Brush control and woody plant community structure in the Cross Timbers of Oklahoma resulting from treatments with herbicides and fire were compared. Tebuthiuron and triclopyr were applied alone and in combination with burning at 2.2 kg ai ha-1 in March and June of 1983, respectively. The burned pastures were burned with strip headfires in late spring of 1985, 1986, and 1987. Both herbicides were effective on the dominant overstory brush species, blackjack oak and post oak, and this resulted in good reduction of canopy cover of brush initially. However, effects of triclopyr were short-lived because of ineffectiveness on many of the other hardwood species (American elm, gum bumelia, hackberry, roughleaf dogwood, and buckbrush). Crown reduction and tree kill of these hardwood species was usually better with tebuthiuron than with triclopyr. Neither herbicide was effective on eastern redcedar. Better brush control, associated with tebuthiuron, resulted in better fine fuel release and by 1988, burning was having a significant effect on woody plants in the tebuthiuron-treated plots.