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Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P<0.01) with evaluations on days 31, 60 and 91. During the experiment, ADQ had greater (P<0.01) mean BCS and BW gain, and less (P<0.01) mean plasma cortisol concentration compared with EXC heifers. Temperament × time interactions were detected (P<0.01) for exit velocity and exit score, which were always greater (P<0.01) in EXC v. ADQ heifers. A temperament × time interaction was also detected (P=0.03) for puberty attainment, which was delayed in EXC v. ADQ heifers. At the end of the experiment, a greater (P<0.01) proportion of ADQ were pubertal compared with EXC heifers. In summary, B. indicus heifers classified as EXC had reduced growth, increased plasma cortisol concentrations and hindered puberty attainment compared to ADQ heifers. Moreover, exit velocity may serve as temperament selection criteria to optimize development of B. indicus replacement heifers.
Early identification of infants with CHD at heightened risk of developmental delays can inform surveillance priorities. This study investigated pre-operative and post-operative neuromotor performance in infants undergoing open-heart surgery, and their developmental status at 6 months of age, to identify risk factors and inform care pathways.
Infants undergoing open-heart surgery before 4 months of age were recruited into a prospective cohort study. Neuromotor performance was assessed pre-operatively and post-operatively using the Test of Infant Motor Performance and Prechtl’s Assessment of General Movements. Development was assessed at 6 months of age using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire third edition. Pre-operative and post-operative General Movements performance was compared using McNemar’s test and test of infant motor performance z-scores using Wilcoxon’s signed rank test. Risk factors for delayed development at 6 months were explored using logistic regression.
Sixty infants were included in this study. In the 23 (38%) infants. A total of 60 infants were recruited. In the 23 (38%) infants assessed pre-operatively, there was no significant difference between pre- and post-operative performance on the GMs (p=0.63) or TIMP (p=0.28). At discharge, 15 (26%) infants presented with abnormal GMs, and the median TIMP z-score was −0.93 (IQR: −1.4 to −0.69). At 6 months, 28 (52.8%) infants presented with gross motor delay on the ASQ-3, significantly negatively associated with gestational age (p=0.03), length of hospital stay (p=0.04) and discharge TIMP score (p=0.01).
Post-operative assessment using the GMs and TIMP may be useful to identify infants requiring individualised care and targeted developmental follow-up. Long-term developmental surveillance beyond 6 months of age is recommended.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
The aim of this study was to design and develop a set of, short message service (SMS) to promote specialized mental health care seeking within the framework of the Allillanchu Project.
The design phase consisted of 39 interviews with potential recipients of the SMS, about use of cellphones, and perceptions and motivations towards seeking mental health care. After the data collection, the research team developed a set of seven SMS for validation. The content validation phase consisted of 24 interviews. The participants answered questions regarding their understanding of the SMS contents and rated its appeal.
The seven SMS subjected to content validation were tailored to the recipient using their name. The reminder message included the working hours of the psychology service at the patient's health center. The motivational messages addressed perceived barriers and benefits when seeking mental health services. The average appeal score of the seven SMS was 9.0 (SD±0.4) of 10 points. Participants did not make significant suggestions to change the wording of the messages.
Five SMS were chosen to be used. This approach is likely to be applicable to other similar low-resource settings, and the methodology used can be adapted to develop SMS for other chronic conditions.
The present study aimed to evaluate trace mineral status of organic dairy herds in northern Spain and the sources of minerals in different types of feed. Blood samples from organic and conventional dairy cattle and feed samples from the respective farms were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of the essential trace elements (cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)). Overall, no differences between organic and conventional farms were detected in serum concentrations of essential and toxic trace elements (except for higher concentrations of Cd on the organic farms), although a high level of inter-farm variation was detected in the organic systems, indicating that organic production greatly depends on the specific local conditions. The dietary concentrations of the essential trace elements I, Cu, Se and Zn were significantly higher in the conventional than in the organic systems, which can be attributed to the high concentration of these minerals in the concentrate feed. No differences in the concentrations of trace minerals were found in the other types of feed. Multivariate chemometric analysis was conducted to determine the contribution of different feed sources to the trace element status of the cattle. Concentrate samples were mainly associated with Co, Cu, I, Se and Zn (i.e. with the elements supplemented in this type of feed). However, pasture and grass silage were associated with soil-derived elements (As, Cr, Fe and Pb) which cattle may thus ingest during grazing.
