To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We tested 9 disinfectants against Candida auris using the quantitative disk carrier method EPA-MB-35-00: 5 products with hydrogen peroxide or alcohol-based chemistries were effective and 4 quaternary ammonium compound-based products were not. This work supported a FIFRA Section 18 emergency exemption granted by the US Environmental Protection Agency to expand disinfectant guidance for C. auris.
Veterinarians often give advice in a persuasive form, a style that has been shown to evoke resistance to change in clients experiencing psychological ambivalence (i.e. those who see both advantages and disadvantages to changing). With this style of communication, veterinarians run the risk of counteracting their purpose to encourage clients to follow recommendations. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered communication methodology that aims to facilitate clients’ internal motivation to change. In MI, Change Talk represents clients’ own statements expressing consideration of, motivation for or commitment to behavior change and has been shown to be strongly correlated with behavior change. Sustain Talk is corresponding statements related to maintaining the status quo. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the potential of MI to facilitate behavior change in veterinary herd health management (VHHM) by investigating the effect of dairy cattle veterinarians’ MI skills on client Change and Sustain Talk. We recorded VHHM consultancies on 170 Swedish cattle farms performed by 36 veterinarians, randomly distributed into 2 groups: MI veterinarians (n = 18) had received 6-month training in MI and control veterinarians (n = 18) had not received any training. Veterinarians’ MI skills were assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system 4.2.1 and categorized as poor_untrained, poor_trained, near moderate and moderate. Client communication was coded using the Client Language Easy Rating coding system. The effect of MI skills on Change Talk, Sustain Talk and Proportion of Change Talk(Change Talk divided by the sum of Sustain Talk plus Change Talk) was investigated using cross-classified regression models with random intercepts for veterinarian and client (farm). The models also included additional explanatory variables (e.g. type of veterinarian and client’s satisfaction with the consultation). The veterinarian’s MI skills were associated with the client’s Change Talk, but results regarding Sustain Talk or Proportion of Change Talk were inconclusive. Clients of veterinarians reaching the highest (i.e. moderate) MI skills expressed 1.5 times more Change Talk than clients of untrained veterinarians. Clients of general large animal practitioners expressed less Sustain Talk than clients of animal health veterinarians and had higher Proportion of Change Talk. Results indicate that learning to practice MI may be one means to improve adherence to veterinary recommendations and to improve efficiency in VHHM services.
Cognitive disturbances are common and disabling features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies provide limited insight into the co-occurrence of hot (emotion-dependent) and cold (emotion-independent) cognitive disturbances in MDD. Therefore, we here map both hot and cold cognition in depressed patients compared to healthy individuals.
We collected neuropsychological data from 92 antidepressant-free MDD patients and 103 healthy controls. All participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery assessing hot cognition including emotion processing, affective verbal memory and social cognition as well as cold cognition including verbal and working memory and reaction time.
The depressed patients showed small to moderate negative affective biases on emotion processing outcomes, moderate increases in ratings of guilt and shame and moderate deficits in verbal and working memory as well as moderately slowed reaction time compared to healthy controls. We observed no correlations between individual cognitive tasks and depression severity in the depressed patients. Lastly, an exploratory cluster analysis suggested the presence of three cognitive profiles in MDD: one characterised predominantly by disturbed hot cognitive functions, one characterised predominantly by disturbed cold cognitive functions and one characterised by global impairment across all cognitive domains. Notably, the three cognitive profiles differed in depression severity.
We identified a pattern of small to moderate disturbances in both hot and cold cognition in MDD. While none of the individual cognitive outcomes mapped onto depression severity, cognitive profile clusters did. Overall cognition-based stratification tools may be useful in precision medicine approaches to MDD.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Most of the cases appear to be caused by the combination of autism risk genes and environmental factors affecting early embryonal brain development. The current animal and 2D cellular models are not able to recapitulate the complex integrity of the developing brain. Therefore a model of the brain that can cast a light on the pathological processes during brain development is of a high need.
Aim and objectives
The aim of our research is to develop a three-dimensional brain organotypic system (brain organoids) for culturing patient's derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC).
