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We Are All Treaty People is a Canadian play for young audiences (ages eight to twelve) that addresses difficult knowledge, Elders’ story sharing, and contemporary and historical Indigenous–settler relations. This article discusses the contemporary and historical political context of the play and its production, the creation process and its narrative anchors. It argues that through a respectful, Indigenous-led creation process, and structural techniques, the play has the potential to offer hope and healing, and encourage relationships based on knowledge.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
The early intervention service (EIS) approach is based on therapeutic interactions, which promote service user recovery from first episode psychosis. Collaborative therapeutic work between the service user and case manager depends on good communication. This can be a challenge for people with psychosis as the process of thought can be disrupted or stimulus misinterpreted leading to communication errors.
The objective is to develop an interactive tool that can assist service user's communication of distress, whilst employing a psychoeducational approach to the use of an informal therapeutic measurement scale; subjective units of distress (SUDs) and early warning signs (EWS). The ApTiC mobile intervention will include ten numerically graded emoticons from low to extreme distress. Each emoticon is associated with specific individualised service user descriptors and linked to an individually agreed action plan and level of response to be offered by a staff member.
The aim of the present study will be to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the ApTic mobile intervention in preparation for a larger randomised controlled trial.
Phase one: qualitative research to inform the development of the complimentary tool and mobile app (qualitative). Phase two: a 12-week rater-blinded randomized control trial of ApTiC compared to routine EIS case management (quantitative).
The qualitative data will be presented.
It is expected that once validated, the SUDs based ApTiC will enhance rapport and understanding thus improving the recovery approach to well-being and hopefully preventing relapse or the involvement of the crisis team or hospital admissions.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cannabis use is high amongst young people who have recently had their first episode of psychosis, and is associated with worse outcomes. To date, interventions to reduce cannabis consumption have been largely ineffective, and it has been suggested that longer treatment periods are required.
In a pragmatic single-blind randomized controlled trial 110 participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: a brief motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy (MI-CBT) intervention (up to 12 sessions over 4.5 months) with standard care from an early intervention service; a long MI-CBT intervention (up to 24 sessions over 9 months) with standard care; or standard care alone. The primary outcome was change in cannabis use as measured by Timeline Followback.
Neither the extended nor the brief interventions conferred benefit over standard care in terms of reductions in frequency or amount of cannabis use. Also the interventions did not result in improvements in the assessed clinical outcomes, including symptoms, functioning, hospital admissions or relapse.
Integrated MI and CBT for people with cannabis use and recent-onset psychosis does not reduce cannabis use or improve clinical outcomes. These findings are consistent with those in the published literature, and additionally demonstrate that offering a more extended intervention does not confer any advantage. Many participants were not at an action stage for change and for those not ready to reduce or quit cannabis, targeting associated problems rather than the cannabis use per se may be the best current strategy for mental health services to adopt.
This report of the business meeting of Commission 15 at the 2009 IAU GA is based on notes provided by Walter Huebner, past president, and on the minutes taken by Daniel Boice, secretary of Commission 15 in the triennium 2006 to 2009, with additional notes from the current secretary, Daniel Hestroffer. The business meeting was split into two sessions, the first held on 5 August and the second held on 11 August. This report presents the minutes of the two Commission 15 business-meeting sessions held during General Assembly XXVII.
Field irrigation is costly in arid regions, and over-fertilization of farmland can lead to high groundwater nitrate levels and significant environmental challenges. Integrative aquaculture and agriculture (IAA) systems allow the reuse of water and nutrients to offset production costs while promoting greater sustainability. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an IAA system using treatments formed from one water source, groundwater (GRND) or fish pond effluent (EFF), and one chemical fertilizer regime, eliminated (ELIM) or historical (HIST). Treatments were applied to field plots of barley or cotton. There were typically positive effects of EFF applications on crop growth and yield relative to GRND applications under identical fertilizer regimes. However, GRND-HIST almost always outperformed EFF-ELIM, suggesting that substituting effluent irrigations for a historical fertilization regime without pond biosolid or reduced fertilizer applications could be detrimental to crop production.
A multi-state outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul infection occurred in Australia during October 2006. A case-control study conducted in three affected jurisdictions, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, included 36 cases with the outbreak-specific strain of S. Saintpaul identified by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) in a faecal specimen and 106 controls. Consumption of cantaloupe (rockmelon) was strongly associated with illness (adjusted OR 23·9 95%, 95% CI 5·1–112·4). S. Saintpaul, with the outbreak MLVA profile, was detected on the skin of two cantaloupes obtained from an implicated retailer. Trace-back investigations did not identify the specific source of the outbreak strain of S. Saintpaul, but multiple Salmonella spp. were detected in environmental samples from farms and packing plants investigated during the trace-back operation. Cantaloupe production and processing practices pose a potential public health threat requiring regulatory and community educational interventions.