We present polarimetric observations of the 4 ground-state transitions of OH, toward a sample of maser-emitting planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This sample includes confirmed OH-emitting PNe, confirmed and candidate H2O-maser-emitting PNe. Polarimetric observations provide information related to the magnetic field of these sources. Maser-emitting PNe are very young PNe and magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the early evolution and shaping process of PNe. Our preliminary results suggest that magnetic field strengths may change very rapidly in young PNe.
Sleep difficulties and short sleep duration have been associated with hypertension. Though body mass index (BMI) may be a mediator variable, the mediation effect has not been defined. We aimed to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep difficulties with hypertension, to determine if BMI is a mediator variable, and to quantify the mediation effect. We conducted a mediation analysis and calculated prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The exposure variables were sleep duration and sleep difficulties, and the outcome was hypertension. Sleep difficulties were statistically significantly associated with a 43% higher prevalence of hypertension in multivariable analyses; results were not statistically significant for sleep duration. In these analyses, and in sex-specific subgroup analyses, we found no strong evidence that BMI mediated the association between sleep indices and risk of hypertension. Our findings suggest that BMI does not appear to mediate the association between sleep patterns and hypertension. These results highlight the need to further study the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep patterns and cardiovascular risk factors.
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up. We used Fine & Gray's model for the survival analyses with competing risks, since we had regarded immunodeficiency-unrelated deaths as a competing event, and we estimated the adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHRs). In 10 012·6 person-years of observation there were 3·1 deaths/100 person-years (2·3 immunodeficiency-related and 0·8 immunodeficiency-unrelated). TB (SHR 4·01), anaemia (SHR 3·58), CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (SHR 3·33) and being unemployed (SHR 1·56) were risk factors for immunodeficiency-related death. This study discloses a 13% coverage by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in our state and adds that anaemia at baseline or the incidence of TB may increase the specific risk of dying from HIV-immunodeficiency, regardless of HAART and CD4.
The development of an absolute radiometer instrument is currently a effort at INPE for TSI measurements. In this work, we describe the development of black Ni-P coatings for TSI radiometers absorptive cavities. We present a study of the surface blackening process and the relationships between morphological structure, chemical composition and coating absorption. Ni-P deposits with different phosphorous content were obtained by electroless techniques on aluminum substrates with a thin zincate layer. Appropriate phosphorus composition and etching parameters process produce low reflectance black coatings.
The detection of new binary central stars of planetary nebulae is crucial to definitively determine the importance of binary interactions in the nebular morphology. In this context, we are working on a project that aims to increase the low number of binary central stars detected so far. For that, we are first analyzing public archival data in order to discover potential candidates of binary central stars. These candidates will be subsequently followed-up in order to confirm and characterize them. Here we present our ongoing search and some preliminary results.
Multiwavelength and multitechnique observations towards NGC 6309 are presented. The data consist of λ3.6-cm continuum, ground- and space-based imaging, and high and low-dispersion longslit spectra. The structure of the central region seems to be a distorted, ring of 20″ in diameter. The lack of [N II] emission is conspicuous, as revealed by imaging and low dispersion spectra. Notably, the kinematics of the point-symmetric (PS) structures of NGC 6309 indicates the presence of lobes or cavities as those generally found in bipolar nebulae. The results lead to conclude that the origin of this peculiar morphology is not related to BRETs, but rather to that of a bipolar PN with PS structures in its lobes.
