week intervention with >85 % compliance. The change in 25(OH)D from baseline was calculated. Anthropometric measures of adiposity taken at baseline included height, weight and waist circumference (WC), along with skinfold thickness measurements to estimate fat mass (FM). FM was subsequently expressed as FM (kg), FM (%), FM index (FMI (FM kg/height m2)) and as a percentage ratio to fat-free mass (FFM). In older adults, vitamin D status was inversely associated with BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm), FM (kg and %), FMI (kg/m2) and FM:FFM (%) at baseline (r − 0·33, − 0·36, − 0·33, − 0·30, − 0·33 and − 0·27, respectively, all P values < 0·01). BMI in older adults was also negatively associated with the change in 25(OH)D following supplementation (β − 1·27, CI − 2·37, − 0·16, P = 0·026); however, no such associations were apparent in younger adults. Results suggest that adiposity may need to be taken into account when determining an adequate wintertime dietary vitamin D intake for healthy older adults residing at higher latitudes.
The demonstration of photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) in nanostructures of Si or Ge, such as those found in porous silicon, has significantly improved the prospects of all Si based photonic devices. While the physical mechanisms at work are still a subject of much study, it is clear that the luminescence is associated with the formation of nanometer or “quantum” sized particles. Further, it is clear that prototype NanoCrystal Displays (NCDs) and communication devices are being fabricated in these material systems. We report here on the electroluminescent properties of nanometer sized particles in an SiO2 host matrix, which were fabricated by LPCVD techniques. The films have demonstrated reproducible emission from well below 400 nm to well above 800 nm. We believe that dispersion effects of the nanocrystals can account for "white" light emission. The films have been characterized using PL, Raman, XRD, TEM, and SIMS. The nanocrystals are primarily in the 2-7 nm range although larger crystal clusters are also observed. The development of stable and efficient Si or Ge nanocrystalline EL based devices could find applications in lamps/LEDs, photonic integrated circuits, and displays.
A systematic study of the PL spectra of Si quantum nanocrystals in the SiO2 matrix has been performed. The results have been fitted to a quantum-confinement model that includes the nanocrystal size dispersion rather than a specific size of the nanocrystal. This serves as a strong confirmation of the confinement-induced nature of the PL. It has been shown that if the dispersion is taken into account, the position of the emission peak as well as the PL width can always be correlated with the average size of the nanocrystal.
Molecular dynamics simulations performed on highly concentrated Coulomb/solvent systems are used to help interpret the transport mechanism in polymer ionics. Using simple Coulomb and Lennard-Jones forces among the ions and a solvent model of a fixed dipole contained in a spherical solvent particle, we investigated the nature of ion pair formation and stability. For a model NaI system, we find that ion pairs decrease with increase in solvent dipole moment or temperature. The latter observation is at variance with experimental results on polymer electrolytes, probably because of entropy terms that do not occur with our simple solvent molecule.
The addition of I2 to PPO/MI and MEEP/MI complexes, where M - Na or Li, PPO - poly(propylene oxide), MEEP - methoxyethoxyethoxy phosphazene results in ohmic conductivity. Even in the absence of the metal iodide salt, high conductivities are observed in the polymer/I2 complexes. The presence of polyiodides in all cases is indicated by a Raman band at 170 cm.-1 The width of this peak is found to depend on the concentration of iodine and correlates with increasing conductivity at higher I2 concentrations. An additional feature of the polyiodide complexes is the apparent lack of dependence of conductivity on polymer flexibility as indicated by Tg. In most polymer electrolytes, the conductivity depends upon the glass transition, Tg, with conductivity dropping rapidly at T < Tg. By contrast, the polyiodides show only a small inflection in the conductivity around Tg and substantial conductivity below that temperature. Apparently charge transport dynamics are only weakly coupled to the dynamics of the host polymer. Variable temperature Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the low temperature behavior of polyiodides in PPO/MIn systems.
