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To identify dietary patterns and prospectively evaluate their influence on the BMI Z-score of adolescents.
A longitudinal study, using data from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health – LONCAAFS.
To obtain data on food consumption, a 24-h recall survey was conducted; a second 24-h recall was applied to 30 % of the sample in all waves. Dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis using principal components. BMI Z-score was determined according to the recommendation of the WHO, based on the BMI for age and sex. Socio-economic data, sedentary behaviour and physical activity level were obtained. Associations between BMI Z-score and dietary patterns and between BMI Z-score and variables of interest were determined using generalised estimating equations.
Totally, 1431 adolescents were assessed in 2014, 1178 in 2015, 959 in 2016 and 773 in 2017, belonging to the public schools of João Pessoa, Northeast Brazil.
Three dietary patterns were identified throughout the study: ‘traditional’, ‘snacks’ and ‘Western’. The ‘Western’ dietary pattern was positively associated with BMI Z-score (β = 0·025; 95 % CI 0·002, 0·048), regardless of sex and physical activity level, prospectively.
A dietary pattern composed of foods with high energy density, high fat and sugars, and low fibre influences the BMI Z-score of adolescents over time.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
Surface albedo typically dominates the mass balance of mountain glaciers, though long-term trends and patterns of glacier albedo are seldom explored. We calculated broadband shortwave albedo for glaciers in the central Chilean Andes (33–34°S) using end-of-summer Landsat scenes between 1986 and 2020. We found a high inter-annual variability of glacier-wide albedo that is largely a function of the glacier fractional snow-covered area and the total precipitation of the preceding hydrological year (up to 69% of the inter-annual variance explained). Under the 2010–2020 ‘Mega Drought’ period, the mean albedo, regionally averaged ranging from ~0.25–0.5, decreased by −0.05 on average relative to 1986–2009, with the greatest reduction occurring 3500–5000 m a.s.l. In 2020, differences relative to 1986–2009 were −0.14 on average as a result of near-complete absence of late summer snow cover and the driest hydrological year since the Landsat observation period began (~90% reduction of annual precipitation relative to the 1986–2009 period). We found statistically significant, negative trends in glacier ice albedo of up to −0.03 per decade, a trend that would have serious implications for the future water security of the region, because glacier ice melt acts to buffer streamflow shortages under severe drought conditions.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
The prediction of seed longevity (P50) is traditionally performed by the use of the Probit model. However, due to the fact that the survival data are of binary origin (0,1), the fit of the model can be compromised by the non-normality of the residues. Consequently, this leads to prediction losses, despite the data being partially smoothed by Probit and Logit models. A possibility to reduce the effect of non-normality of the data would be to apply the principles of the central limit theorem, which states that non-normal residues tend to be normal as the n sample is increased. The Logit and Probit models differ in their normal and logistic distribution. Therefore, we developed a new estimation procedure by using a small increase of the n sample and tested it in the Probit and Logit functions to improve the prediction of P50. The results showed that the calculation of P50 by increasing the n samples from 4 to 6 replicates improved the index of correctness of the prediction. The Logit model presented better performance when compared with the Probit model, indicating that the estimation of P50 is more adequate when the adjustment of the data is performed by the Logit function.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Cancer diagnosis affects patients, their families, and their caregivers in particular. This study focused on the validation of the CareGiver Oncology Quality of Life (CarGOQoL) questionnaire in Portuguese caregivers of patients with multiple myeloma, from the caregiver's point of view.
This was a cross-sectional study with 146 caregivers of patients with multiple myeloma from outpatient medical oncology and clinical hematology consultations from five hospitals in north and central Portugal. Participants were assessed on quality of life (QoL), psychological morbidity and social support.
The Portuguese version maintains 17 of the original 29 items version, maintaining general coherence and a dimensional structure that is clinically interpretable. Reliability findings indicated good internal consistency for the total scale (0.86) and respective subscales (0.75 to 0.88), which is in agreement with the alpha values from the previous CarGOQoL validation study for the corresponding subscales (0.74 to 0.89) and total scale (0.90).
