To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with variable risk of suicide and prevalence of suicide attempt (SA). The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SA and associated sociodemographic and clinical features in a large international sample of OCD patients.
A total of 425 OCD outpatients, recruited through the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) network, were assessed and categorized in groups with or without a history of SA, and their sociodemographic and clinical features compared through Pearson’s chi-squared and t tests. Logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of the collected data on the SA variable.
14.6% of our sample reported at least one SA during their lifetime. Patients with an SA had significantly higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders (60 vs. 17%, p<0.001; particularly tic disorder), medical disorders (51 vs. 15%, p<0.001), and previous hospitalizations (62 vs. 11%, p<0.001) than patients with no history of SA. With respect to geographical differences, European and South African patients showed significantly higher rates of SA history (40 and 39%, respectively) compared to North American and Middle-Eastern individuals (13 and 8%, respectively) (χ2=11.4, p<0.001). The logistic regression did not show any statistically significant predictor of SA among selected independent variables.
Our international study found a history of SA prevalence of ~15% in OCD patients, with higher rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidities and previous hospitalizations in patients with a previous SA. Along with potential geographical influences, the presence of the abovementioned features should recommend additional caution in the assessment of suicide risk in OCD patients.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising new treatment for patients with treatment-refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, since most DBS patients only show a partial response, the treatment still needs to be improved. In this study we hypothesized that cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) could optimize the post-operative management in DBS and we evaluated the efficacy of CBT as augmentation to DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens.
A total of 16 patients with treatment-refractory OCD were treated with DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens. After stabilization of decline in OCD symptoms, a standardized 24-week CBT treatment programme was added to DBS in an open-phase trial of 8 months. Changes in obsessive–compulsive, anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression.
Following the addition of CBT to DBS, a significant decrease in obsessive–compulsive symptoms was observed, but not in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a subsequent double-blind phase, in which stimulation was discontinued, OCD symptoms returned to baseline (relapse) and anxiety and depressive symptoms worsened (rebound) compared with baseline.
The results of this explorative study suggest that a combined treatment of accumbens DBS and CBT may be optimal for improving obsessive–compulsive symptoms in treatment-refractory OCD. However, a subsequent randomized controlled trial is necessary to draw firm conclusions. It seems that DBS results in affective changes that may be required to enable response prevention in CBT. This may indicate that DBS and CBT act as two complementary treatments.
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with deletions at chromosome 22q11, abnormalities in brain anatomy and function, and schizophrenia-like psychosis. Thus it is assumed that one or more genes within the deleted region are crucial to brain development. However, relatively little is known about how genetic variation at 22q11 affects brain structure and function. One gene on 22q11 is catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): an enzyme that degrades dopamine and contains a functional polymorphism (Val158Met) affecting enzyme activity. Here, we investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on brain anatomy and cognition in adults with VCFS.
The COMT Val158Met polymorphism was genotyped for 26 adults with VCFS on whom DNA was available. We explored its effects on regional brain volumes using hand tracing approaches; on regional grey- and white-matter density using computerized voxel-based analyses; and measures of attention, IQ, memory, executive and visuospatial function using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery.
After corrections for multiple comparisons Val-hemizygous subjects, compared with Met-hemizygotes, had a significantly larger volume of frontal lobes. Also, Val-hemizygotes had significantly increased grey matter density in cerebellum, brainstem, and parahippocampal gyrus, and decreased white matter density in the cerebellum. No significant effects of COMT genotype on neurocognitive performance were found.
COMT genotype effects on brain anatomy in VCFS are not limited to frontal regions but also involve other structures previously implicated in VCFS. This suggests variation in COMT activity is implicated in brain development in VCFS.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.