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The changes in the payment scheme proposed by the Milk Marketing Board from 1 April 1984 cover a number of issues relating to compositional quality, seasonality of pricing and the monthly distribution of production. Although the changes in total must be financially self-balancing on a national basis, the effect on individual farms may be significant.
A computer program has been used on the records from a number of farms to investigate the effect of the changes, separately and together, on annual and monthly income from milk. The effects on three herds were as follows.
Herd 1 was a Jersey herd that showed an overall increase in income per cow, due mainly to the higher price of protein. Herds with a high protein to lactose ratio in the milk will stand to gain from the new price of protein.
Herd 2 was a Friesian/Holstein herd with a low protein and low milk fat content in the milk. The herd was also calving seasonally and had a low output of milk during August and September. A substantial decrease in income of approximately £29 per cow was due principally to the low protein to lactose ratio but also to the low fat content and the seasonal pattern of milk production on the farm.
Farm management is the meeting-point of science, economics, man-management, marketing, planning and decision-making on the farm. From such a diverse background and because of the variable nature of farming itself, the supply of management information to the farmer is a subject which merits considerable attention.
To identify the importance of management, it is worth considering the range in performance between farms, as measured by dairy herd gross margin per hectare. The average for 1979/80 of Farm Management Services (FMS) fully costed herds (MMB, 1980) was £546/ha, while the result for the ‘top 25%” was £809/ha, a difference of £263/ha. It is exceedingly difficult to define precisely the part which management plays in this difference. However, through its effect on feeding, breeding, grassland management, fertility and health, it is probably the dominant factor. If the range in FMS results were to be taken as the normal distribution for the national herd, one could postulate that bringing up the national average gross margin to that of the “top 25%” would add a further £127m to the national dairy herd gross margin. This would be equivalent to slightly in excess of £4 000 in the average 60 cow herd. Whilst admitting that not every farmer nor every farm can achieve the level of performance of the “top 25%”, such calculations do indicate the extent over which management has an influence.
Ruminant products are considered as a major source of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the human diet and a reduction in the intake of SFA along with a concomitant increase in the intake of n-3 series PUFA is recommended by nutritionists (Department of Health, 1994). The major fatty acid classes in beef are the saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and beef is a nutritionally important source of the beneficial n-3 series PUFA. Experiments investigating the effects of age on lipid composition in beef muscle have, in the main, used short time periods and also been subject to confounding effects of differences in growth rate (Rule et al., 1997). This study is part of a larger investigation into the effects of breed and diet, as well as age, on muscle lipids (Warren et al., 2003). This paper will focus on the effect of age.
Chemical constituents trapped within glacial ice provide a unique record of climate, as well as repositories for biological material such as pollen grains, fungal spores, viruses, bacteria and dissolved organic carbon. Past research suggests that the veins of polycrystalline ice may provide a liquid microenvironment for active microbial metabolism fueled by concentrated impurities in the veins. Despite these claims, no direct measurements of impurity concentration in ice veins have been made. Using micro-Raman spectroscopy, we show that sulfate and nitrate concentrations in the veins of glacial ice from Greenland (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) and Antarctic (Newall Glacier and a Dominion Range glacier) core samples were 104 and 105 times greater than the concentrations measured in melted (bulk) core water. Methanesulfonate was not found in the veins, consistent with its presence as particulate matter within the ice. The measured vein concentration of molecular anions implies a highly acidic (pH < 3) vein environment with high ionic strength (mM-M). We estimate that the vein volume provides 16.7 and 576 km3 of habitable space within the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, respectively, which could support the metabolism of organisms that are capable of growing in cold, high ionic strength solutions with low pH.
Background: Morbidity can be high in the management of adult spinal deformity patients. Complications include blood loss (EBL), durotomy, radicular pain, and postoperative hardware failure. Utilization of one versus two spinal surgeons in spinal deformity correction reduces overall perioperative morbidity is unclear. Methods: All procedures were performed by surgeons at a single institution between January 2012-2015. Patients were followed for a minimum of one year and maximum of four years. We retrospectively reviewed 60 cases of adult spinal deformity. Our cohort was divided into 1 versus 2 surgeons (12 vs 48 cases). We analyzed these cases for estimated blood loss and peri-operative complications. Results: Cases involving long thoracic to pelvis correction (T3-T6) was 20.8% in the 2 surgeons group and 8.3% in the 1 surgeon group. The EBL >3.0 L for 1 versus 2 surgeon groups were 25% and 41.6% respectively. Major complications in the 1 versus 2 surgeon group were 25% and 47.9% and the revision rates were 25% versus 37.5%. The percentage of minor complications in the 1 versus 2 surgeon group was 33.3% versus 14.6%. Conclusions: Utilizing two surgeons did not reduce complication rates. Procedures performed by two surgeons were more extensive deformity corrections. The extent of correction is the likely explanation for differing complication rates.
