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Despite the frequency that refugees suffer bereavement, there is a dearth of research into the prevalence and predictors of problematic grief reactions in refugees. To address this gap, this study reports a nationally representative population-based study of refugees to determine the prevalence of probable prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its associated problems.
This study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA) prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to Australia between October 2013 and February 2014. The current data were collected in 2015–2016, and comprised 1767 adults, as well as 411 children of the adult respondents. Adult refugees were assessed for trauma history, post-migration difficulties, probable PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mental illness. Children were administered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
In this cohort, 38.1% of refugees reported bereavement, of whom 15.8% reported probable PGD; this represents 6.0% of the entire cohort. Probable PGD was associated with a greater likelihood of mental illness, probable PTSD, severe mental illness, currently unemployed and reported disability. Children of refugees with probable PGD reported more psychological difficulties than those whose parents did not have probable PGD. Probable PGD was also associated with the history of imprisonment, torture and separation from family. Only 56.3% of refugees with probable PGD had received psychological assistance.
Bereavement and probable PGD appear highly prevalent in refugees, and PGD seems to be associated with disability in the refugees and psychological problems in their children. The low rate of access to mental health assistance for these refugees highlights that there is a need to address this issue in refugee populations.
Detailed representation of ingesta inflow to and digesta outflow from the rumen is critical for improving the modelling of rumen function and herbage intake of grazing ruminants. The objective of the current work was to extend a mechanistic model of a grazing ruminant, MINDY, to simulate the dynamic links between ingestive and digestive processes as affected by forage and sward features (e.g. sward structure, herbage chemical composition) as well as the internal state of the animal. The work integrates existing aspects of forage ingestion, oral physiology and rumen digestion that influence ingesta characteristics and digesta outflows from the rumen, respectively. The paper describes the structure and function of the new development, assessing the new model in terms of dynamic changes of oral processing of ingesta and rumen dilution rate under different grazing contexts. MINDY reproduces characteristics of ingesta inflow to and digesta outflow from the rumen of grazing ruminants, achieving temporal patterns of occurrence within and between meals, similar to those for grazing animals reported in the literature. The model realistically simulates changes in particle size distribution of the ingestive bolus, bolus weight and rumen dilution rate in response to contrasting grazing management regimes. The new concepts encoded in MINDY capture the underlying biological mechanisms that drive the dynamic link between ingestion and digestion patterns. This development advances in the understanding and modelling of grazing and digestive behaviour patterns of free-ranging ruminants.
This article presents the results of a program of radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modeling from the precontact Yup'ik site of Nunalleq (GDN-248) in subarctic southwestern Alaska. Nunalleq is deeply stratified, presenting a robust relative chronological framework of well-defined individual house floors abundant in ecofacts suitable for radiocarbon dating. Capitalizing on this potential, we present the results of one of the first applications of Bayesian statistical modeling of radiocarbon data from an archaeological site in the North American Arctic. Using these methods, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate robust, high-resolution chronological models from Arctic archaeology. Radiocarbon dates, procured prior to the program of dating and modeling presented here, suggested an approximately three-century duration of occupation at the site. The results of Bayesian modeling nuance this interpretation. While it is possible that there may have been activity for almost three centuries (beginning in the late fourteenth century), occupation of the dwelling complex, which dominates the site, was more likely to have endured for no more than a century. The results presented here suggest that the occupation of Nunalleq likely encompassed three generations beginning cal AD 1570–1630 before being curtailed by conflict around cal AD 1645–1675.
In principle, food intake by lactating dairy cows might be limited by rate of eating, capacity to produce saliva, rumen or intestinal capacity, rates of digestion and passage of food residues, or by factors such as chemicals and osmolality in the rumen. It is likely that a combination of these is used by the central nervous system to control intake. In practice, the positive relationship between digestibility and intake of forages means that high-quality material must be offered to cows during lactation if a reduced level of concentrate supplementation is envisaged but undue mobilization of body reserves avoided. Better supplementation is possible, both in terms of more frequent, smaller allocations, and of more appropriate concentrate composition with regard to the composition of the basal forage. Intake of maize silage dry matter is usually greater than for grass silage and a mixture of the two, perhaps offered in free or restricted choice, is likely to become more widely practised. Changes in body reserves are difficult to monitor and this has made it difficult to resolve the question of the magnitude of diet/environment interactions, i.e. is the same breeding and selection programme appropriate for those animals which are intended to be pushed to high yields in intensive systems and those intended to be given principally forages in semi-extensive systems?