We propose a multidisciplinary approach, involving the generation of patient specific iPSC from somatic cells (fibroblasts) and 3D culturing techniques to build a complex “humanized” in vitro platform for ASD research. Further we will investigate differences in gene expression of potential disease related markers and cellular phenotype between autistic patients and controls.
Brain organoids have the ability to recreate the right complexity of the brain. On the cellular and gene expression level, organoids demonstrate a high similarity to the neurodevelopment in vivo and can therefore recapitulate early stages of the neurogenesis.
To date organoids are the most relevant cellular in vitro platform for the understanding the mechanisms behind ADS pathology. Organoids are a good modeling system for elucidating the role of epigenetic and environmental factors for development of ASD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In 1898–1899, the first American polar expedition to Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa [Franz Josef Land], under the leadership of journalist Walter Wellman, added at least forty place names to the islands, of which many survive on modern charts. These include the main discovery of the expedition, the large island named for Scottish-born Alexander Graham Bell, then president of the National Geographic Society, along with numerous smaller islands, capes and waterways. The origins of several of these names are now confirmed using recently discovered notes in the papers of Wellman's brother and business manager, Arthur Wellman. They demonstrate the close relationship between Walter Wellman and the political, financial and scientific elites of turn-of-the-century Chicago, Illinois, Washington, D.C., and the state of Ohio, associations derived from Wellman's profession as a Washington correspondent for Chicago newspapers.
Self-report questionnaires are frequently used in clinical and epidemiologic studies to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A number of studies have evaluated these scales relative to clinician administered structured interviews; however, there has been no formal evaluation of their performance relative to non-clinician administered epidemiologic assessments such as the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We examined the diagnostic performance of two self-report PTSD scales, the PTSD checklist (PCL) and the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VET-R) PTSD scale, compared to the CIDI.
Data were derived from a large epidemiologic follow-up study of PTSD in 5141 Vietnam Era Veterans. Measures included the PCL, VET-R PTSD scale and CIDI. For both the PCL and VET-R PTSD scale, ROC curves, areas under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, % correctly classified, likelihood ratios, predictive values and quality estimates were generated based on the CIDI PTSD diagnosis.
For the PCL and VET-R PTSD scale the AUCs were 89.0 and 87.7%, respectively. Optimal PCL cutpoints varied from the 31–33 range (when considering sensitivity and specificity) to the 36–56 range (when considering quality estimates). Similar variations were found for the VET-R PTSD, ranging from 31 (when considering sensitivity and specificity) to the 37–42 range (when considering quality estimates).
The PCL and VET-R PTSD scale performed similarly using a CIDI PTSD diagnosis as the criterion. There was a range of acceptable cutpoints, depending on the metric used, but most metrics suggested a lower PCL cutpoint than in previous studies in Veteran populations.
Here we present the installation and successful commissioning of an L'-band Annular Groove Phase Mask (AGPM) coronagraph on VLT/NACO. The AGPM is a vector vortex coronagraph made from diamond subwavelength gratings tuned to the L' band. The vector vortex coronagraph enables high contrast imaging at very small inner working angle (here 0″.09, the diffraction limit of the VLT at L'), potentially being the key to a new parameter space. During technical and science verification runs, we discovered a late-type companion at two beamwidths from an F0V star (Mawet et al. 2013), and imaged the inner regions of β Pictoris down to the previously unexplored projected radius of 1.75 AU. The circumstellar disk was also resolved from ≃ 1″ to 5″ (see J. Milli et al., these proceedings). These results showcase the potential of the NACO L-band AGPM over a wide range of spatial scales.
Now celebrating its 26th year of existence, the Vietnam Era Twin Registry continues to be one of the largest national samples of adult twins in the United States. The Registry twin member population is composed of 7,369 US male–male twin pair Veterans (14,738 total individuals) who served on active duty in the military during the Vietnam conflict (1964–1975). The Registry also maintains a register, data repository, and a biospecimen repository. Details on the operations of the Registry are described, as well as an overview of specific studies. Registry maintenance activities are also described, including the updating of contact information and vital status. Future plans include expanding the biospecimen repository and obtaining input from twins about study methods and diseases and conditions they would like to see investigated.
The nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic, electrostatic and gravitational waves in a Vlasov plasma is reconsidered. By using a orthonormal tetrad description the three-wave coupling coefficients are computed. Comparing with previous results, it is found that the present theory leads to algebraic expression that are much reduced, as compared to those computed using a coordinate frame formalism. Furthermore, here we calculate the back reaction on the gravitational waves, and a simple energy conservation law is deduced in the limit of a cold plasma.
A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial egg producing flocks. Environmental (faecal and eggbelt) samples from 152 of 295 (52·9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Thirty-five different salmonella serovars were isolated. Eggbelt samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than faecal samples (25·7 v. 10·1 %). The most prevalent serovars were S. heidelberg, S. infantis, S. hadar, and S. schwarzengrund; they were isolated from samples of 59/295 (20%), 18/295 (6·1%), 17/295 (5·8%), and 15/295 (5·1%) flocks, respectively. Feed samples of 21/295 (7·2%) flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the environmental samples of 8/295 (2·7%) flocks. Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 8 was isolated from 5 flocks, PT 13a from 2 flocks, and PT 13 from 1 flock.
It has been postulated that undernourishment could affect embryo survival through changes in the uterine environment (Abecia et al., 1995). Moreover, we have shown that undernourished ewes had higher plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and a lower endometrial content of P4 (Lozano et al., 1998), suggesting that this lower endometrial content could be due to a decrease in the content of endometrial progesterone receptors (PR). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low and high levels of food intake on PR in different endometrial cell types.
In this investigation we tested the hypothesis that static body condition (BC) of the ewe affects oestradiol and FSH with implications for subsequent follicular growth and turn-over. Sixteen Polwarth ewes were selected from a flock according to their BC score (scale: 1 emaciated; 5 obese). High BC (HBC) ewes (no. = 8) had a BC score of 4·1 (s.e. 0·1) and low BC (LBC) ewes (no. = 8) had a BC score of 1·9 (s.e. 0·1). Daily ultrasound examinations were performed and blood samples for progesterone, oestradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) determination were collected. All HBC ewes (8/8) exhibited three waves of follicular development, while four LBC ewes (4/8) had two waves and the other four (4/8) had three waves of follicular development (P ≤ 0·05) during the interovulatory period. Overall, the emergences of 33 out of 44 follicular waves were preceded by significant increases in FSH concentrations. Maximum FSH concentrations were detected 0·9 ± 0·2 days before wave emergence. Oestradiol concentrations increased significantly during the growing phase in 38 out of 44 large follicles. A negative correlation between oestradiol and FSH was observed in HBC ewes. A similar inhibitory effect of oestradiol on FSH was observed in LBC ewes, irrespective of whether they developed two or three follicular waves. However, a longer period with high FSH was needed to promote the emergence of the second follicular wave in two-wave LBC ewes. Four HBC ewes had twin ovulations but no LBC ewes did (P ≤ 0·05). In HBC ewes, the follicular phase was characterized by lower oestradiol (6·5 (s.e. 1·0) pmol/l) but higher mean FSH concentrations (2·4 (s.e.0·4) μg/l) than in LBC ewes (8·9 (s.e. 1·2) pmol/l and 2·0 (s.e. 0·3) μg/l, respectively; P ≤ 0·05). The present results suggest that BC influences the pattern of follicular dynamics through changes in the endocrine milieu. Higher FSH concentrations during the follicular phase in HBC ewes, which allowed an extended period of follicular recruitment from a significantly larger pool of small antral follicles could explain the higher ovulation rate observed in this group.
