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The self-medication hypothesis suggests that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia might smoke as an attempt to self-medicate theirsymptoms. As a consequence, smoking cessation could worsen their clinical status.
To assess the clinical changes associated with tobacco cessation in a sample of smoking outpatients with schizophrenia.
Sample: 63 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV Schizophrenia from three Mental Health Centers located in Northern Spain [77.0% males; mean age (SD) = 43.90 (8.72); average daily cigarette use (SD) = 27.99 (12.55)]. Instruments: (1) Clinical symptoms: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI). (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm). Design: A quasi-experimental design with two groups was implemented: control group (GC − 18 patients not willing to stop smoking), and treatment group [TG − 45 patients in smoking cessation supported by nicotine patches or vareniclina (12 weeks)]. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at week 11 (end of program). Paired sample t-test was used to detect changes in clinical symptoms from baseline to follow-up.
23.1% stopped smoking (from TG). No significant differences were found between baseline and follow-up scores (p>.05) among smokers and abstinent in PANSS subscales, HDRS and CGI.
Tobacco cessation did not have a significant effect on the clinical symptoms of this group of patients. Further studies should analyze the stability of these outcomes at longer follow-ups to confirm our results.
The self-medication hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia patients may smoke as an attempt to reduce their cognitive deficits, their symptoms or the antipsychotic side-effects.
to identify the relationship between the smoking topography and psychopathology among outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia.
The sample included 26 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia from a Mental Health Center sited in the North of Spain [65.5% males; mean age (SD) = 44.66 (7.83)]. Instruments: (1) Psychopathology: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scales (PANSS); Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S); n° antipsychotic. (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Fargerstrom test for nicotine physical dependence; Glover-Nilsson test for nicotine psychological dependence; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm).
prevalence was 59.3% for non-heavy smokers [<30 cigarettes/day; Mean CO (SD)= 24 ppm (9.70)] and 40.7% for heavy smokers [≥30 cigarettes/day; Mean CO (SD) = 36 ppm (16.06)]. PANSS mean score (SD) = 54.07 (12.45); CGI-G mean score (SD) = 3.50 (1.17); Mean number of antipsychotic (SD) = 1.79 (0.88). No significant differences were found between the severity of the psychopatology (PANSS, CGI-S, n° antipsychotic) and all the variables of the pattern of tobacco use (n° cigarettes/day; expired carbon monoxide; Fargerstrom; Glover-Nilsson).
In this sample of schizophrenia patients, there is no relation between the severity of psychopathology and the dependence of nicotine. However, the sample of this study is small.
Collagen-covered prostheses can be used as a non-circumferential segmental tracheal replacement. However, the applicability of these implants in young subjects has not yet been reported.
In this experimental, longitudinal study, dogs aged 29–32 days underwent limited segmental tracheal replacement with a polyester prosthesis or were allocated to a control, untreated group. The dogs were evaluated clinically, endoscopically and tomographically for up to one year.
Although there was evidence of tracheal growth in the experimental group, tomographic measurements were significantly smaller in this group than in the control group throughout the observation period. At the end of the study, there was no evidence of implant rejection, stenosis or collapse. Normal respiratory epithelium had grown across the implanted membrane in the experimental group.
The homologous collagen mersylene membrane allowed for limited structural tracheal growth and was functionally integrated into the segmented tracheal wall in growing dogs.
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