Los trastornos afectivos refractarios requieren a menudo una polifarmacia rational: antidepresivos de más de una clase, antidepresivos con anticonvulsives y antidepresivos con aumento (litio, tiroides y psicoestimulantes). Mientras que los psicoestimulantes (metilfenidato, dextroanfetamina y pemolina de magnesio) se utilizan por lo general en pacientes comprometidos médicamente , para la depresión refractaria [2, 11] o para los trastornos por déficit de atención , estos agentes se deberían considerar para el tratamiento en monoterapia de la depresión cuando un paciente no ha tenido éxito en los ensayos terapéuticos antidepresivos, tiene efectos secundarios inaceptables ante los antidepresivos habituales, incluso con respuestas positivas, o no está dispuesto a recibir modalidades de tratamiento diferentes por temor a los efectos adversos potenciales.
Single-molecule magnets (SMM) are molecules that function as single-domain nanomagnets. SMMs have been characterized with a ground-state spin ranging from S = 4 to S = 13. A few SMMs have been identified that have half-integer spin ground states. [Cation][Mn12O12(O2CR)16(H2O)4] complexes, where R is some substituent, are SMMs that have either a S = 19/2 or 21/2 ground state. Quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) is observed for these half-integer-spin Kramers [Mn12]- degenerate SMMs in zero external magnetic field, as well as for a class of S = 9/2 Mn4 SMMs. The presence of QTM in zero external field is attributed to a transverse component of a nuclear spin field, dipolar interactions and intermolecular exchange interactions. The Landau-Zener method is used to measure the tunnel splitting as a function of transverse magnetic field for a single crystal of the S = 9/2 SMM [Mn4O3(OSiMe3)(OAc)3(dbm)3]. Spin parity dependent QTM is established. The effect of a magnetic exchange interaction between two S = 9/2 Mn4 SMMs upon QTM was studied for another compound. The hydrogen bonding and Cl…Cl contacts within a supramolecularly linked [Mn4]2 dimer lead to a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the two S = 9/2 SMMs. This interaction causes a shift (exchange bias) from zero field for the magnetic field at which QTM occurs.
We use High Resolution Electron Microscopy together with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy to analyze the crystallography and the chemical configuration of a Co/SrTiO3 interface in a Co/SrTiO3/La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 magnetic tunnel junction.
We discuss the precessional, quasi-ballistic switching of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures. In soft spin-valve cells, fast and energy-cost effective magnetization switching can be triggered by a transverse field pulse of moderate amplitude, below the in plane anisotropy field, because of an amplification effect brought by the demagnetizing field at the early stage of the reversal. The same effect is no more possible in hard nanomagnets with perpendicular easy magnetization axis. We propose a new type of nanostructured magnetic device, designed to overcome this limitation. The speed is obtained through the use of a very high effective magnetic field, obtained by incorporating a significant exchange field which stores the energy in the form of a constrained domain wall surrounding a region of high magnetic anisotropy. This stored energy is partially available to accelerate the magnetization reversal in a precessional scenario. We illustrate the concept by studying numerically a model system. The key parameter for the reversal is the ratio of the domain wall width to the structure lateral dimension. Possible routes for device preparation are discussed. Promising application to magnetic storage are anticipated.
We report high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations of a series of high spin (total spin up to S = 10) manganese and nickel complexes which have been shown to exhibit single molecule magnetism, including low temperature (below ∼ 1K) hysteresis loops and resonant magnetic quantum tunneling. A cavity perturbation technique enables high sensitivity oriented single crystal EPR measurements spanning a very wide frequency range (16 to 200+ GHz). Fitting of the frequency and field orientation dependence of EPR spectra allows direct determination of the effective spin Hamiltonian parameters. Studies on a range of materials with varying (approximately axial) site symmetries facilitates an assessment of the role of transverse anisotropy (terms in the Hamiltonian that do not commute with ŝz) in the magnetic quantum tunneling phenomenon.
