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Reduced plasma vitamin D (VD) levels may contribute to excessive white adipose tissue, insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidaemia. We evaluated the effect of chronic oral VD supplementation on adiposity and insulin secretion in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats. During their first 5 d of life, male neonate rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 g/kg), while the control (CON) group received saline solution. After weaning, groups were randomly distributed into VD supplemented (12 µg/kg; three times/week) and non-supplemented (NS) rats, forming four experimental groups (n 15 rats/group): CON-NS, CON-VD, MSG-NS and MSG-VD. At 76 d of life, rats were submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 2 g/kg), and at 86 d, obesity, IR and plasma metabolic parameters were evaluated. Pancreatic islets were isolated for glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS), cholinergic insulinotropic response and muscarinic 3 receptor (M3R), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) expressions. Pancreas was submitted to histological analyses. VD supplementation decreased hyperinsulinaemia (86 %), hypertriacylglycerolaemia (50 %) and restored insulin sensibility (89 %) in MSG-VD rats, without modifying adiposity, OGTT or GIIS, compared with the MSG-NS group. The cholinergic action was reduced (57 %) in islets from MSG-VD rats, without any change in M3R, PKA or PKC expression. In conclusion, chronic oral VD supplementation of MSG-obese rats was able to prevent hyperinsulinaemia and IR, improving triacylglycerolaemia without modifying adiposity. A reduced cholinergic pancreatic effect, in response to VD, could be involved in the normalisation of plasma insulin levels, an event that appears to be independent of M3R and its downstream pathways.
We tested the hypotheses that supplementation of a diet with elemental Mg increases ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) in rumen fluid, which in turn alters rumen fermentation and microbial community in goats. In a randomised block design, twenty growing goats were allocated to two treatments fed the same basal diet with 1·45 % Mg(OH)2 or 0·6 % elemental Mg. After 28 d of adaptation, we collected total faeces to measure total tract digestibility, rumen contents to analyse fermentation end products and microbial groups, and measured methane (CH4) emission using respiration chambers. Ruminal Mg2+ concentration was similar in both treatments. Elemental Mg supplementation increased dH2 at 2·5 h post morning feeding (+180 %, P<0·001). Elemental Mg supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration (−8·6 %, P<0·001), the acetate:propionate ratio (−11·8 %, P<0·03) and fungal copy numbers (−63·6 %, P=0·006), and increased propionate molar percentage (+11·6 %, P<0·001), methanogen copy numbers (+47·9 %, P<0·001), dissolved CH4 (+35·6 %, P<0·001) and CH4 emissions (+11·7 %, P=0·03), compared with Mg(OH)2 supplementation. The bacterial community composition in both treatments was overall similar. Ruminal dH2 was negatively correlated with acetate molar percentage and fungal copy numbers (P<0·05), and positively correlated with propionate molar percentage and methanogen copy numbers (P<0·05). In summary, elemental Mg supplementation increased ruminal dH2 concentration, which inhibited rumen fermentation, enhanced methanogenesis and seemed to shift fermentation pathways from acetate to propionate, and altered microbiota by decreasing fungi and increasing methanogens.
This study is focused on slide blocks including oceanic lavas associated with pelagic sediments within the eastern part of the Ankara Mélange. A detailed petrological characterization of the volcanic rocks and a detailed biochronological investigation of the associated radiolarian cherts in eight sections (east of Ankara) was carried out. The volcanic rocks are largely represented by basalts and minor ferrobasalts and trachytes. They show different geochemical affinities and overlapping ages including: (a) Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous garnet-influenced MORB (middle late Oxfordian to late Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian and early–early late Tithonian; late Valanginian–early Barremian); (b) Early Cretaceous enriched-MORB (middle late Barremian–early early Aptian; Valanginian to middle Aptian–early Albian); (c) Middle Jurassic plume-type MORB (early–middle Bajocian to late Bathonian–early Callovian); (d) Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous alkaline basalts (middle–late Oxfordian to late Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian; late Valanginian to late Hauterivian). All rock types show a clear garnet signature, as testified to by their high MREE/HREE (middle rare earth element/heavy rare earth element) ratios. The coexistence of chemically different rock types from Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times suggests that they were formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting from partial melting of a highly heterogeneous mantle characterized by the extensive occurrence of OIB-metasomatized portions, which were likely inherited from Triassic mantle plume activity associated with the continental rift and opening of the Neotethys branch.