The central nervous system is the integrator of most of the actions of the animal and as such plays a vital rôle in the control of voluntary food intake. Much of the work to understand how intake is controlled has been carried out with rats but that which has been done with pigs is included. The first experiments used electrolytic lesions in the designation of the ‘hunger centre’ and the ‘satiety centre’. Recent work has identified the paraventricular nucleus as a sensing site for experimental manipulations. Chemical stimulation of the brain has also been carried out to try to gain understanding of the rôle of neurotransmitters. Noradrenaline (NA) stimulates intake when given into many sites. Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits intake and has been claimed to play a rôle in the selection of macronutrients but 5-HT must now be interpreted in the light of the existence of several different subtypes of 5-HT receptors. Dopamine appears to moderate the hedonic response of eating. Numerous peptides are active in the brain where their rôle as neuromodulators may be quite different from their function in the periphery and at least three types of opioid receptors are implicated with kappa antagonists producing the most potent facilitatory effects. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY produce massive orexigenic effects which readily overcome peripheral satiety factors. The brain cannot control intake in isolation. It receives inputs in the blood stream, such as glucose, as well as via the nervous system, both from the special senses and from visceral organs such as stomach, intestines and liver. Taste and olfaction are important in diet selection and a specific appetite for protein has been demonstrated in the pig.
The remit of this paper is to discuss “…provision of appropriate information to write suitable software for the animal production industry” and … how much material has actually flowed from Universities and Research Institutes into useable computer programs and what are seen as being the main stumbling blocks to the rate of flow and effectiveness of take-up?”. Canvassing opinion from several people, including some of those who have contributed at this Meeting, gave many useful ideas but some of them would not wish these ideas to be associated with their names, for a variety of reasons. Therefore, the author is reluctantly unable to thank those who helped by name but is very pleased to do so collectively. The remit has also been broadened slightly to include the feedback from the use of models in the field to the research worker and uses examples of the author's own attempts to model voluntary food intake in ruminants to illustrate some shortcomings.
Locomotion is recognized as an important aspect of behaviour and knowledge of the locomotion of broiler chickens is important for their health and welfare (Lewis and Hurnik, 1989). Würbel (1995) suggested that certain behaviours can give an indication of poor welfare and that preference tests may be used to ‘fine tune’ a housing system.
Birds attempt to compensate for an E : P (energy: protein) imbalance by increasing their intake of protein or energy from selected foods and this is related to changes in the birds’ body composition caused by corticosterone treatment.
Corticosterone injections increase fatness despite increasing nitrogen and energy excretion (Bartov, 1985). More recently corticosterone has been used to modulate macronutrient selection in rats (Devenport et al., 1991; Bligh et al., 1993; Tempel et al., 1993) and chickens (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). The intake of high protein concentrate was decreased by corticosterone treatment in young chickens but not in older chickens (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). The previous results suggest that more information on corticosterone’s effect on diet selection will be obtained by using foods which can offer a wide range of choices to compose a proper diet (Covasa and Forbes, 1995). Therefore, two experiments were conducted to detect changes in protein preference in relation to reduced protein deposition and enhanced fattening induced by corticosterone in male and female growing broiler chickens.
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
Measurement of water consumption and urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion of individual grazing ruminants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, prediction and modelling are critical for research to improve N and water use efficiency. The objective of the current work was to use a mechanistic model of a grazing ruminant, MINDY, to represent drinking and urination diurnal patterns, and the resulting pattern of UN excretion. This work is primarily an integration of existing knowledge of basic urination physiology and water dynamics in ruminants. MINDY reproduces observed patterns of urination achieving the correct temporal occurrence, relative volumes and nitrogen (N) concentration of individual urination events for a grazing dairy cow, comparable with those reported in the literature. The model simulates daily water imbibed and UN realistically, as well as ingestion rates for herbages with different protein content and contrasting grazing managements. Results of a cross-validation indicate that the root mean square prediction error and mean absolute error as % of the observed mean, respectively, were 26 and 23% for daily water imbibed, 26 and 27% for urination volume, and 25 and 19% for the frequency of urination. Although further parameterization and validation are needed, for a new development in an exploratory model like MINDY, these numbers are encouraging and reflect that the concepts encoded capture many of the underlying biological mechanisms that drive the diurnal pattern and daily UN excretion, as well as thirst, acceptable.
