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A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Leishmania rely heavily on glycans to complete their digenetic life cycle in both mammalian and phlebotomine sand fly hosts. Leishmania promastigotes secrete a proteophosphoglycan-rich gel (Promastigote Secretory Gel, PSG) that is regurgitated during transmission and can exacerbate infection in the skin. Here we explored the role of PSG from natural Leishmania-sand fly vector combinations by obtaining PSG from Leishmania (L.) major-infected Phlebotomus (P.) papatasi and P. duboscqi and L. tropica-infected P. arabicus. We found that, in addition to the vector's saliva, the PSG from L. major and L. tropica potently exacerbated cutaneous infection in BALB/c mice, improved the probability of developing a patent cutaneous lesion, parasite growth and the evolution of the lesion. Of note, the presence of PSG in the inoculum more than halved the prepatent period of cutaneous L. tropica infection from an average of 32 weeks to 13 weeks. In addition, L. major and L. tropica PSG extracted from the permissive experimental vector, Lutzomyia (Lu.) longipalpis, also exacerbated infections in mice. These results reinforce and extend the hypothesis that PSG is an important and evolutionarily conserved component of Leishmania infection that can be used to facilitate experimental infection for drug and vaccine screening.
Analysis of milk BHB concentration by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry more frequently than regular milk testing could help dairy producers in decision making, particularly if it would be possible to use small hand-stripped samples (hereinafter simply called samples) taken between dairy herd improvement (DHI) test-samples analysed using DHI algorithms. The aim of this Research Communication was to evaluate milk BHB concentration and the prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration analysed by FTIR spectrometry compared with flow-injection analysis (SKALAR) from samples taken at different times relative to the milking. A total of 293 early-lactation cows in 44 commercial dairy herds were involved in the study. Herds were visited once during the morning milking when a routine DHI test-sample was obtained using in-line milk samplers. Additional milk samples were taken by hand stripping as follows: (1) Just before connecting the milking machine; (2) immediately after removing the milking machine; (3) 3 h after milking and (4) 6 h after milking. Milk samples were analysed for BHB concentration by FTIR and SKALAR, the latter being the reference method. Milk BHB concentration from samples taken before milking was different between FTIR and SKALAR whereas no difference was noted for other sampling times, although milk BHB concentration rose as time after milking increased. Except for DHI test-samples for which prevalence was not different between analysis methods, prevalence of elevated milk BHB concentration (≥0.15 mmol/l) was greater for FTIR analysis. However, no difference in prevalence was observed between SKALAR and FTIR when using a threshold of ≥0.20 mmol/l. In summary, hand-stripped milk samples taken any time after removing the milking machine until 6 h after the milking can be recommended for FTIR analysis of elevated milk BHB concentration prevalence provided a threshold of 0.20 mmol/l is used.
CVD and associated metabolic diseases are linked to chronic inflammation, which can be modified by diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether there is a difference in inflammatory markers, blood metabolic and lipid panels and lymphocyte gene expression in response to a high-fat dairy food challenge with or without milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Participants consumed a dairy product-based meal containing whipping cream (WC) high in saturated fat with or without the addition of MFGM, following a 12 h fasting blood draw. Inflammatory markers including IL-6 and C-reactive protein, lipid and metabolic panels and lymphocyte gene expression fold changes were measured using multiplex assays, clinical laboratory services and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Fold changes in gene expression were determined using the Pfaffl method. Response variables were converted into incremental AUC, tested for differences, and corrected for multiple comparisons. The postprandial insulin response was significantly lower following the meal containing MFGM (P < 0·01). The gene encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) was shown to be more up-regulated in the absence of MFGM (P = 0·009). Secondary analyses showed that participants with higher baseline cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (Chol:HDL) had a greater reduction in gene expression of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTBR) with the WC+MFGM meal. The protein and lipid composition of MFGM is thought to be anti-inflammatory. These exploratory analyses suggest that addition of MFGM to a high-saturated fat meal modifies postprandial insulin response and offers a protective role for those individuals with higher baseline Chol:HDL.
Interoceptive deficits (ID) have been associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior in multiple studies. Many of these studies are limited in scope, and have not fully examined possible mechanisms explaining how ID affect suicidal behavior.
This study assesses how self-reported ID relate to suicide ideation and attempts in six distinct and geographically diverse samples of adults (n = 2706) and one sample of adolescents (n = 436). Participants responded to a variety of self-report questionnaires and interviews.
Contrary to our hypothesis, self-reported ID were only associated with suicidal ideation in two samples, one of which was the adolescent sample. Largely consistent with our predictions, self-reported ID exhibited an indirect effect on suicide attempts through versatility of NSSI in four of the five adult samples tested. Finally, the indirect effects of self-reported ID on suicide attempts through NSSI versatility did not act indirectly through behaviorally assessed pain tolerance.