Background: Instrumentation failure (IF) such proximal junctional kyphosis/failure or distal junctional failure (PJK/PJF/DJF), rod fracture and screw-loosening can cause morbidity in patients with spinal deformity correction. Factors such as bone mineral density (BMD) or region of deformity correction may play a role in postoperative IF. Methods: We reviewed the relationship between IF and BMD or extent of spinal deformity. IF includes PJK/PJF/DJF, fractured rod, screw-looseing, radiculopathy, and non-union. BMD groups included Normal, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and Unknown. The extent of correction included Lumbar, Short Thoracolumbar (5-8 levels), Long Thoracolumbar (8 to 12 levels), and Cervical-thoracic. Results: 60 patients (41:19 F:M) were included, with average age of 65. Total IF=29 patients (48.3%). Normal BMD in N=14, with half of them (50.0%) developing IF; Low BMD in N=15, with one-third of them (33.3%) developing IF. Lumbar correction was performed in N=19, with IF in 36.8%; Short Thoracolumbar correction was performed in N=28, with IF in 46.4%; Long Thoracolumbar correction was performed in N=11, with IF in 81.8%; and Cervical correction in N=2, with no postoperative IF. Conclusions: Patients that received long-segment thoracolumbar had the highest rates of postoperative morbidity. We did not demonstrate an association between abnormal BMD and postoperative IF. A larger study would be needed for further investigations.
Background: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) are typically managed in tertiary care centres due to their complexity in surgical planning and peri-operative care. Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive corrective ASD surgery performed by a single surgeon at a community based centre performed between 2012 and 2014. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. We reviewed age, aetiology, mortality, medical and neurological deficit. All standard radiographic deformity parameters were also evaluated and analysed. Results: n=32 corrective spinal deformity procedures were performed. The most common aetiology was de novo degenerative scoliosis. The mean length of stay was 11.94 days. The most common levels fused from T1-pelvis (n=13). L5/S1 was the most common level requiring interbody fusion (n=17). There were n=10 who required a PSO. Only n=4 patients had EBL greater than 3500cc.There were a total of 9 medical complications with post-operative hypotension being the most common (n=3). Hardware failure across the PSO site was the most common long term complication (n=7). There were n=2 death. There were no reported deep infections requiring revisions. Radiographic parameters analysed showed significant improvement. Conclusions: ASD surgery perioperative complication rates in a community hospital are similar to those done in high volume academic centre.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
We aimed to determine the frequency of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes and high-level mupirocin resistance among MRSA isolates before and after the introduction of a chlorhexidine (CHG) daily bathing intervention in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU).
Retrospective cohort study (2005–2012)
A large tertiary-care center
Patients admitted to SICU who had MRSA surveillance cultures of the anterior nares
A random sample of banked MRSA anterior nares isolates recovered during (2005) and after (2006–2012) implementation of a daily CHG bathing protocol was examined for qacA/B genes and high-level mupirocin resistance. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was also performed.
Of the 504 randomly selected isolates (63 per year), 36 (7.1%) were qacA/B positive (+) and 35 (6.9%) were mupirocin resistant. Of these, 184 (36.5%) isolates were SCCmec type IV. There was a significant trend for increasing qacA/B (P=.02; highest prevalence, 16.9% in 2009 and 2010) and SCCmec type IV (P<.001; highest prevalence, 52.4% in 2012) during the study period. qacA/B(+) MRSA isolates were more likely to be mupirocin resistant (9 of 36 [25%] qacA/B(+) vs 26 of 468 [5.6%] qacA/B(−); P=.003).
A long-term, daily CHG bathing protocol was associated with a change in the frequency of qacA/B genes in MRSA isolates recovered from the anterior nares over an 8-year period. This change in the frequency of qacA/B genes is most likely due to patients in those years being exposed in prior admissions. Future studies need to further evaluate the implications of universal CHG daily bathing on MRSA qacA/B genes among hospitalized patients.