Significance of results
The CarGOQoL is a reliable and valid tool for clinical trials and intervention programs to assess QoL in caregivers of myeloma patients. Future studies should validate the adapted version in caregivers of other types of cancer patients including other chronic diseases.
This study aimed to determine the cutoff and the specificity and sensitivity of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) in a Portuguese sample of cancer patients.
A total of 147 patients (mean age = 49.2; SD = 12.6) completed the ET, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Subjective Experiences of Illness Suffering Inventory. Data were collected in a cancer support institution and in a major hospital in the North of Portugal.
The optimal cutoff for the Anxiety Thermometer was 5v6 (until 5 and 6 or more), which identified 74% of the BSI-anxiety cases and 70% of noncases. The Depression Thermometer cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 85% of BSI-depression cases and 82% of noncases. Cutoff for the Anger Thermometer was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 83% of BSI-hostility cases and 73% of noncases; for the Distress Thermometer, the optimal cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 84% of the suffering cases and 73% of noncases. Finally, for the Help Thermometer, it was 3v4 (until 3 and 4 or more), which helped to identify 93% of the suffering cases and 64% of noncases.
Significance of results
Results supported the Portuguese version of the ET as an important screening tool for identifying the emotional distress in cancer patients.
Fragmented habitats generally harbour small populations that are potentially more prone to local extinctions caused by biotic factors such as parasites. We evaluated the effects of botflies (Cuterebra apicalis) on naturally fragmented populations of the gracile mouse opossum (Gracilinanus agilis). We examined how sex, food supplementation experiment, season and daily climatic variables affected body condition and haemoglobin concentration in animals that were parasitized or not by botflies. Although parasitism did not affect body condition, haemoglobin concentrations were lower in parasitized animals. Among the non-parasitized individuals, haemoglobin concentration increased with the increase of maximum temperature and the decrease of relative humidity, a climatic pattern found at the peak of the dry season. However, among parasitized animals, the opposite relationship between haemoglobin concentration and relative humidity occurred, as a consequence of parasite-induced anaemia interacting with dehydration as an additional stressor. We conclude that it is critical to assess how climate affects animal health (through blood parameters) to understand the population consequences of parasitism on the survival of individuals and hence of small population viability.
In this work, we report evidences of the improvement of X-ray attenuation efficiency by the addition of a very small amount of Graphene Oxide (GO) in polymer-based nanocomposite. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer and barium sulfate (BaSO4) nanoparticles were mixed. PVDF/BaSO4 nanocomposite was found to attenuate 9.14% of a 20 kV X-ray beam. The addition of only 4.0 wt % of GO nanosheets to the nanocomposite improved this X-Ray attenuation efficiency to 24.56%. The respective linear attenuation coefficients (μ) were 39.9 cm-1 and 54.4 cm-1, respectively. The X-ray attenuation gradually decreases until 6.71% and 17.62%, respectively, for the X-ray beam with higher energy (100 kV). Fourier transform infrared data revealed that, due to the lack of the bending vibration modes of CF2 molecule at 656 cm-1, 688 cm-1, 723 cm-1, 776 cm-1and 796 cm-1, characteristics of the γ-crystalline phase of PVDF, the nanocomposites casted from solution are mostly in the β-ferroelectric phase of PVDF, besides the γ-paraelectric phase. SEM micrographs were used to evaluate the dispersion state of graphene sheets and the BaSO4 nanoparticles into the polymeric matrix. UV-Vis spectrometry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were also performed in order to complement the structural analysis. The results confirm that the addition of graphene sheets in PVDF polymer-based nanocomposites enhances the X-ray shielding efficiency. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of the reported anomalous negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene sheets
A growing number of infectious pathogens are spreading among geographic regions. Some pathogens that were previously not considered to pose a general threat to human health have emerged at regional and global scales, such as Zika and Ebola Virus Disease. Other pathogens, such as yellow fever virus, were previously thought to be under control but have recently re-emerged, causing new challenges to public health organisations. A wide array of new modelling techniques, aided by increased computing capabilities, novel diagnostic tools, and the increased speed and availability of genomic sequencing allow researchers to identify new pathogens more rapidly, assess the likelihood of geographic spread, and quantify the speed of human-to-human transmission. Despite some initial successes in predicting the spread of acute viral infections, the practicalities and sustainability of such approaches will need to be evaluated in the context of public health responses.