We examine theoretically electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshapes as functions of resonance frequency, energy level, and temperature for single crystals of three different kinds of single-molecule nanomagnets (SMMs): Mn12 acetate, Fe8Br, and the S = 9/2 Mn4 compound. We use a density-matrix equation and consider distributions in the uniaxial (second-order) anisotropy parameter D and the g factor, caused by possible defects in the samples. Additionally, weak intermolecular exchange and electronic dipole interactions are included in a mean-field approximation. Our calculated linewidths are in good agreement with experiments. We find that the distribution in D is common to the three examined single-molecule magnets. This could provide a basis for a proposed tunneling mechanism due to lattice defects or imperfections. We also find that weak intermolecular exchange and dipolar interactions are mainly responsible for the temperature dependence of the lineshapes for all three SMMs, and that the intermolecular exchange interaction is more significant for Mn4 than for the other two SMMs. This finding is consistent with earlier experiments and suggests the role of spin-spin relaxation processes in the mechanism of magnetization tunneling.
An inert gas condensation technique has been used to prepare nanometer-sized particles of metallic iron by evaporation and agglomeration in a flowing inert gas stream. The resulting Fe nanoparticles were protected from complete oxidation either by the formation of a thin Fe-oxide surface passivation layer or by immersion in an oil bath. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the nanoparticles were typically between 10 and 20 nm in size, that the thickness of the Fe-oxide surface passivation layer was between 3 and 4 nm, and that the oil immersed samples exhibited a significant smaller volume fraction of Fe-oxides than did the surface passivated samples. Room temperature magnetization measurements were also carried out and the coercivity and saturation magnetization of the surface passivated and oil immersed samples determined. Although the coercivities and saturation magnetization values of both samples were very similar, the Fe/Fe-oxide samples exhibited a single component hysteresis loop while the Fe/oil samples exhibited a two component loop.
Hydrogenated silicon nitride, hydrogenated silicon carbide, and their intermediates were chemo-mechanically polished. Results showed that, within the material set examined, harder materials also have higher CMP removal rates. In addition, CMP rates for multilayer stacks did not follow those for single layers. Polish mechanisms were proposed to explain these phenomena.
Functional activity in the visual cortex was assessed
using functional magnetic resonance imaging technology
while participants viewed a series of pleasant, neutral,
or unpleasant pictures. Coronal images at four different
locations in the occipital cortex were acquired during
each of eight 12-s picture presentation periods (on)
and 12-s interpicture interval (off ). The extent
of functional activation was larger in the right than the
left hemisphere and larger in the occipital than in the
occipitoparietal regions during processing of all picture
contents compared with the interpicture intervals. More
importantly, functional activity was significantly greater
in all sampled brain regions when processing emotional
(pleasant or unpleasant) pictures than when processing
neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, a hypothesis that these
differences were an artifact of differential eye movements
was ruled out. Whereas both emotional and neutral pictures
produced activity centered on the calcarine fissure (Area
17), only emotional pictures also produced sizable clusters
bilaterally in the occipital gyrus, in the right fusiform
gyrus, and in the right inferior and superior parietal
A polarized neutron reflectometry study of the magnetization density depth profile of a Co0.1Pt0.9-CoPt3 bilayer film found evidence for an induced moment in the Co0.1Pt0.9 overlayer in close proximity to the CoPt3 underlayer. If the moment of Co in these films is that of the bulk, then the μpt = 0.09(1)μB in the overlayer, and μpt = 0.04(1)μB, in the underlayer. In addition, ferromagnetic order of the Co0.1Pt0.9 overlayer was observed 8K above Tc for the material in the bulk.
This paper reports the synthesis and characterizations of a new water-soluble poly(paraphenylene) (PPP) and its applications in preparing self-assembled multi-layer films. This new water-soluble conducting polymer was prepared through the sulfonation reaction of poly(pquarterphenylene- 2,2'-dicarboxylic acid). The incorporation of sulfonate groups has dramatically improved PPP's solubility in water at a wide pH range, whereas previous PPP is only slightly soluble in basic solutions. Dilute aqueous solutions of this polymer with acidic, neutral or basic pH emit brilliant blue light while irradiated with UV light. The sulfonated PPP emits from 350 nm to 455 nm with a maximum intensity at 380 nm. Self-assembled multilayers of this sulfonated PPP were constructed with a positively charged polymer poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) and characterized with various surface analyses. Conductive (RuO2 and ITO), semiconductive (Si wafer), and non-conductive (SiO2) substrates were used in the preparation of self-assembled multilayers. Electrical, optical and structural properties of these novel self-assembled thin films will be discussed.