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be a compact orientable surface of genus
boundary component. The mapping class group
acts on the
-character variety of
. We show that the action is ergodic with respect to the natural symplectic measure on the character variety.
Breast-feeding initiation and continuation rates in the UK and Ireland are low relative to many European countries. As a core outcome of the prospective Cork Nutrition and Development Maternal-Infant Cohort (COMBINE) study (Cork, Ireland), we aimed to describe infant milk feeding practices in detail and examine the prevalence and impact of combination feeding of breast milk and infant formula on breast-feeding duration. COMBINE recruited 456 nulliparous mothers (2015–2017) for maternal–infant follow-up via interview at hospital discharge (median 3 (interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4) d (n 453)), 1 (n 418), 2 (n 392), 4 (n 366), 6 (n 362) and 9 (n 345) months of age. Median maternal age was 32 (IQR 29, 34) years, 97 % of mothers were of white ethnicity, 79 % were Irish-born and 75 % were college-educated. Overall, 75 % breastfed to any extent at discharge and 44 % breastfed solely. At 1, 2, 4, 6 and 9 months, respectively, 40, 36, 33, 24 and 19 % breastfed solely. Combination feeding of breast milk and infant formula was common at discharge (31 %) and 1 month (20 %). Reasons for combination feeding at 1 month included perceived/actual hunger (30 %), healthcare professional advice (31 %) and breast-feeding difficulties (13 %). Of mothers who breastfed to any extent at discharge, 45 % stopped within 4 months. Mothers who combination fed were more likely to cease breast-feeding than those who breastfed solely (relative risk 2·3 by 1 month and 12·0 by 2 months). These granular data provide valuable insight to early milk feeding practices and indicate that supporting early breast-feeding without formula use may be key to the successful continuation of breast-feeding.
Children with congenital heart disease and their families are at risk of psychosocial problems. Emotional and behavioural problems, impaired school functioning, and reduced exercise capacity often occur. To prevent and decrease these problems, we modified and extended the previously established Congenital Heart Disease Intervention Program (CHIP)–School, thereby creating CHIP-Family. CHIP-Family is the first psychosocial intervention with a module for children with congenital heart disease. Through a randomised controlled trial, we examined the effectiveness of CHIP-Family.
Ninety-three children with congenital heart disease (age M = 5.34 years, SD = 1.27) were randomised to CHIP-Family (n = 49) or care as usual (no psychosocial care; n = 44). CHIP-Family consisted of a 1-day group workshop for parents, children, and siblings and an individual follow-up session for parents. CHIP-Family was delivered by psychologists, paediatric cardiologists, and physiotherapists. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, mothers, fathers, teachers, and the child completed questionnaires to assess psychosocial problems, school functioning, and sports enjoyment. Moreover, at 6-month follow-up, parents completed program satisfaction assessments.
Although small improvements in child outcomes were observed in the CHIP-Family group, no statistically significant differences were found between outcomes of the CHIP-Family and care-as-usual group. Mean parent satisfaction ratings ranged from 7.4 to 8.1 (range 0–10).
CHIP-Family yielded high program acceptability ratings. However, compared to care as usual, CHIP-Family did not find the same extent of statistically significant outcomes as CHIP-School. Replication of promising psychological interventions, and examination of when different outcomes are found, is recommended for refining interventions in the future.
