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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The objective of the study is to compare two horizontal bone augmentation techniques (bone expansion and bone splitting) that are currently used for horizontally deficient maxillary ridges. Bone expanded in millimeters (mm), implant stability, and patient satisfaction will be compared with each technique. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This pilot (prospective cohort) study will be divided in two sites, a private practice and the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) Clinic at the University of Puerto Rico, School of Dental Medicine. A total of 20 patients will be selected, 10 patients in each site. In both sites, pre-operative and post-operative Cone Beam CT radiographs will be taken to measure bone width. Implant stability will be measured using an Osstell. 2 weeks post-surgery, a patient satisfaction questionnaire will be given to patients. A two-sample T test will be used to compare techniques statistically. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that bone expansion will be as good as (non-inferiority) bone splitting in terms of bone expanded in millimeters to desire width, and implant diameter will not be compromised. We also expect that implants placed with the bone manipulation technique will have a higher implant stability at baseline and less pain, discomfort and swelling in terms of patient satisfaction. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our contributions here are expected to illustrate clinical and radiographic bone expansion techniques that will enhance implant placement treatment for implantologists and patient’s experience.
It is known that pigs can acquire flavour preferences by brief social interactions with conspecifics that previously consumed a flavoured solid feed. However, there is no information about whether a flavoured solution could support flavour preferences through social transmission. Ninety-six pigs (49 days old) were housed in 12 pens (8 pigs/pen). Four animals per pen were randomly selected to act as observers and four as demonstrators. Demonstrator animals were temporarily moved to an empty pen where a protein solution was offered (porcine digestive peptides (PDPs), 4% weight/volume) with the addition of 0.075% aniseed (six pens) or garlic (six pens) powdered artificial flavours for 30 min. Afterwards, demonstrators were returned to interact with observer animals for 30 min. A choice test (30 min) between aniseed and garlic PDP was performed for each observer group after the interaction. Observers showed a higher intake of solutions previously consumed by their demonstrator conspecifics (648 v. 468 ml; SEM 61.36, P < 0.05). As with flavoured solid feeds, protein solutions containing artificial flavours can create preferences in pigs for those flavours through social transmission from conspecifics.
Predation by Engytatus varians (Distant) adults on different development stages of the prey species Bactericera cockerelli (Sulcer) (egg, second, and third nymphal instars), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (egg, first, and second larval instars) was evaluated using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaflets or plants. These insects are the primary pest of several agriculturally important crops. The influence of E. varians age on the predation capacity was also analysed. Engytatus varians females consumed significantly more B. cockerelli eggs and nymphs than males. Additionally, female predators consumed significantly more second than third instar prey at two predator ages, while males consumed significantly more the second instar than third instar prey at all predator ages. In most of the cases, females also consumed significantly more S. exigua and S. frugiperda eggs than males; however, in terms of larvae consumption, this difference was observed only in some predator ages. Females consumed more the first than second instar S. exigua than males, whereas this behaviour was only observed in males when the predators were 15 and 17 days old. No significant differences were observed in the consumption of first and second instar of S. frugiperda for both sexes of the predators. Predator age did not cause any systematic effects on the predation rates of any prey species. Based on these results, we confirmed that E. varians has potential as a biological control agent for B. cockerelli and also for the Spodoptera species bioassayed.
Hurricane Maria caused catastrophic damage in Puerto Rico, increasing the risk for morbidity and mortality in the post-impact period. We aimed to establish a syndromic surveillance system to describe the number and type of visits at 2 emergency health-care settings in the same hospital system in Ponce, Puerto Rico.
We implemented a hurricane surveillance system by interviewing patients with a short questionnaire about the reason for visit at a hospital emergency department and associated urgent care clinic in the 6 mo after Hurricane Maria. We then evaluated the system by comparing findings with data from the electronic medical record (EMR) system for the same time period.
The hurricane surveillance system captured information from 5116 participants across the 2 sites, representing 17% of all visits captured in the EMR for the same period. Most visits were associated with acute illness/symptoms (79%), followed by injury (11%). The hurricane surveillance and EMR data were similar, proportionally, by sex, age, and visit category.
The hurricane surveillance system provided timely and representative data about the number and type of visits at 2 sites. This system, or an adapted version using available electronic data, should be considered in future disaster settings.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
We compared the impact of a commercial chlorination product (brand name Air RahMat) in stored drinking water to traditional boiling practices in Indonesia. We conducted a baseline survey of all households with children <5 years in four communities, made 11 subsequent weekly home visits to assess acceptability and use of water treatment methods, measured Escherichia coli concentration in stored water, and determined diarrhoea prevalence among children <5 years. Of 281 households surveyed, boiling (83%) and Air RahMat (7%) were the principal water treatment methods. Multivariable log-binomial regression analyses showed lower risk of E. coli in stored water treated with Air RahMat than boiling (risk ratio (RR) 0·75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·56–1·00). The risk of diarrhoea in children <5 years was lower among households using Air RahMat (RR 0·43, 95% CI 0·19–0·97) than boiling, and higher in households with E. coli concentrations of 1–1000 MPN/100 ml (RR 1·54, 95% CI 1·04–2·28) or >1000 MPN/100 ml (RR 1·86, 95% CI 1·09–3·19) in stored water than in households without detectable E. coli. Although results suggested that Air RahMat water treatment was associated with lower E. coli contamination and diarrhoeal rates among children <5 years than water treatment by boiling, Air RahMat use remained low.