Four isolipidic and isoenergetic diets with different protein:carbohydrate (CH) contents (48:38, 52:34, 56:30, 60:26) were fed to juvenile Senegalese sole (22·01 (sem 0·01) g) during 104 d. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at the beginning (4 d) and at the end (104 d) of the experiment to assess the effect of the dietary treatment on glucose tolerance. Samples of blood, liver and muscle of all dietary groups were also obtained at the initial and final phases of the trial at different postprandial times (0, 1, 5 and 10 h after feeding) in order to analyse glucose and NEFA in plasma, and metabolites and enzyme activities involved in glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis pathways in liver and muscle. The results obtained in this study suggest a good glucose tolerance in Senegalese sole. This species tolerated important amounts of CH in the diet without showing any deleterious signs in terms of growth or any metabolic disorders. After 104 d of feeding diets with an important amount of CH (48:38 and 52:34), the control of glycaemia was maintained and even postprandial glucose levels in plasma were (in general) lower than at the beginning of the experiment. This reasonable tolerance to glucose is also reflected by an increased use of glucose through glycolysis in liver (indicated by glucokinase activity), and the absence of changes in lipogenic potential in the same tissue (indicated by ATP citrate lyase activity). No clear changes were induced in the muscle by the dietary treatments.
This paper focus on evaluating the ability to use Mexican fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) to produce alkali cements (0% OPC) or hybrid cements (20% OPC + 80% fly ash). The alkali activators used were two: 8 M NaOH solution for alkali cements and NaCl with sodium silicate for hybrid cement (HYC). Results of mechanical testing and characterization of the reaction products formed after 2 and 28 days are presented and discussed. Mechanical strength in some cases exceeded 20 MPa, at 2 days curing. The chemical characterization techniques used were X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The present work is a study on alkali activation of Mexican blast furnace slag, using sodium silicate. The aim is to produce an optimal specimen, homogeneous without carbonation, and with small fraction of crystalline phases, similar to CSH, which provide mechanical properties suitable to use in the construction industry. The samples were prepared using sodium silicate activator solutions with modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75. The weight percentage of Na2O in the activator solutions was added at 4, 6 and 8% relative to the slag weight. The prepared samples were stored in sealed molds, at room temperature (20°C), during 7 days. The X-ray diffraction has revealed the presence of an amorphous phase, semi crystalline clinotobermorite phase and signals of calcium carbonate for the samples of 4 and 6 % of Na2O; in contrast with the 8% Na2O, where the latter signals almost disappeared. The specimen selected as optimal was prepared with an activator concentration of 8% of Na2O /Slag, and SiO2/Na2O of 1.25. A specimen under these optimal conditions was prepared with accelerated curing (40°C, humidity, 48 hours), and a compressive strength test was attained, with an average value of 52 MPa at 3 days.
New 1212- type Molybdo-Cuprates of with composition Mo0.5Cu0.5Sr2RECu2O7.5 (RE = Rare Earth) have been prepared by High Pressure and High Temperature (HPHT) synthesis. Their crystal structures are characterized by combining the X-Ray/Neutron powder diffraction and electron diffraction techniques. All the materials show tetragonal symmetry, crystallizing in the P4/mmm space group (S.G.). The chain oxygens are randomly distributed in the two different oxygen sites, which are not completely filled and the defect induced by oxygen vacancies in fact makes the chain fragmented and disordered. The microstructure of these compounds is interpreted by a well-known diagonal cell √2ap × √2ap × 3ap, as confirmed by the Electron diffraction (ED) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show the predominance of the non magnetic MoVI state over the MoV one. At the same time oxidation state of copper is found to be dominated by CuII.
