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Children with congenital heart disease and their families are at risk of psychosocial problems. Emotional and behavioural problems, impaired school functioning, and reduced exercise capacity often occur. To prevent and decrease these problems, we modified and extended the previously established Congenital Heart Disease Intervention Program (CHIP)–School, thereby creating CHIP-Family. CHIP-Family is the first psychosocial intervention with a module for children with congenital heart disease. Through a randomised controlled trial, we examined the effectiveness of CHIP-Family.
Ninety-three children with congenital heart disease (age M = 5.34 years, SD = 1.27) were randomised to CHIP-Family (n = 49) or care as usual (no psychosocial care; n = 44). CHIP-Family consisted of a 1-day group workshop for parents, children, and siblings and an individual follow-up session for parents. CHIP-Family was delivered by psychologists, paediatric cardiologists, and physiotherapists. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, mothers, fathers, teachers, and the child completed questionnaires to assess psychosocial problems, school functioning, and sports enjoyment. Moreover, at 6-month follow-up, parents completed program satisfaction assessments.
Although small improvements in child outcomes were observed in the CHIP-Family group, no statistically significant differences were found between outcomes of the CHIP-Family and care-as-usual group. Mean parent satisfaction ratings ranged from 7.4 to 8.1 (range 0–10).
CHIP-Family yielded high program acceptability ratings. However, compared to care as usual, CHIP-Family did not find the same extent of statistically significant outcomes as CHIP-School. Replication of promising psychological interventions, and examination of when different outcomes are found, is recommended for refining interventions in the future.
An insect trap constructed using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was tested in potato (Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) fields to determine whether it could substitute for the standard yellow sticky card used to monitor Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Sticky cards have shortcomings that prompted search for a replacement: cards are messy, require weekly replacement, are expensive to purchase, and accumulate large numbers of nontarget insects. Bactericera cockerelli on sticky cards also deteriorate enough that specimens cannot be tested reliably for the presence of vectored plant pathogens. A prototype trap constructed using 3D printing technology for monitoring Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Liviidae) was tested for monitoring B. cockerelli. The trap was designed to attract B. cockerelli visually to the trap and then funnel specimens into preservative-filled vials at the trap bottom. Prototype traps were paired against yellow sticky cards at multiple fields to compare the captures of B. cockerelli between cards and traps. The prototype trap was competitive with sticky cards early in the growing season when B. cockerelli numbers were low. We estimated that two or three prototype traps would collect as many B. cockerelli as one sticky card under these conditions. Efficacy of the prototype declined as B. cockerelli numbers increased seasonally. The prototype trap accumulated nontarget taxa that are common on sticky cards (especially Thysanoptera and Diptera), and was also found to capture taxa of possible interest in integrated pest management research, including predatory insects, parasitic Hymenoptera, and winged Aphididae (Hemiptera), suggesting that the traps could be useful outside of the purpose targeted here. We believe that 3D printing technology has substantial promise for developing monitoring tools that exploit behavioural traits of the targeted insect. Ongoing work includes the use of this technology to modify the prototype, with a focus on making it more effective at capturing psyllids and less susceptible to capture of nontarget species.
By "positive definite matrices" or, briefly, definite matrices, we mean in this note self-adjoint matrices all the characteristic values of which are positive. Alternatively, they can be defined as matrices, all the hermitian quadratic forms of which are real and positive. It is well known that these two definitions are equivalent and it is the existence of two equivalent definitions which renders the subject particularly interesting. Thus, it follows from the first definition that A-1 is positive definite for positive definite A ; it follows from the second definition that the sum of two positive definite matrices is also positive definite. Similarly, we shall call a matrix positive semidefinite or, briefly, semidefinite if it is self-adjoint and none of its characteristic values are negative, or if all of its hermitian quadratic forms are non-negative. A matrix which is definite is also semidefinite but a semidefinite matrix is, of course, not necessarily definite.
The Disputationes Camaldulenses of Cristoforo Landino constitute an important document. Composed in the manner of Ciceronian dialogues, they present us with a group of speakers famous in the history of Florentine thought: among others, Lorenzo de’ Medici, Alberti, and Ficino of the ‘Platonic Academy’ at Careggi to which Landino belonged; Alamanno Rinuccini, the Acciaiuoli, and Marco Parenti of the other ‘academy', presided over by Argyropoulos. The first dialogue deals with the relative merits of the active and contemplative life, the second with the problem of the highest good—two topics dear to the Renaissance. The third and fourth give an allegorical interpretation of the Aeneid. It would be hard to find personages or themes more central to quattrocento intellectual history. Inevitably one looks to the Disputationes for the light they throw on these Florentine scholars and on their interests.
This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 °C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community engagement is a commonly used term, but is complex in both meaning and application. In order to help academic institutions and administrators develop infrastructure to promote and support community engagement and to help investigators work productively with communities, this analysis discusses the major components of community engagement in research on both the institutional and individual project levels as well as the interplay between them. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A literature synthesis conducted by a community engagement in research committee at 1 CTSA institution that examined the myriad factors related to effective community engagement in research identified across multiple disciplines was used to distill the major factors identified, assesses the interplay of the identified factors, and produce a conceptual model to help administrators and investigators apply best practices in engaging communities in clinical and translational research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This work takes a concept—community engagement in research—that is often stated and discussed, but is highly complex and challenging to implement—and identifies and discusses the multiple, interrelated factors germane to it. The model illustrates that while community engagement in research is implemented in the context of individual projects, a deep and continual interplay between individual projects and the goals, capacity, and policies of research institutions is needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results are presented through a conceptual framework which displays the major components needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement in clinical and translational research. In addition, the conceptual framework presented will provide assistance to those developing approaches to measure and evaluate institutional readiness for community engagement in research as well as the effectiveness of individual community engagement efforts.
Examining the human dimensions of conservation science continues to generate attention, with a move towards an interdisciplinary agenda that incorporates both the natural and social sciences, and recognition of the importance of understanding human involvement in biodiversity and ecological matters. However, one line of enquiry has been largely neglected: the job perceptions of front-line conservation area rangers. Examining intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors can shed light on job stress and job satisfaction, recruitment, productivity, and retention and turnover. Furthermore, little is known about potential intergenerational linkages within the ranger profession, which is a significant gap, given the potential role of the family in pre-employment socialization and career choice. Drawing from surveys of 530 rangers working in 39 conservation areas in 11 Asian countries, we found variation amongst intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and mixed-motivated rangers in terms of a desire to see their children become rangers. Extrinsically motivated rangers were most likely to want their children to enter the profession, and intrinsically motivated rangers expressed significant concern about the inadequacy of the work environment. Implications for both conservation and criminal justice policy and research are discussed.
As a consequence of the 17 April 1905 law on religious freedom, hundreds of baptized Jews petitioned to return to Judaism. While the law paralleled the liberalization of the attitudes and values regarding religious differences that occurred in European societies between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries, the reform also helped destabilize traditional social boundaries and religious identities in the empire. On one level, this essay examines the conflicts and problems authorities faced in categorizing a Jewish population that continually resisted conventional assumptions. In the context of rapid population movements, political and religious reforms, and increased acculturation, what it meant to be “Jewish” was redefined, and administrators needed to establish an acceptable criterion by which (baptized) Jews could be classified. On another level, this essay draws on individual petitions and government correspondence to analyze the personal choices and social dilemmas that baptized Jews faced when they attempted to return to Judaism.