We found that, in adults, self-reported ID are not associated with suicidal ideation, but are connected with a history of suicide attempts, through an indirect effect via NSSI. Our findings also indicate that the mechanism of action leading from self-reported ID to suicidal behavior may differ between adolescents and adults, and relate to suicidal behavior independent of pain tolerance. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
Research is needed to identify the factors that explain the link between prior and future suicidality. This study evaluated possible mediators of the relationship between: (1) the severity of prior suicidality and (2) suicidal ideation severity at 3-month follow-up among a sample of high-risk military personnel.
US military service members referred to or seeking care for suicide risk (N = 624) completed self-report psychiatric domain measures and a clinician interview assessing prior suicidality severity at baseline. Three months later, participants completed a self-report measure of suicidal ideation severity. Three separate percentile bootstrap mediation models were used to examine psychiatric factors (i.e. alcohol abuse, anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, insomnia, posttraumatic stress symptoms, suicidal ideation, and thwarted belongingness) as parallel mediators of the relationship between prior suicidality severity (specifically, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and overall suicidality – i.e. ideation/attempt severity combined) at baseline and suicidal ideation severity at follow-up.
Hopelessness, specifically, and the total effect of all mediators, each significantly accounted for the relationship between prior suicidality severity and subsequent ideation severity across models. In the models with attempt severity and overall suicidality severity as predictors, thwarted belongingness was also a significant mediator.
Hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, and overall severity of psychiatric indices may explain the relationship between prior suicidality severity and future suicidal ideation severity among service members at elevated suicide risk. Research is needed to replicate these findings and examine other possible mediators.
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), yielding significant improvements in approximately 50% of patients. There is significant room for improvement in the outcomes of treatment, especially in recovery.
We aimed to compare metacognitive therapy (MCT) with the gold standard treatment, CBT, in patients with GAD (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00426426).
A total of 246 patients with long-term GAD were assessed and 81 were randomised into three conditions: CBT (n = 28), MCT (n = 32) and a wait-list control (n = 21). Assessments were made at pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 2 year follow-up.
Both CBT and MCT were effective treatments, but MCT was more effective (mean difference 9.762, 95% CI 2.679–16.845, P = 0.004) and led to significantly higher recovery rates (65% v. 38%). These differences were maintained at 2 year follow-up.
MCT seems to produce recovery rates that exceed those of CBT. These results demonstrate that the effects of treatment cannot be attributed to non-specific therapy factors.
Declaration of interest
A.W. wrote the treatment protocol in MCT and several books on CBT and MCT, and receives royalties from these. T.D.B. wrote the protocol in CBT and has published several articles and chapters on CBT and receives royalties from these. All other authors declare no competing interests.
It is known that if rats learn that a cue reliably precedes eating, its presentation can cause them to initiate a feeding bout when they are apparently sated (Weingarten, 1983, 1985). However, it is currently unclear precisely how such conditioned cues affect appetite. For example, does this type of conditioning elicit food specific appetites or do individuals merely experience a general increase in feeding motivation (Mela & Rogers, 1998)? To address this issue, the present experiment investigated the hypothesis that exposure to a cue (conditioned stimulus: CS) previously paired with a specific food biases diet selection in favour of that food when an individual is given a choice. The objective of the experiment was to enhance our understanding of the behavioural control of feeding, and hence our ability to predict diet selection and food intake.
The experimental subjects were 12 male Lister-hooded rats (initial body-weight 233; SD=20g). Throughout the experiment the subjects were maintained on a 1lh:13h light:dark cycle with lights on at 0700h, and had ad libitum access to a standard laboratory diet during the light phase.
We have conducted a series of VLBI observations of the gravitational-lens images of the quasar Q0957+561 (Walsh et al., 1979), utilizing the Mark III VLBI data acquisition system (Rogers et al., 1983). The goals of our observations are to (1) map the milliarcsecond structure of the A and B images, (2) detect the predicted third image of the quasar, and (3) determine the time delay between the images. We will use these results to constrain the mass distribution of the lens and, possibly, cosmological constants.
A series of VLBI observations of the gravitational lens system 0957+561 at λ13 cm has yielded the positions of the A and B images, the relative magnification of their largest discernible radio structures, and the time variability of their smallest discernible radio structures. These observations have also allowed upper limits to be placed on the flux density of an expected third image. The positions and relative magnification of the A and B images provide new information with which to constrain models of the lens that forms the images. The detection of variations in the flux densities of the cores of A and B suggests that observations at shorter wavelengths may reveal superluminal motion, which may in turn provide a means to measure the relative time delay.
The spatial distribution and polarization characteristics of the SiO (v=1, J=1-0) maser emission from several late type stars have been observed. The spatial distribution, derived from VLBI observations, generally shows a number of emitting regions but no clear velocity pattern or geometry. Some of these regions have well defined polarization characteristics. The results of high spatial resolution polarization measurements of RCas are similar to the lower spatial resolution polarimetry performed on this source.