Yersinia enterocolitica infection is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution, gastroenteritis being by far the most common clinical manifestation of human infection. In Gipuzkoa, northern Spain, human Y. enterocolitica infections increased from the mid-1980s to the beginning of the 21st century (from 7·9 to 23·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population) to decrease to 7·2 annual episodes per 100 000 population in the last years of the study. The hospital admission rate due to yersiniosis during the last 15 years of the study was 7·3%. More than 99% of isolates were serotype O:3. Infection affected mainly children under 5 years of age (average rate: 140 episodes per 100 000 population). The incidence in adults was low but hospitalisation increased with age, exceeding 50% in people over 64 years old.
We studied the imprints that feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) leaves on the intracluster plasma during the assembly history of galaxy clusters. To this purpose we used state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations based on an updated version of the Tree-PM SPH GADGET-3 code, comparing three sets of simulations with different prescriptions for the physics of baryons (including AGN and/or stellar feedback). We explore the effect of these different physics, in particular AGN feedback, on IntraCluster medium (ICM) properties observed via Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect using an extended set of galaxy clusters (~100 clusters with M500 masses above 5 × 1013M⊙/h). Some of the main findings are that the scaling relation between the integrated SZ flux and the galaxy cluster total mass is in good accordance with several observed samples, especially for massive clusters, and does not show any clear redshift evolution, with the slope of the relation close to the theoretical one in the AGN feedback case. As for the scatter of this relation, we obtain a mild dependence on the cluster dynamical state.
The optimal perioperative feeding strategies for neonates with CHD are unknown. In the present study, we describe the current feeding practices across a multi-institutional cohort.
Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: all neonates undergoing cardiac surgery admitted to the cardiac ICU for ⩾24 hours preoperatively between October, 2013 and July, 2014 in the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry.
The cohort included 251 patients from eight centres. The most common diagnoses included the following: hypoplastic left heart syndrome (17%), coarctation/aortic arch hypoplasia (18%), and transposition of the great arteries (22%); 14% of the patients were <37weeks of gestational age. The median total hospital length of stay was 21 days (interquartile range (IQR) 14–35) and overall mortality was 8%. Preoperative feeding occurred in 133 (53%) patients. The overall preoperative feeding rates across centres ranged from 29 to 79%. Postoperative feeds started on median day 2 (IQR 1–4); for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome postoperative feeds started on median day 4. Postoperative feeds were initiated in 89 (35%) patients before extubation (range across centres: 21–61%). The median cardiac ICU discharge feeding volume was 108 cc/kg/day, varying across centres. The mean discharge weight was 280 g above birth weight, ranging from +100 to 430 g across centres. A total of 110 (44%) patients had discharge feeding tubes, ranging from 6 to 80% across centres, and 40/110 patients had gastrostomy/enterostomy tubes placed. In addition, eight (3.2%) patients developed necrotising enterocolitis – three preoperatively and five postoperatively.
In this cohort, neonatal feeding practices and outcomes appear to vary across diagnostic groups and institutions. Only half of the patients received preoperative enteral nutrition; almost half had discharge feeding tubes. Multi-institutional collaboration is necessary to determine feeding strategies associated with best clinical outcomes.
The study of the feeding habits of elasmobranch populations should help to elucidate the ecological role of these fishes in the marine ecosystem. Feeding habits of the apron ray, Discopyge tschudii from San Jorge Gulf were investigated. An evaluation of whether the diet of D. tschudii changes with body size, seasons, maturity stage and sex was performed using a multiple-hypothesis modelling approach. Discopyge tschudii preyed mainly on polychaetes. The consumption of polychaetes was higher in males. Also, amphipods and siphons of clams were preyed more heavily in the cold season and Munida gregaria in the warm season. Stomatopods were consumed more with increasing body size. All prey categories were independent of maturity stage. We concluded that D. tschudii is a benthic feeder.