This experiment shows that recent experience in one language influences subsequent processing of the same word-forms in a different language. Dutch–English bilinguals read Dutch sentences containing Dutch–English cognates and interlingual homographs, which were presented again 16 minutes later in isolation in an English lexical decision task. Priming produced faster responses for the cognates but slower responses for the interlingual homographs. These results show that language switching can influence bilingual speakers at the level of individual words, and require models of bilingual word recognition (e.g., BIA+) to allow access to word meanings to be modulated by recent experience.
This study compared the acute toxicities reported during radiotherapy treatment using either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver a moderate hypo-fractionated treatment for early-stage prostate cancer.
Material and methods
Acute toxicities are routinely reported at the clinical site for all patients using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Toxicity assessment is performed on day 1 of treatment, then once weekly thereafter. The recorded toxicities of 40 cases treated with five-field IMRT, and 32 cases treated using VMAT were retrospectively compared. All cases were prescribed 73·68 Gy in 28 fractions. Eight symptoms were assessed; diarrhoea, proctitis, fatigue, pain, dermatitis, urinary frequency, urinary retention and urinary tract pain.
In terms of the overall toxicity recorded, VMAT was shown to reduce the toxicities of dermatitis, fatigue, pain and urinary frequency (p<0·05). Using IMRT, grade 2 toxicities were reported for proctitis, pain, urinary frequency, urinary retention and urinary tract pain. Using VMAT, grade 2 toxicities were reported for urinary frequency and urinary retention.
The research reported here is one of the first publications to demonstrate that VMAT is associated with decreased toxicities compared with IMRT for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer.
Absorption, scattering and fluorescent properties of several different types of nanodiamond samples are measured to characterize them for various applications. Two different methods, spectrophotometry and photothermal spectroscopy were used to measure absorption properties of nanodiamonds suspended in aqueous solutions. Photothermal spectroscopy provides the advantage of measuring absorption of photoactive nanodiamonds with high-sensitivity. Spectral fluorescence properties of nanodiamond samples were studied using a commercial spectrofluorometer and a home-built inverted microscope integrated with a light-sensitive imaging spectrograph. Characteristic fluorescence spectrum of nitrogen-vacancy defects in single diamond nanocrystals was obtained using the light-sensitive instrument.
Collectors of prehistoric antiquities have long regarded the foreshore of long stretches of the Essex Coast between the rivers Stour and Blackwater as a prolific hunting ground, and many notable collections, consisting mainly of flints, have been obtained from this area. It is not the purpose of this paper to record these discoveries in detail, but rather to discuss the circumstances under which the antiquities are found, to summarise the main facts relating to the age of the old land-surface now submerged below the sea at high tide, and in conclusion to relate the facts observed on the Essex Coast to the stratigraphy established for the post-glacial deposits of the Fenland basin.
Student experience on clinical placement is not well captured with traditional program evaluation tools. This study aims to complete a qualitative analysis of the reflective clinical journals completed during professional placement by radiation therapy (RT) students in order to uncover the issues that affect students on placement and how these change as the student's progress through the program.
Materials and methods
A qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was undertaken on the descriptive content of student journals completed by 97 students over 3 consecutive years while undertaking professional placement in Radiation Oncology Treatment Centres within Australia. Two coders used a QDA sourcebook specifically designed for the research to independently analyse the descriptive content of the reflective journals for four main categories and 18 subcategories.
The result revealed a statistically significant increased tendency to discuss clinical environment and a decreased tendency to discuss the patient, 92·9–12·5% (coder 1) and 85·7–18·8% (coder 2), as they progressed through the program.
The results of this study showed some similarities with studies completed in other health professions; however, the breadth of issues explored within the content of these RT student journals demonstrates the true diversity of the RT student experience on professional placement.
The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project will test the overarching hypothesis that an active hydrological system exists beneath a West Antarctic ice stream that exerts a major control on ice dynamics, and the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community in subglacial water and sediment. WISSARD will explore Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW, unofficial name) and its outflow toward the grounding line where it is thought to enter the Ross Ice Shelf seawater cavity. Introducing microbial contamination to the subglacial environment during drilling operations could compromise environmental stewardship and the science objectives of the project, consequently we developed a set of tools and procedures to directly address these issues. WISSARD hot water drilling efforts will include a custom water treatment system designed to remove micron and sub-micron sized particles (biotic and abiotic), irradiate the drilling water with germicidal ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and pasteurize the water to reduce the viability of persisting microbial contamination. Our clean access protocols also include methods to reduce microbial contamination on the surfaces of cables/hoses and down-borehole equipment using germicidal UV exposure and chemical disinfection. This paper presents experimental data showing that our protocols will meet expectations established by international agreement between participating Antarctic nations.