Anomalous drainage of the right superior caval vein into the left atrium is a rare congenital anomaly that causes cyanosis and occult infection owing to right-to-left shunting. Transcatheter management of this anomaly is unique and rarely reported. We report a 32-year-old man with a history of brain abscess, who was diagnosed with an anomalous right superior caval vein draining to the left atrium; right upper pulmonary vein and right middle pulmonary vein draining into the inferior portion of the right superior caval vein; and a left superior caval vein draining into the right atrium through the coronary sinus without a bridging vein. Pre-procedural planning was guided by three-dimensional printed model. The right superior caval vein was occluded with a 16-mm Amplatzer muscular Ventricular Septal Defect occluder inferior to the azygous vein, but superior to the entries of right upper and middle pulmonary veins. This diverted the right superior caval vein flow to the inferior caval vein system through the azygos vein in a retrograde manner and allowed the right upper pulmonary vein and right middle pulmonary vein flow to drain into the left atrium normally, achieving exclusion of right-to-left shunting and allowing normal drainage of pulmonary veins into the left atrium. At the 6-month follow-up, his saturation improved from 93 to 97% with no symptoms of superior caval vein syndrome.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is frequently added to nursery piglet diets at pharmacological levels to combat scouring and to improve performance of weaned piglets (Miller and Slade, 2006). It is anecdotally recognized in the pig industry that piglets do not like the taste of zinc although increased feed intake is frequently reported (Ragland et al., 2006). Dietary selection studies have demonstrated the ability of the pig to discriminate between different foods (Forbes and Kyriazakis, 1995). This experiment aimed to test the hypothesis that weaned piglets would avoid a diet high in ZnO when given the choice, and to investigate the resultant performance and choice feeding behaviour of individual piglets in the immediate post weaning period.
A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.
Inflation of a balloon in the rumen of forage-fed ruminant animals depresses intake. This might be due to the unpleasant over-stimulation of stretch receptors or to mimicking the pleasant after-effects of eating. If the former then cows would be expected to avoid stimuli which they had learned to associate with distension, while if the latter, they should be attracted to such stimuli. The experiment reported here paired small meals of flavoured concentrates with inflation of a balloon in the rumen of dry cows on several occasions and examined their subsequent preferences for the flavour of concentrates.
12 individually-tethered adult Holstein cows, neither pregnant nor lactating, were fed freshly-chopped sugar cane ad libitum with 4 kg/day soya bean meal sprinkled over it. At 1200 h the basal food was removed and 30 min later 6 cows had a balloon inserted into the rumen via a cannula which was filled with 12 litres of water and remained in place for 120 min.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
The surface of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is textured by flow stripes, crevasses and other features related to ice flow and deformation. Here, moderate resolution optical satellite images are used to map and classify regions of the RIS characterized by different surface textures. Because the textures arise from ice deformation, the map is used to identify structural provinces with common deformation history. We classify four province types: regions associated with large outlet glaciers, shear zones, extension downstream of obstacles and suture zones between provinces with different upstream sources. Adjacent provinces with contrasting histories are in some locations deforming at different rates, suggesting that our province map is also an ice fabric map. Structural provinces have more complicated shapes in the part of the ice shelf fed by West Antarctic ice streams than in the part fed by outlet glaciers from the Transantarctic Mountains. The map may be used to infer past variations in stress conditions and flow events that cannot be inferred from flow traces alone.
Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress.
Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7–8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist.
Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = −3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = −0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p < 0.001) symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.18, p = 0.001), numbing (B = 0.03, β = 0.30, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001) and arousal (B = 0.04, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.43, p < 0.001) symptoms.
These findings demonstrate that brief separation from attachments during childhood trauma can have long-lasting effects on one's attachment security, and that this can be associated with adult post-traumatic psychopathology.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury.
Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event.
Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point.
Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.