We present VLA 21-cm observations of the spiral galaxy ESO 481-G017 to determine the nature of remote star formation traced by an Hii region found 43 kpc and ∼800 km s−1 from the galaxy center (in projection). ESO 481-G017 is found to have a 120 kpc Hi disk with a mass of 1.2 × 1010M⊙ and UV GALEX images reveal spiral arms extending into the gaseous disk. Two dwarf galaxies with Hi masses close to 108M⊙ are detected at distances of ∼200 kpc from ESO 481-G017 and a Hi cloud with a mass of 6 × 107M⊙ is found near the position and velocity of the remote Hii region. The Hii region is somewhat offset from the Hi cloud spatially and there is no link to ESO 481-G017 or the dwarf galaxies. We consider several scenarios for the origin of the cloud and Hii region and find the most likely is a dwarf galaxy that is undergoing ram pressure stripping. The Hi mass of the cloud and Hi luminosity of the Hii region (1038.1 erg s−1) are consistent with dwarf galaxy properties, and the stripping can trigger the star formation as well as push the gas away from the stars.
The feeding habits of the apron ray, Discopyge tschudii, were investigated, off Uruguay and northern Argentina, and we tested the hypothesis that the diet changes with increasing body size, between sexes and seasons using a multiple-hypothesis modelling approach. Discopyge tschudii preys mainly on polychaetes (88.77% index of relative importance (IRI)) followed by siphons of the clam Amiantis purpurata (8.13% IRI) and amphipods (3.08% IRI). Ontogenetic, sexual and seasonal changes were found. Larger individuals of D. tschudii consumed buried polychaetes more often. The consumption of errant polychaetes was higher in males and in the cold season. Also, amphipods were preyed on more heavily by females and the number of siphons of A. purpurata consumed was higher in the cold season.
The synthesis, mechanical and magnetic properties of bulk composite Fe72B19.2Si4.8M4 (M=Cr, Zr) alloys obtained by a copper mould injection casting technique under a protective helium atmosphere are reported and discussed. The resultant microstructure of the composite alloys consists of crystalline Fe92Si8 and Fe2B phases embedded in a glassy matrix. The values of microhardness (Hv) show maxima for the alloy containing Cr with 10.24±0.95 GPa. The maximum value of saturation magnetization average (μ0Ms) is 1.25±0.02 T for Cr-containing alloy. The Curie temperatures (Tc) of amorphous phases are higher than 390 K for both alloys. However, the bulk composite alloys presents values for crystallization temperature (Tx) of 1289±10 K and 1140±10 K for Cr and Zr-containing alloys, respectively. These results are interpreted on the basis of the interplay between the crystalline and amorphous phases.
A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7·1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44·2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14·4% with rotavirus, 38·4% with parasites and in 27·9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11·5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected.
Five class II H-2 genes borne by t chromosomes were partially sequenced: borne by the tTuw10 chromosome of EDY589 (H-2w2); and borne by the tTuw8 chromosome of CR0437 (H-2w57), as well as and borne by the tTuw7 chromosome of CR0435 (H-2w37). These genes are representatives of the three major groups of alleles found associated with t chromosomes. The sequenced part consisted of almost the entire exon 2 and the entire exon 3 coding for the first and the second domain of the β polypeptide chains, respectively. The sequence was compared with the published sequences of Aβ and Eβ alleles borne, by non-t chromosomes. The comparison revealed that the t-associated alleles are no more similar to one another than they are to the corresponding genes present on non-t chromosomes in laboratory mice. This divergence in the nucleotide sequence among the class II genes is interpreted as evidence that the t complex is very old.
We present here a detailed study of FF UMa (2RE J0933+624), a recently discovered, X-ray/EUV selected, active binary system with strong Hα emission. By using high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations taken during five observing runs from 1998 to 2004, we derived precise radial velocities that allowed us to determine the orbital solution of the system at different epochs. Analyzing these orbital solutions, together with a previous one determined in 1993 by other authors, we have found a change in the heliocentric Julian date on conjunction (Tconj) that can be explained by a change with time in the orbital period of the system. The relative amplitude of the orbital period variation derived from these data was dP/P ≈ 5 x 10−4, which is larger than the variations found in other similar chromospherically active binaries like AR Lac and HR 1099. This orbital period variation can be related (Applegate 1992; Lanza 1998, 2006) with the modulation of the gravitational quadrupole-moment of its magnetically active secondary star produced by angular momentum exchanges within its convective envelope. In addition, using these observations, we have determined the stellar parameters of the components and we have carried out a study of the chromospheric activity using all the optical indicators from Ca ii H&K to Ca ii IRT lines.
Ruthenium-iridium oxide films were prepared in an horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus and their electrocatalytic activity was investigated in the oxygen evolution reaction. Metal-acetylacetonates were used as precursors and oxygen as the reactant gas. Appropriate deposition conditions for obtaining bi-metallic oxide films were found to be deposition temperature (Tdep), 673 K and total pressure (Ptot), 133.32 Pa. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Rietveld refinement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated that the MOCVD method is a viable alternative to grow RuxIr1−xO2 films consisted of a single-phase with a very homogeneous distribution of elements. The electrocatalytic activity of the RuxIr1−xO2 films was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and anodic polarization curves in a 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. The single-phase Ru0.4Ir0.6O2 films showed to be very promising for the oxygen evolution reaction due to a synergistic effect.