Water-vapour masers, typical of the envelopes in giant stars, are not expected to persist in planetary nebulae due to the ultraviolet radiation of the remnant star that progressively destroys the molecules. Recently, we have reported the first unambiguous detection of water maser emission in a planetary nebula, K 3–35 (Miranda et al. 2001). The water masers in K3–35 were detected at the center of the nebula, along the minor axis, at a radius of ~85 AU and also at the surprisingly large distance of 5000 AU from the star, at the tips of the bipolar lobes. The existence of these water molecules is puzzling, and probably we are observing the very moment of transformation of a giant star into a planetary nebula. Miranda et al. (2001) also report the presence of polarization in the OH 1665 MHz masers, which are distributed towards the central star in a torus-like structure. Here we review the main results on this source.
Long-slit optical spectroscopy and VLA-B radio continuum (λ = 3.6 cm) observations toward the compact planetary nebulae Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 are presented. Optical spectra were taken at different position angles (PAs) with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto (Spain), covering the range from 6549 to 6751 Å. The radio and optical data show that the ionized shell of Cn 3-1 is an ellipsoid (size ≃ 6″ × 5″, PA ≃ 72°) containing a bright ring-like equatorial zone (size ≃ 2″.6, expansion velocity ≃ 14 km s–1) and two bright point-symmetric arcs, extending from the equator towards the polar regions of the ellipsoid (Fig. 1). These arcs seem to be filamentary structures embedded in the ellipsoid. An ionized stellar wind has been detected through faint extended wings in the Hα (≃ 660 km s–1) and [N II] (≃ 460 km s–1) emission lines. M 3-27 is unresolved at 3.6 cm (size ≤ 0″6). The detected [N II] and [S II] emission lines arise in a compact (≤ 1″4) probably non-spherical region which is identified with the ionized shell of M 3-27. The Hα emission from M 3-27 is dominated by strong emission from an ionized stellar wind and exhibits a Type III P Cygni profile with very extended wings (≃ 3000 km s–1). The estimated kinematic age and ionized mass of Cn 3-1 (≃ 1300 yr, 4 × 10–2 M⊙) and M 3-27 (≤ 530 yr, ≃ 3 × 10–4 M⊙) indicate that both objects are young planetary nebulae. Extended halos (size ≃ 36″ in Cn 3-1, ≃ 24″ in M 3-27) have been spectroscopically detected in both objects. An analysis of the kinematic and emission properties shows that both halos are reflection nebulosities and suggests that the distribution of neutral material in them probably is largely isotropic. The results suggest that the halos correspond to isotropic mass ejections occurred in the last ≃ 2 × 104 yr of the AGB phase of the Cn 3-1 and M 3-27 progenitors.
We present VLA-A radio continuum at 3.6 cm and H92α observations, and optical long-slit spectra at high spectral and spatial resolution of the compact Planetary Nebulae (PNs) Hu 2-1, IC 4997, IC 5117 and NGC 6884. The radio continuum maps show the subarcsecond structure of the PNs in detail. From the optical spectra, the basic kinematical properties can be deduced. The H92α emission line, spatially and spectrally resolved in IC 5117 and Hu 2-1, allows us to observe the kinematics of the PNs in spatial scales of ∼ 0.3″. By combining the radio and optical data, it is possible to identify the components present in the nebulae, to deduce their spatio-kinematical structure, and to obtain estimates for the electron density and temperature, ionized masses and kinematical ages. All this information permits to impose constraints about the mass ejection processes involved in the formation of PNs and when they have occurred.
Timely morbidity surveillance of sheltered populations is crucial for identifying and addressing their immediate needs, and accurate surveillance allows us to better prepare for future disasters. However, disasters often create travel and communication challenges that complicate the collection and transmission of surveillance data. We describe a surveillance project conducted in New Jersey shelters after Hurricane Sandy, which occurred in November 2012, that successfully used cellular phones for remote real-time reporting. This project demonstrated that, when supported with just-in-time morbidity surveillance training, cellular phone reporting was a successful, sustainable, and less labor-intensive methodology than in-person shelter visits to capture morbidity data from multiple locations and opened a two-way communication channel with shelters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;10:525–528)