Tensile strength of concrete is limited and therefore is sensitive to crack formation. Steel reinforcement is added to bear the tensile forces; nonetheless, this does not completely omit crack formation. Repair of cracks in concrete is time-consuming and expensive. Self-sealing and self-healing of cracks upon appearance would therefore be a convenient property. We propose a mechanism to obtain self-repair of the concrete by adding soluble silicates (ASS) which will induce a self-sealing and self-healing process catalyzed by natural periods of wet and dry states of the concrete. Self-sealing approaches prevent the ingress of harsh chemical substances which may deteriorate the concrete matrix. This can be achieved by self-healing of concrete cracks (e.g. further cement hydration, calcium carbonate precipitation) and autonomous healing (e.g. further hydration of partially soluble silicates added as healing agents). The autogenous healing efficiency depends on the amount of deposited reaction products (ASS), its solubility (ratio of calcium to sodium silicate), the availability of water, and the crack width (restricted by adding microfibers). The self-sealing efficiency is generally evaluated by measuring the decrease in water permeability and air flow through the crack. The healing efficiency is usually evaluated by testing concrete´s regain in mechanical properties after crack formation; by reloading the cracked and autonomously healed specimen and comparing the obtained mechanical properties with the original ones. Self-sealing and self-healing of concrete gives a broad perspective and new possibilities to make future concrete structures more durable.
A potential alternative to achieve smart materials for biomedical applications is the combination of natural and synthetic polymers. In order to understand the structure and properties of two γ-radiation grafted biopolymers, chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS/PNIPAAm) and cotton-g-2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (CG-DMAEMA) were analyzed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) 13C-CPMAS at different contact times (tCP). The use of different tCP in this grafted biopolymers showed that chemical shifting, broadening, size and symmetry of the some signals, gives important information for structure elucidation and molecular mobility. SSNMR spectra indicate changes in the local order structure, CG suffered less modifications when it is grafted than CS. CG-g-DMAEMA spectrum is very similar to CG spectrum, in contrast with spectrum of CS-g-NIPAAm, is very different than CS. Spectra of swelling polymers in water showed more structural information about secondary structure.
Nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles exhibiting pine-tree-like morphologies were synthesized on silicon–silicon oxide (Si/SiO2) substrates using a pressure-controlled chemical vapor deposition process. Electron field emission (FE) measurements showed a notable emission improvement at low turn-on voltages for the CNT pine-like morphologies (e.g., 0.59 V/µm) in comparison with standard aligned N-doped CNTs (>1.5 V/µm). We envisage that these pine-tree-like structures could be potentially useful in the fabrication of efficient FE and photonic devices.
Postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) can be taken up by macrophages, leading to the formation of foam cells, probably via receptor-mediated pathways. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the postprandial time point at which TRL are collected modulates this process. A meal containing refined olive oil was given to nine healthy young men and TRL were isolated from their serum at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. The lipid class and apoB compositions of TRL were determined by HPLC and SDS–PAGE, respectively. The accumulation of lipids in macrophages was determined after the incubation of THP-1 macrophages with TRL. The gene expression of candidate receptors was measured by real-time PCR. The highest concentrations of TAG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TRL were observed at 2 h after the consumption of the test meal. However, excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages was observed in response to incubation with TRL isolated at 4 h, when their particle size (estimated as the TAG:apoB ratio) was intermediate. The abundance of mRNA transcripts in macrophages in response to incubation with TRL was down-regulated for LDL receptor (LDLR), slightly up-regulated for VLDL receptor and remained unaltered for LDLR-related protein, but no effect of the postprandial time point was observed. In contrast, the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors SRB1, SRA2 and CD36 was higher when cells were incubated with TRL isolated at 4 h after the consumption of the test meal. In conclusion, TRL led to excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, which was greater when cells were incubated with intermediate-sized postprandial TRL isolated at 4 h and was associated with a significant increase in the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors.
