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Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.
Traditional decision rules have limitations when a new technology is less effective and less costly than a comparator. We propose a new probabilistic decision framework to examine non-inferiority in effectiveness and net monetary benefit (NMB) simultaneously. We illustrate this framework using the example of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for treatment-resistant depression.
We modeled the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with the new intervention (rTMS), an active control (ECT), and a placebo control, and we estimated the fraction of effectiveness preserved by the new intervention through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA). We then assessed the probability of cost-effectiveness using a traditional cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) and our new decision-making framework. In our new framework, we considered the new intervention cost-effective in each simulation of the PSA if it preserved at least 75 percent of the effectiveness of the active control (thus demonstrating non-inferiority) and had a positive NMB at a given willingness-to-pay threshold (WTP).
rTMS was less effective (i.e., associated with fewer QALYs) and less costly than ECT. The traditional CEAC approach showed that the probabilities of rTMS being cost-effective were 100 percent, 39 percent, and 14 percent at WTPs of $0, $50,000, and $100,000 per QALY gained, respectively. In the new decision framework, the probabilities of rTMS being cost-effective were reduced to 23 percent, 21 percent, and 13 percent at WTPs of $0, $50,000, and $100,000 per QALY, respectively.
This new framework provides a different perspective for decision making with considerations of both non-inferiority and WTP thresholds.
Over the past decade, advances in the interdisciplinary field of network science have provided a framework for understanding the intrinsic structure and function of human brain networks. A particularly fruitful area of this work has focused on patterns of functional connectivity derived from noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. An important subset of these efforts has bridged the computational approaches of network science with the rich empirical data and biological hypotheses of neuroscience, and this research has begun to identify features of brain networks that explain individual differences in social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. The most common approach estimates connections assuming a single configuration of edges that is stable across the experimental session. In the literature, this is referred to as a static network approach, and researchers measure static brain networks while a subject is either at rest or performing a cognitively demanding task. Research on social and emotional functioning has primarily focused on linking static brain networks with individual differences, but recent advances have extended this work to examine temporal fluctuations in dynamic brain networks. Mounting evidence suggests that both the strength and flexibility of time-evolving brain networks influence individual differences in executive function, attention, working memory, and learning. In this review, we first examine the current evidence for brain networks involved in cognitive functioning. Then we review some preliminary evidence linking static network properties to individual differences in social and emotional functioning. We then discuss the applicability of emerging dynamic network methods for examining individual differences in social and emotional functioning. We close with an outline of important frontiers at the intersection between network science and neuroscience that will enhance our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of social behavior.
Let X1, X2, . . . be independent copies of a random vector X with values in ℝd and a continuous distribution function. The random vector Xn is a complete record, if each of its components is a record. As we require X to have independent components, crucial results for univariate records clearly carry over. But there are substantial differences as well. While there are infinitely many records in the d = 1 case, they occur only finitely many times in the series if d ≥ 2. Consequently, there is a terminal complete record with probability 1. We compute the distribution of the random total number of complete records and investigate the distribution of the terminal record. For complete records, the sequence of waiting times forms a Markov chain, but unlike the univariate case now the state at ∞ is an absorbing element of the state space.
Postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS) has been reported uncommonly during treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI), a sustained-release formulation of olanzapine.
The primary aim of the study was to estimate the incidence per injection and per patient of PDSS events in adult patients with schizophrenia who were receiving olanzapine LAI in real-world clinical practice. Secondary aims were to further characterise the clinical presentation of PDSS events, to identify potential risk factors associated with PDSS events and to characterise hospitalisations at baseline and post-baseline.
A prospective observational study of adult patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine LAI from 24 countries. Data were collected on patient characteristics, olanzapine LAI treatment and any adverse events (AEs). All AEs were reviewed and adjudicated for PDSS using predetermined criteria.
There were 46 confirmed PDSS events (0.044% of the 103 505 injections) in 45 patients (1.17% of the 3858 patients). Based on 45 confirmed events with time-to-onset information, 91.1% (n=41) occurred within 1 h of injection. Time-to-recovery from the event was within 72 h for 95.6% of patients (range 6 h to 11 days). Risk factors for PDSS (per-injection) included high dose (odds ratio (OR)high/low=3.95; P=0.006) and male gender (ORfemale/male=0.42; P=0.017).
Results of this study confirm previously reported PDSS rates, time to onset and recovery, and the severity of PDSS events, and suggest that higher doses and male gender are potential risk factors associated with PDSS.
An accurate knowledge of the thermal properties of firn and ice within a glacier is essential for any reliable mathematical model of heat transfer. This paper considers the problem of determining the thermal properties of firn at Dome C, Antarctica, for use in such a model.
First, the difficulties in accurately determining thermal properties are discussed. Then a physical experiment which can be performed under field conditions, but which will yield a well-posed mathematical problem for determining the unknown properties, is presented. Next, two different numerical techniques for solving the mathematical problem are discussed. Finally, some numerical approximations and error estimates are presented for the results of applying our numerical procedure to data from Dome C. Although insufficient data were obtained to test our methods fully, we have established a measurement procedure and a method of analysis which appear to be promising.