Mud volcanoes are singular seafloor structures classified as ‘sensitive habitats’. Here we report on the sponge fauna from a field of eight mud volcanoes located in the Spanish margin of the northern Gulf of Cadiz (North-eastern Atlantic), at depths ranging from 380 to 1146 m. Thirty-eight beam-trawl samplings were conducted (covering over 61,000 m2) from 2010 to 2012, in the frame of a EC-LIFE + INDEMARES grant. A total of 1659 specimens were retrieved, belonging to 82 species, from which 79 were in the Class Demospongiae and three in Hexactinellida. Two species were new to science (Jaspis sinuoxea sp. nov.; Myrmekioderma indemaresi sp. nov.) and three others recorded for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (Geodia anceps, Coelosphaera cryosi and Petrosia raphida). Five additional species were ‘Atlantic oddities’, since this study provides their second record in the Atlantic Ocean (Lanuginella cf. pupa, Geodia cf. spherastrella, Cladocroce spathiformis, Cladocroce fibrosa and Haliclona pedunculata). Basic numerical analyses indicated a significant linear relationship between the species richness per m2 and the number of sponge individuals per m2, meaning that in most volcanoes many species occur in equivalent, moderate abundance. Likewise, sponge species richness increased with depth, while the abundance of hard substrata resulting from carbonate precipitation and the fishing activities around the volcanoes had no detectable effect on the sponge fauna. However, in the latter case, a negative trend – lacking statistical support – underlaid the analyses, suggesting that a more extensive sampling would be necessary to derive more definitive conclusions in this regard.
The current study aimed to test whether organic matter intake by free-ranging ruminants could be estimated from the amount of nitrogen (N) excreted in faeces and to compare this approach to conventional techniques. An equation describing the relationship between excreted N and nutrient intake was developed in indoor digestibility trials conducted with male sheep (n = 36) and cattle (n = 24) housed in metabolism cages and solely fed hay harvested from a local rangeland. Faecal N excretion was linearly related to organic matter (OM) intake without a significant animal species effect. To evaluate the linear equation, data from free-ranging trials conducted with sheep and cattle were used. The faecal N approach was compared with either in situ digestibility plus external marker (n = 123) or n-alkanes (n = 272) to estimate OM intake and digestible OM intake. Estimates obtained through the faecal N approach did not closely fit those obtained with either conventional technique for any variable. Averaging all individual values, the supply of metabolizable energy (ME) estimated through faecal N was similar to the required level, whereas both the in situ and n-alkanes techniques overestimated ME supply. In conclusion, OM intake by free-ranging sheep and cattle can be estimated based on the amount of N excreted in faeces with some advantages over conventional techniques: knowledge about herbage attributes is not required and it accounts for individual variability on selectivity and digestion processes.