The influence of oxygenation in the magnetism, superconductivity and electronic states for the Mo0.3Cu0.7Sr2RECu2Oy (RE = Y, Er and Tm) compounds are discussed here. The magnetic measurements on the as-prepared (AP) samples suggest the existence of short-range magnetic correlations due to the presence of the paramagnetic MoV cations in the copper chain site. On the other hand, all the oxygenated samples are not magnetic but superconducting. The high pressure oxygenated sample shows the highest superconducting transition temperature of TC = 84 K. The influence of oxygenation in the electronic states for the Mo0.3Cu0.7Sr2YCu2Oy system associated with an oxidation reaction leading from a non-superconducting to a superconducting state has also been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS measurements show the predominance of the MoV oxidation state over the MoVI one in the AP material; annealing under flowing oxygen enhances both the MoVI and CuII amounts. A detailed study of the electronic states for the Mo0.3Cu0.7Sr2YCu2Oy samples has been performed and is also discussed.
Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose.
We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline.
Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB.
Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.
We hypothesised that the inclusion of glycerol in the forage diets of ruminants would increase the proportion of propionate produced and thereby decrease in vitro CH4 production. This hypothesis was examined in the present study using a semi-continuous fermentation system (rumen simulation technique) fed a brome hay (8·5 g) and maize silage (1·5 g) diet with increasing concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg DM) of glycerol substituted for maize silage. Glycerol linearly increased total volatile fatty acids production (P< 0·001). Acetate production was quadratically affected (P= 0·023) and propionate and butyrate production was linearly increased (P< 0·001). Glycerol linearly increased (P= 0·011) DM disappearance from hay and silage. Crude protein disappearance from hay was not affected (P= 0·789), but that from silage was linearly increased (P< 0·001) with increasing glycerol concentrations. Neutral-detergent fibre (P= 0·040) and acid-detergent fibre (P= 0·031) disappearance from hay and silage was linearly increased by glycerol. Total gas production tended to increase linearly (P= 0·061) and CH4 concentration in gas was linearly increased (P< 0·001) by glycerol, resulting in a linear increase (P< 0·001) in mg CH4/g DM digested. Our hypothesis was rejected as increasing concentrations of glycerol in a forage diet linearly increased CH4 production in semi-continuous fermenters, despite the increases in the concentrations of propionate. In conclusion, this apparent discrepancy is due to the more reduced state of glycerol when compared with carbohydrates, which implies that there is no net incorporation of electrons when glycerol is metabolised to propionate.
To evaluate oxidative damage through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl groups; antioxidant enzymatic system – superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and energetic metabolism in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive adult rats (SHR) after both acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH).
Adult (60 days old) SHRs were treated during 28 days (chronic treatment), or 1 day (acute treatment). The rats received one i.p. injection per day of either saline or MPH (2 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, oxidative damage parameters and energetic metabolism in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cortex were evaluated.
We observed that both acute and/or chronic treatment increased TBARS and carbonyl groups, and decreased SOD and CAT activities in many of the brain structures evaluated. Regarding the energetic metabolism evaluation, the acute and chronic treatment altered the energetic metabolism in many of the brain structures evaluated.
We observed that both acute and chronic use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was associated with increased oxidative stress and energetic metabolism alterations. These data also reinforce the importance of the SHR animal model in further studies regarding MPH.
Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the central nervous system characterised by strong inflammatory response. The brain is highly dependent on ATP, and the cell energy is obtained through oxidative phosphorylation, a process which requires the action of various respiratory enzyme complexes and creatine kinase (CK) as an effective buffering system of cellular ATP levels in tissues that consume high energy.
Evaluate the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, III, IV and CK activity in hippocampus and cortex of the Wistar rat submitted to meningitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Adult Wistar rats received either 10 µl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of K. pneumoniae suspension. The animals were killed in different times at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after meningitis induction. Another group was treated with antibiotic, starting at 16 h and continuing daily until their decapitation at 24 and 48 h after induction.