Declines in populations of the Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaeus have been rapid, with the breeding population now perhaps numbering fewer than 120 pairs. The reasons for this decline remain unresolved. Whilst there is evidence that hunting in wintering areas is an important factor, loss of suitable habitat on passage and wintering areas is also of concern. While some key sites for the species are already documented, many of their wintering locations are described here for the first time. Their wintering range primarily stretches from Bangladesh to China. Comprehensive surveys of potential Spoon-billed Sandpiper wintering sites from 2005 to 2013 showed a wide distribution with three key concentrations in Myanmar and Bangladesh, but also regular sites in China, Vietnam and Thailand. The identification of all important non-breeding sites remains of high priority for the conservation of the species. Here, we present the results of field surveys of wintering Spoon-billed Sandpipers that took place in six countries between 2005 and 2013 and present species distribution models which map the potential wintering areas. These include known and currently unrecognised wintering locations. Our maximum entropy model did not identify any new extensive candidate areas within the winter distribution, suggesting that most key sites are already known, but it did identify small sites on the coast of eastern Bangladesh, western Myanmar, and the Guangxi and Guangdong regions of China that may merit further investigation. As no extensive areas of new potential habitat were identified, we suggest that the priorities for the conservation of this species are habitat protection in important wintering and passage areas and reducing hunting pressure on birds at these sites.
Although infection by the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is relatively rare, consequences can be severe, with a high case-fatality rate in vulnerable populations. A quantitative, probabilistic risk assessment tool was developed to compare estimates of the number of invasive listeriosis cases in vulnerable Canadian subpopulations given consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat delicatessen meats and hot dogs, under various user-defined scenarios. The model incorporates variability and uncertainty through Monte Carlo simulation. Processes considered within the model include cross-contamination, growth, risk factor prevalence, subpopulation susceptibilities, and thermal inactivation. Hypothetical contamination events were simulated. Results demonstrated varying risk depending on the consumer risk factors and implicated product (turkey delicatessen meat without growth inhibitors ranked highest for this scenario). The majority (80%) of listeriosis cases were predicted in at-risk subpopulations comprising only 20% of the total Canadian population, with the greatest number of predicted cases in the subpopulation with dialysis and/or liver disease. This tool can be used to simulate conditions and outcomes under different scenarios, such as a contamination event and/or outbreak, to inform public health interventions.
Little is known about the influence of meal timing and energy consumption patterns throughout the day on glucose regulation during pregnancy. We examined the association of maternal feeding patterns with glycaemic levels among lean and overweight pregnant women. In a prospective cohort study in Singapore, maternal 24-h dietary recalls, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured at 26–28 weeks of gestation. Women (n 985) were classified into lean (BMI<23 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2) groups. They were further categorised as predominantly daytime (pDT) or predominantly night-time (pNT) feeders according to consumption of greater proportion of energy content from 07.00 to 18.59 hours or from 19.00 to 06.59 hours, respectively. On stratification by weight status, lean pNT feeders were found to have higher FG than lean pDT feeders (4·36 (sd 0·38) v. 4·22 (sd 0·35) mmol/l; P=0·002); however, such differences were not observed between overweight pDT and pNT feeders (4·49 (sd 0·60) v. 4·46 (sd 0·45) mmol/l; P=0·717). Using multiple linear regression with confounder adjustment, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG in the lean group (β=0·16 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·05, 0·26; P=0·003) but not in the overweight group (β=0·02 mmol/l; 95 % CI −0·17, 0·20; P=0·879). No significant association was found between maternal feeding pattern and 2HPPG in both the lean and the overweight groups. In conclusion, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG concentration in lean but not in overweight pregnant women, suggesting that there may be an adiposity-dependent effect of maternal feeding patterns on glucose tolerance during pregnancy.
Changes of glaciers and snow cover in polar regions affect a wide range of physical and ecosystem processes on land and in the adjacent marine environment. In this study, we investigated the potential of 11-day repeat high-resolution satellite image time series from the TerraSAR-X mission to derive glaciological and hydrological parameters on King George Island, Antarctica, between 25 October 2010 and 19 April 2011. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution of snow cover extent on ice-free areas can be monitored using multi-temporal coherence images. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherence is used to map glacier extent of land-terminating glaciers with an average accuracy of 25 m. Multi-temporal SAR colour composites identify the position of the late summer snow line at ~220 m a.s.l. Glacier surface velocities are obtained from intensity feature-tracking. Surface velocities near the calving front of Fourcade Glacier were up to 1.8±0.01 m d-1. Using an intercept theorem based on fundamental geometric principles together with differential GPS field measurements, the ice discharge of Fourcade Glacier was estimated at 20 700±5500 m3 d-1 (corresponding to ~19±5 kt d-1). The rapidly changing surface conditions on King George Island and the lack of high-resolution digital elevation models for the region remain restrictions for the applicability of SAR data and the precision of derived products. Supplemental data are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.853954.
This study aims to provide data on the physical profiles of the red goat of Maradi. It was conducted in the centre of the goat's main territory, and further comprised 4 departments of the Maradi area (Tessaoua in the east, Dakoro in the north, Madarounfa in the south and Guidan Roumdji in the west). This work was performed on 339 animals including 77 in the centre, 88 in the east, 69 in the north, 50 in the south and 55 in the west. It focused on the following measurements: height at withers, scapulo-ischial length, chest size, back length, length of the horns, ears and head, the presence of “pendeloques” and goatees, the coat color and structure of the hair. The results have shown differences between body variable measurements related to geographical position. In fact, the geographical position has significantly influenced body profiles, IGS and IAT indices (P < 0.0001). The dominant trend of the red color is probably an adaptation character of Maradi goats. Our contribution to define the standard of this breed of red goats should be summary as a population with medium size, short and erect ears, two horns (most developed in males) tilting back, short hair and the presence of a beard (beard developed in males) in both sexes. We also note the presence of “pendeloques” in some animals in the East of Maradi.