On 1983 May 10–11 we undertook simultaneous λ3.6 and λ13 cm Mark III VLBI observations of the quasars 1038+528 A,B. Our experimental conditions (i.e., synthesized band, uv-coverage, etc.) were almost identical to those we used on 1981 March 17–18. Thus, we could make a direct comparison of the results from both epochs.
On June 1, 1984 we conducted a seven station 18-cm VLBI observation of the 2016+112 gravitational lens system. Preliminary brightness distributions for A and B have been obtained via model fitting. Weak correlated flux density was detected in the C component region.
Information on the structure of the molecular flow within 1″ of IRC-2, in Orion-KL, is sparse. Measurements of the continuum at 7.8μ and 12.5μ show a disk of size and suggest that the center of the disk may be dust free (Lester et al. 1985). Aperture synthesis mapping of water maser shell features (Sylber 1986) has provided information on the scale. Smaller scales can be studied by mapping SiO maser emission. We observed the 43 GHz, v=1, J = 1 → 0, transition of SiO using a 2 station interferometer with a 74 km baseline between Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA and Five College Radio Observatory, New Salem, MA. The fringe spacing was 20 milliarcseconds (mas) and the velocity resolution was 0.25 km-s−1. Our results provide the highest resolution view to date of what is likely to be the inner of IRC-2.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
A significant minority of people presenting with a major depressive episode (MDE) experience co-occurring subsyndromal hypo/manic symptoms. As this presentation may have important prognostic and treatment implications, the DSM–5 codified a new nosological entity, the “mixed features specifier,” referring to individuals meeting threshold criteria for an MDE and subthreshold symptoms of (hypo)mania or to individuals with syndromal mania and subthreshold depressive symptoms. The mixed features specifier adds to a growing list of monikers that have been put forward to describe phenotypes characterized by the admixture of depressive and hypomanic symptoms (e.g., mixed depression, depression with mixed features, or depressive mixed states [DMX]). Current treatment guidelines, regulatory approvals, as well the current evidentiary base provide insufficient decision support to practitioners who provide care to individuals presenting with an MDE with mixed features. In addition, all existing psychotropic agents evaluated in mixed patients have largely been confined to patient populations meeting the DSM–IV definition of “mixed states” wherein the co-occurrence of threshold-level mania and threshold-level MDE was required. Toward the aim of assisting clinicians providing care to adults with MDE and mixed features, we have assembled a panel of experts on mood disorders to develop these guidelines on the recognition and treatment of mixed depression, based on the few studies that have focused specifically on DMX as well as decades of cumulated clinical experience.
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power of species’ traits and abiotic factors on extinction risk, combining general linear models (GLMs), partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and permutation tests. Factors included measures of geographic range, sampling, and graptolite-specific factors such as clade, biofacies affiliation, shallow water tolerance, and age cohorts split at the base of the Katian and Rhuddanian stages.
The percent variance in durations explained varied substantially between taxon subsets from 12% to 45%. Overall commonness, the correlated effects of geographic range and sampling, was the strongest, most consistent factor (12–30% variance explained), with clade and age cohort adding up to 18% and other factors <10%. Surprisingly, geographic range alone contributed little explanatory power (<5%). It is likely that this is a consequence of a nonlinear relationship between geographic range and extinction risk, wherein the largest reductions in extinction risk are gained from moderate expansion of small geographic ranges. Thus, even large differences in range size between graptolite species did not lead to a proportionate difference in extinction risk because of the large average ranges of these species. Finally, we emphasize that the common practice of determining the geographic range of taxa from the union of all occurrences over their duration poses a substantial risk of overestimating the geographic scope of the realized ecological niche and, thus, of further conflating sampling effects on observed duration with the biological effects of range size on extinction risk.
The imposition of male sexual characteristics onto the female (imposex) is present in wild populations of the non-native veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) in Chesapeake Bay, USA but does not appear to compromise reproductive function. Cultured whelks were used to test two hypotheses: (1) Observed imposex metrics will be similar to tributyltin (TBT) water concentrations at each of three sites; (2) Male and imposex/female whelks from the same site will have similar TBT body burdens. Cultured 2-year-old whelks were transplanted to three field sites in the York River, USA at the onset of their second reproductive season. Transplant site mean TBT water concentrations ranged from 1.4 ± 0.77 to 64.2 ± 57.8 ng l−1. Imposex incidence was 100% after 28 weeks with an observed M:F:IF ratio of 81:0:92 across all sites. Imposex stages (median vas deferens scale index = 4) and reproductive output were similar across sites. The imposex severity (IS = penis length/shell length) increased with increasing TBT concentrations. The relative penis length (RPLI) and relative penis size (RPSI) indices were positively related to site-specific TBT levels. Male whelks accumulated significantly higher TBT concentrations than female whelks at the site with the highest TBT concentration. Mean TBT concentrations in whelk egg capsules were significantly higher than concentrations in male or female whelk tissue. Egg capsule deposition provides a depuration mechanism for female whelks to reduce body burden of lipophilic TBT. Sex, season and reproductive status should be considered when using gastropod bioaccumulation to monitor TBT effects.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.