An insect trap constructed using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology was tested in potato (Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus; Solanaceae) fields to determine whether it could substitute for the standard yellow sticky card used to monitor Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Sticky cards have shortcomings that prompted search for a replacement: cards are messy, require weekly replacement, are expensive to purchase, and accumulate large numbers of nontarget insects. Bactericera cockerelli on sticky cards also deteriorate enough that specimens cannot be tested reliably for the presence of vectored plant pathogens. A prototype trap constructed using 3D printing technology for monitoring Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Liviidae) was tested for monitoring B. cockerelli. The trap was designed to attract B. cockerelli visually to the trap and then funnel specimens into preservative-filled vials at the trap bottom. Prototype traps were paired against yellow sticky cards at multiple fields to compare the captures of B. cockerelli between cards and traps. The prototype trap was competitive with sticky cards early in the growing season when B. cockerelli numbers were low. We estimated that two or three prototype traps would collect as many B. cockerelli as one sticky card under these conditions. Efficacy of the prototype declined as B. cockerelli numbers increased seasonally. The prototype trap accumulated nontarget taxa that are common on sticky cards (especially Thysanoptera and Diptera), and was also found to capture taxa of possible interest in integrated pest management research, including predatory insects, parasitic Hymenoptera, and winged Aphididae (Hemiptera), suggesting that the traps could be useful outside of the purpose targeted here. We believe that 3D printing technology has substantial promise for developing monitoring tools that exploit behavioural traits of the targeted insect. Ongoing work includes the use of this technology to modify the prototype, with a focus on making it more effective at capturing psyllids and less susceptible to capture of nontarget species.
This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 °C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community engagement is a commonly used term, but is complex in both meaning and application. In order to help academic institutions and administrators develop infrastructure to promote and support community engagement and to help investigators work productively with communities, this analysis discusses the major components of community engagement in research on both the institutional and individual project levels as well as the interplay between them. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A literature synthesis conducted by a community engagement in research committee at 1 CTSA institution that examined the myriad factors related to effective community engagement in research identified across multiple disciplines was used to distill the major factors identified, assesses the interplay of the identified factors, and produce a conceptual model to help administrators and investigators apply best practices in engaging communities in clinical and translational research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This work takes a concept—community engagement in research—that is often stated and discussed, but is highly complex and challenging to implement—and identifies and discusses the multiple, interrelated factors germane to it. The model illustrates that while community engagement in research is implemented in the context of individual projects, a deep and continual interplay between individual projects and the goals, capacity, and policies of research institutions is needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results are presented through a conceptual framework which displays the major components needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement in clinical and translational research. In addition, the conceptual framework presented will provide assistance to those developing approaches to measure and evaluate institutional readiness for community engagement in research as well as the effectiveness of individual community engagement efforts.
Examining the human dimensions of conservation science continues to generate attention, with a move towards an interdisciplinary agenda that incorporates both the natural and social sciences, and recognition of the importance of understanding human involvement in biodiversity and ecological matters. However, one line of enquiry has been largely neglected: the job perceptions of front-line conservation area rangers. Examining intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors can shed light on job stress and job satisfaction, recruitment, productivity, and retention and turnover. Furthermore, little is known about potential intergenerational linkages within the ranger profession, which is a significant gap, given the potential role of the family in pre-employment socialization and career choice. Drawing from surveys of 530 rangers working in 39 conservation areas in 11 Asian countries, we found variation amongst intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and mixed-motivated rangers in terms of a desire to see their children become rangers. Extrinsically motivated rangers were most likely to want their children to enter the profession, and intrinsically motivated rangers expressed significant concern about the inadequacy of the work environment. Implications for both conservation and criminal justice policy and research are discussed.
Although the Great Basin of North America has produced some of the most robust and ancient fiber artifact assemblages in the world, many were recovered with poor chronological controls. Consequently, this class of artifacts has seldom been effectively incorporated into general discussions of early chronological and cultural patterns. In recent years, the Great Basin Textile Dating Project has accumulated direct AMS dates on textiles (bags, sandals, mats, cordage, and basketry) from dry caves in the Great Basin, particularly in the northern and western areas. We focus here on the terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene, to identify chronological patterns in this class of artifacts and to evaluate Adovasio’s characterization of the region’s earliest basketry as simple and undecorated. New AMS dates now suggest that the region’s earliest people had sophisticated textile traditions that incorporated numerous decorative elaborations. Some distinctive structures, including Fort Rock sandals and weft-faced plaited textiles, have limited early temporal ranges and may serve as diagnostic indicators for terminal Pleistocene/early Holocene times. Other basketry forms and structures that appear by about 9000 cal B.P. persist into the historic period, suggesting a stronger thread of continuity (especially in the north) from this time than is apparent in lithic traditions