In the hippocampus, the meningitis group without antibiotic treatment, the complex I was increased at 24 and 48 h, complex II was increased at 48 h, complex III was inhibited at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h and in complex IV all groups with or without antibiotic treatment were inhibited after meningitis induction, in the cortex there was no alteration.
Although descriptive, our results show that antibiotic prevented in part the changes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The meningitis model could be a good research tool to study the biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of the K. pneumoniae meningitis.
Objectives: Based on the hypothesis that energy impairment may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we evaluated the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, IV and creatine kinase (CK) in the brain of rats submitted to chronic administration of bupropion.
Methods: Animals received daily administration of bupropion dissolved in saline (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) at 1.0 ml/kg body weight. The rats received injections once a day for 14 days; control rats received an equivalent volume of saline. Twelve hours after the last administration, the rats were killed by decapitation and brain was rapidly removed and kept on an ice plate. The activities of the enzymes were measured in different brain areas.
Results: We observed that the activities of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase, mithocondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II-III and IV and CK were not altered after chronic administration of bupropion. However, SDH activity was increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum the activity of complex II was increased after chronic administration of bupropion.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that bupropion increased some enzymes of brain energy metabolism. These findings are in accordance with other studies which showed that some antidepressants may improve energy metabolism. The present results reinforce the hypothesis that antidepressants modulate brain energy metabolism.
Many migratory waterbird populations are in decline and loss of natural wetlands is one of the main causes. However, some species may respond positively to artificial wetland recreation. In Extremadura (south-west Europe), several large reservoirs were created for irrigation since the 1960s and some comparatively small reservoirs were built from the late 1990s onwards close to rice fields. Here we analyse the abundance of wintering dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Extremadura before (1991–1994) and after (2007–2010) the creation of these new reservoirs in order to address the current importance of the area for this guild within the East Atlantic Flyway (EAF). A mean of 25,277 dabbling ducks wintered in the study area during 1991–1994, increasing to 46,163 individuals during 2007–2010. After controlling for environmental variables, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal A. crecca and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata experienced significant increases in the area between both periods, and only Eurasian Wigeon A. penelope suffered a significant decrease. Mallard A. platyrhynchos and Gadwall A. strepera populations did not show any significant trend. The large older reservoirs experienced overall population decreases between the two periods, with four new reservoirs holding more than 35,000 wintering dabbling ducks. Our results reflect an overall improvement in habitat conditions, driven by the creation of reservoirs near to rice fields that could have resulted in a partial redistribution of wintering dabbling ducks in the EAF. The area emerges as one of the most important wintering sites for dabbling ducks in southern Europe, regularly exceeding two of the Ramsar Convention criteria for the conservation of several populations. The protection of these new reservoirs by legal mechanisms would guarantee the existence of a large functional wetland area, which could also mitigate the loss of natural wetlands for populations using the EAF.
The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability.
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a mental illness associated with higher rates of suicide. The present study aims to investigate the brain mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in an animal model of mania induced by ouabain.
Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a single intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain (10−3 and 10−2 M) or vehicle. Locomotor activity was measured using the open field test. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was measured in the brain of rats 1 h and 7 days after ouabain administration.
Results: Our results showed that spontaneous locomotion was increased 1 h and 7 days after ouabain administration. Complexes I, III and IV activities were increased in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum immediately after the administration of ouabain, at the concentration of 10−3 and 10−2 M. Moreover, complex II activity was increased only in the prefrontal cortex at the concentration of 10−2 M. On the other hand, no significant alterations were observed in complex I activity 7 days after ouabain administration. However, an increase in complexes II, III and IV activities was observed only in the prefrontal cortex at the concentration of 10−2 M.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest an increase in the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain in this model of mania. A possible explanation is that these findings occur as a rebound effect trying to compensate for a decrease of ATP deprivation in BD. The present findings suggest that this model may present good face validity and a limitation in construct validity.