A series of elastomeric (urethane crosslinked) polyether electrolytes have been prepared in order to investigate the influence on conductivity of crosslink density, length of uninterrupted polyether chain, number of side chains and plasticizer content. Crosslink density was found to only weakly influence conductivity, but had the expected major effect on elastic modulus. Increases in uninterrupted polyether chain length were also found to enhance conductivity. The number of side chains (acting as an internal plasticizer) was not found to have a marked effect on conductivity within the range studied. The highest room temperature conductivity observed in these non-plasticized elastomers was 3 × 10-5 Ω-1 cm-1. Addition of a low molecular weight plasticizer such as tetraglyme was found to markedly increase the conductivity and lower Tg. The highest room temperature conductivity observed in 50% plasticized elastomeric materials was 10-3 Ω-1cm-1.
The release and migration of the fission products cesium, europium and technetium, the actinides plutonium, americium and curium, and the activation product cobalt from spent nuclear fuel pellets in highly compacted bentonite clay has been measured after contact times of 101 and 386 days. Experiments at longer contact times are in progress. In some cases small amounts (0.5–1%) of powdered copper or iron metal, or vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2) have been mixed with the bentonite clay.
The results indicate as expected a high mobility of cesium. The actinides have a very low mobility. After 386 days, plutonium has diffused less than 0.5 mm away from the fuel, while americium and curium appear to be somewhat more mobile. The behaviour of europium is similar to that of trivalent actinides. Very little technetium has been leached from all samples. Cobalt shows a strong retention in pure bentonite as well as in the presence of vivianite, while the mobility is much larger when iron or copper is added.
The effect of plasticizer addition on the density, conductivity, glass transition, and free volume behavior of salt containing polyether-urethanes has been examined. The addition of up to 1.5 molal LiC1O4 salt results in an effective crosslinking of the polyether-urethane chains due to the Li+ coordination with the oxygens of the host polymer. This crosslinking decreases inter- and intrachain separation and reduces polymer chain mobility as illustrated by increased density and Tg, decreased free volume, and, at salt concentrations greater than 0.6 molal, decreased conductivity. The addition of approximately 30 wt % tetraglyme plasticizer to the 1 molal LiC1O4/host polymer complex is shown to counter the effective crosslinking resulting in a decreased Tg to a value equal to that of the pure host polymer, increased conductivity, and increased average free volume cavity size to a value equal to that of the pure host polymer. However, the relative number of free volume cavities in the plasticized host polymer/salt complex remains fewer than that of the pure host polymer over the concentration range of plasticizer studied, and in a similar manner the density remains greater than that of the pure host polymer. The room temperature conductivity, free volume, and density behavior in conjunction with the Tg results suggest that the plasticizer addition leads to Li+ coordination with the oxygens of the plasticizer chains as well as increased mobility of the host polymer chains.
Several metallic glasses in the form of ribbons were screened for activity as hydrogenation catalysts. Pd80Si20 and (Ni50Fe50)80B20 showed activity in reducing cyclohexene. Pd 80 Si20 was further examined for differences between the glassy and crystalline phases in the selectivity shown during hydrogenation reactions of n-hexenes, phenylethyne, α-pinene, and cyclododecene. No significant differences were found for catalytic selectivity in regard to cis-trans isomerization, double bond migration, and stereochemistry of addition under the reaction conditions used. Minor differences were observed in hydrogen-deuterium exchange.
Zn2SiO4:Mn thin films were deposited and studied as thin film phosphors for flat panel cathodoluminescent displays. Crystallized films with improved electrical conductivity were obtained after conventional and rapid thermal annealings in a N2 environment at 850Xy11100 °C for 0.25 to 60 minutes. A maximum cathodoluminescent efficiency of 1.3 Lm/W was achieved under dc excitation at 1500 volts. The luminescent emission from these thin films was peaked around 525 nm. The decay time of these films was controlled in the range of 2 to 10 ms by varying the deposition and annealing parameters. The fast response time of these thin films overcomes the long decay limitation of the Zn2SiO4:Mn powder phosphor in practical display applications.