Couder & Fort (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 97, 2006, 154101) demonstrated that when a droplet walking on the surface of a vibrating bath passes through a single or a double slit, it is deflected due to the distortion of its guiding wave field. Moreover, they suggested the build-up of statistical diffraction and interference patterns similar to those arising for quantum particles. Recently, these results have been revisited (Andersen et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 92 (1), 2015, 013006; Batelaan et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 701 (1), 2016, 012007) and contested (Andersen et al. 2015; Bohr, Andersen & Lautrup, Recent Advances in Fluid Dynamics with Environmental Applications, 2016, Springer, pp. 335–349). We revisit these experiments with a refined experimental set-up that allows us to systematically characterize the dependence of the dynamical and statistical behaviour on the system parameters. The system behaviour is shown to depend strongly on the amplitude of the vibrational forcing: as this forcing increases, a transition from repeatable to unpredictable trajectories arises. In all cases considered, the system behaviour is dominated by a wall effect, specifically the tendency for a drop to walk along a path that makes a fixed angle relative to the plane of the slits. While the three dominant central peaks apparent in the histograms of the deflection angle reported by Couder & Fort (2006) are evident in some of the parameter regimes considered in our study, the Fraunhofer-like dependence of the number of peaks on the slit width is not recovered. In the double-slit geometry, the droplet is influenced by both slits by virtue of the spatial extent of its guiding wave field. The experimental behaviour is well captured by a recently developed theoretical model that allows for a robust treatment of walking droplets interacting with boundaries. Our study underscores the importance of experimental precision in obtaining reproducible data.
Objectives: Careful characterization of how functional decline co-evolves with cognitive decline in older adults has yet to be well described. Most models of neurodegenerative disease postulate that cognitive decline predates and potentially leads to declines in everyday functional abilities; however, there is mounting evidence that subtle decline in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) may be detectable in older individuals who are still cognitively normal. Methods: The present study examines how the relationship between change in cognition and change in IADLs are best characterized among older adults who participated in the ACTIVE trial. Neuropsychological and IADL data were analyzed for 2802 older adults who were cognitively normal at study baseline and followed for up to 10 years. Results: Findings demonstrate that subtle, self-perceived difficulties in performing IADLs preceded and predicted subsequent declines on cognitive tests of memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with a growing body of literature suggesting that subjective changes in everyday abilities can be associated with more precipitous decline on objective cognitive measures and the development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. (JINS, 2018, 24, 104–112)
American tegumentary leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. This protozoan employs several mechanisms to subvert the microbicidal activity of macrophages and, given the limited efficacy of current therapies, the development of alternative treatments is essential. Animal venoms are known to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including antiparasitic effects. Crotoxin (CTX) is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, and it has several biological effects. Nevertheless, there is no report of CTX activity during macrophage – Leishmania interactions. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate whether CTX has a role in macrophage M1 polarization during Leishmania infection murine macrophages, Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and L. amazonensis-infected macrophages were challenged with CTX. MTT [3-(4,5dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide] toxicity assays were performed on murine macrophages, and no damage was observed in these cells. Promastigotes, however, were affected by treatment with CTX (IC50 = 22·86 µg mL−1) as were intracellular amastigotes. Macrophages treated with CTX also demonstrated increased reactive oxygen species production. After they were infected with Leishmania, macrophages exhibited an increase in nitric oxide production that converged into an M1 activation profile, as suggested by their elevated production of the cytokines interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and changes in their morphology. CTX was able to reverse the L. amazonensis-mediated inhibition of macrophage immune responses and is capable of polarizing macrophages to the M1 profile, which is associated with a better prognosis for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.
In this work we explore the radiocarbon (14C) signal as an independent tool to assess the year of formation of individual tree rings of tropical species in northern Brazil. Three different species were analyzed in this work: Dipteryx magnifica, Enterolobium maximum, and Hymenolobium petraeum. The studied samples are from the stem of only one individual of each species, all cut down in 2008 in Porto Trombetas, Pará, Brazil. Individual tree rings were identified based on wood anatomy and they were counted from bark to pith. Several rings were selected for 14C analysis in order to cover the overall shape of the 14C atmospheric bomb peak (after 1955). The 14C content was measured at Laboratory of Radiocarbon, Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF). Results are compared with the Southern Hemisphere 14C atmospheric calibration curves. For E. maximum and H. petraeum the 14C signal exhibits an overall good match with the SH zone 3 and suggests annual seasonality in the growth-ring formation. These species offer suitable characteristics for dendrochronology. The D. magnifica shows mismatches in the 14C measurements that are likely a result of difficulties in identifying ring boundaries with certainty. Additional techniques may be helpful to disentangle the origin of this discrepancy.