The mink is a seasonal breeder with a propensity for seasonal fatness, and it is very responsive to changes in energy supply. The objectives of the present study were first, to validate a multi-species leptin assay for mink (Mustela vison) plasma, and second, to evaluate how plasma leptin and insulin concentrations responded to energy restriction and body-weight loss and refeeding with restoration of body reserves. The study was performed with six very fat yearling females (initial mean body weight 1451 (SD 119) g, i.e. approximately 300 g more than for a female in normal body condition). The animals were fed in restricted amounts (about 35 % metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance) in order to reach a very lean body condition. The target weight of 800 g was reached after about 1 month of restriction. The animals were then refed ad libitum until almost complete weight recovery. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 24, 34 (end of restriction), 44, 55 and 71 (end of experiment) and analysed for plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin. Three females were mated on day 44. Leptin and insulin concentrations mirrored each other and clearly reflected changes in body weight. Significant (P<0·001) Pearson correlation coefficients of 0·75 (leptin–insulin), 0·72 (leptin–body weight) and 0·59 (insulin–body weight) were found. Two of the three females that were mated gave birth to normal litters. It was concluded that the leptin assay yielded acceptable results for animals with body weight:fat content within the range investigated here, and that plasma leptin reflected body fat mass.
Metal semiconductor field effect transistor, MESFET, structures have been grown in a hot-wall CVD reactor. Using trimethylaluminium and nitrogen as dopant sources, p- and n-type epitaxial layers were grown on semi insulating substrates. A comprehensive characterization study of thickness and doping of these structures has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, capacitance-voltage measurements. Each technique is discussed concerning its advantage and disadvantage. Some transistor properties of MESFETs processed on the grown material are presented.
The thermodynamic properties of the Fe-Mn-Si system are analyzed by means of thermodynamic models for the individual phases. Special attention is paid to γ → ε martensitic transition. A complete set of parameters, from which arbitrary sections of the phase diagram as well as the Ma and As temperatures may be calculated, has been obtained.
By means of capillary gas chromatography (GC) and capillary gas chromatography'mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty alcohols and 3ß-sterols were identified in saponified lipid extracts of the green alga, Dunaliella primolecta, the copepod, Calanus helgolandicus, and faecal pellets released by the animal when fed in the laboratory on the algal diet. Comparison of the lipid data for faecal pellets with those for the plant showed that marked changes to dietary lipids occur during passage through the gut of the copepod: (1) 17:2, 17:1, and 17:0 hydrocarbons are completely eliminated; (2) polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 16:4 and 18:3) are significantly reduced relative to total fatty acids; (3) evidence of the conversion of phytol to dihydrophytol is observed; (4) C28 and C29 sterols with Δ and Δ nuclear unsaturation are selectively removed from the diet relative to Δ components. The Δ sterols are released unchanged as faecal lipids. Cholest-5-enol, absent from the original diet, is also released in the faecal pellets. These observations illuminate the fate of specific dietary lipids in Calanus and the contribution copepod faecal pellets can make to the overall lipid composition of bottom sediment in many marine environments.
A cytochrome P-450-dependent benzo[a]pyrene mono-oxygenase enzyme system (BPM) has been identified and partially characterized in males of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.). Apparent Km values obtained at 30 °C using microsomal preparations from the antennary glands of animals collected during summer were in the range 1.61–2.11 µM. The cytochrome P-450 content was 0·022 nmol/mg microsomal protein when BPM activity in the same preparation was 0·085 nmol/mg protein/min.
The abundance of calanoid copepods in marine plankton and their importance as food for certain fishes has prompted numerous studies of their biology, including several concerned with fecundity (Marshall & Orr, 1952; Mullin & Brooks, 1967; Paffenhöfer, 1970). These studies, however, have all involved animals maintained on various diets in the laboratory: data for egg-production by Calanus under natural conditions in the sea are still needed.
To ensure the survival of the young of many animal species to the stage of independent feeding, biochemical energy in the form of lipid is stored within the egg. During a recent survey of Calanus helgolandicus (Claus) from the English Channel the level of lipid, mainly in the form of wax esters, in Stage V copepodids was found to be substantially greater than that in female adult stages (Gatten et al. 1979). The difference was particularly noticeable during spring periods when egg-laying was in progress. This observation indicates a major role for wax esters during the reproduction of Calanus.
The present study seeks to establish the fate of the lipid reserves in Stage V and female adult Calanus with particular emphasis on the extent to which the size of such reserves can be used as an index of the fecundity of this copepod.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.