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This article argues that a holistic approach to documenting and understanding the physical evidence for individual cities would enhance our ability to address major questions about urbanisation, urbanism, cultural identities and economic processes. At the same time we suggest that providing more comprehensive data-sets concerning Greek cities would represent an important contribution to cross-cultural studies of urban development and urbanism, which have often overlooked relevant evidence from Classical Greece. As an example of the approach we are advocating, we offer detailed discussion of data from the Archaic and Classical city of Olynthos, in the Halkidiki. Six seasons of fieldwork here by the Olynthos Project, together with legacy data from earlier projects by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and by the Greek Archaeological Service, combine to make this one of the best-documented urban centres surviving from the Greek world. We suggest that the material from the site offers the potential to build up a detailed ‘urban profile’, consisting of an overview of the early development of the community as well as an in-depth picture of the organisation of the Classical settlement. Some aspects of the urban infrastructure can also be quantified, allowing a new assessment of (for example) its demography. This article offers a sample of the kinds of data available and the sorts of questions that can be addressed in constructing such a profile, based on a brief summary of the interim results of fieldwork and data analysis carried out by the Olynthos Project, with a focus on research undertaken during the 2017, 2018 and 2019 seasons.
England has recently started a new paediatric influenza vaccine programme using a live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). There is uncertainty over how well the vaccine protects against more severe end-points. A test-negative case–control study was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) in vaccine-eligible children aged 2–16 years of age in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisation in England in the 2015–2016 season using a national sentinel laboratory surveillance system. Logistic regression was used to estimate the VE with adjustment for sex, risk-group, age group, region, ethnicity, deprivation and month of sample collection. A total of 977 individuals were included in the study (348 cases and 629 controls). The overall adjusted VE for all study ages and vaccine types was 33.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–54.6) after adjusting for age group, sex, index of multiple deprivation, ethnicity, region, sample month and risk group. Risk group was shown to be an important confounder. The adjusted VE for all influenza types for the live-attenuated vaccine was 41.9% (95% CI 7.3–63.6) and 28.8% (95% CI −31.1 to 61.3) for the inactivated vaccine. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalisation due to laboratory-confirmed influenza in children in 2015–2016 and continues to support the rollout of the LAIV childhood programme.
Hunting of wildlife is one of the major threats to biodiversity. For effective conservation programmes in countries where hunting and shifting agriculture are the main sources of subsistence, forest management should aim to reduce hunting pressure and forest exploitation. The presence of researchers has been promoted as one of the main ways to mitigate anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations. Our aim was to test whether local management and the establishment of a research station had a role in decreasing forest exploitation by local people living adjacent to a recently protected area in south-east Madagascar. We interviewed local people from nine villages at various distances from the recently established research station of Ampasy, in the northernmost portion of the Tsitongambarika Protected Area, to explore how people use the forest, with a particular focus on hunting. We also performed transect surveys to estimate snare and lemur encounter rates before local forest management began, at the establishment of the research station, and 1 year after. The impact of local communities on the forest seems to have decreased since the beginning of forest management, with a further decrease since the establishment of the research station. Participants from villages not involved in the local management were more reluctant to declare their illegal activities. We conclude that a combination of local management and related activities (e.g. installation of a research station) can assist in temporarily reducing forest exploitation by local communities; however, community needs and conservation plans should be integrated to maintain long-term benefits.
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ2 test. A random-effects model was also employed to model the number of cases. Sixty-eight per cent of all HPIV detections were due to HPIV type 3 (HPIV-3). HPIV-3 infections were detected all year round but peaked annually between March and June. HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 circulated at lower levels accounting for 20% and 8%, respectively, peaking during the last quarter of the year with a biennial cycle. HPIV-4 was detected in smaller numbers, accounting for only 4% and also mainly observed in the last quarter of the year. However, in recent years, HPIV-4 detection has been reported much more commonly with an increase from 0% in 1998 to 3·7% in 2013. Although an overall higher proportion of HPIV infection was reported in infants (43·0%), a long-term decreasing trend in proportion in infants was observed. An increase was also observed in older age groups. Continuous surveillance will be important in tracking any future changes.
The epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in young children has not recently been described in England, and is an essential step in identifying optimal target groups for future licensed RSV vaccines. We used two laboratory surveillance systems to examine the total number and number of positive RSV tests in children aged <5 years in England from 2010 to 2014. We derived odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing children by birth month, using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, season and sex. Forty-seven percent of RSV tests (29 851/63 827) and 57% (7405/13 034) of positive results in children aged <5 years were in infants aged <6 months. Moreover, 38% (4982/13 034) of positive results were in infants aged <3 months. Infants born in September, October and November had the highest odds of a positive RSV test during their first year of life compared to infants born in January (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·7–2·7; OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1–2·8; and OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1–2·7, respectively). Our results highlight the importance of young age and birth month near the beginning of the RSV season to the risk of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection. Future control measures should consider protection for these groups.
The proper characterisation of stellar winds is essential for the study of propagation of eruptive events (flares, coronal mass ejections) and the study of space weather events on exoplanets. Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the stellar winds surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters’ orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that the exoplanets studied here are immersed in a local stellar wind that is much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets (e.g., 5 orders of magnitude denser than the conditions experienced by the Earth). The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (2 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than the interplanetary medium surrounding the Earth). The characterisation of the host star's wind is also crucial for the study of how the wind interacts with exoplanets. For example, we compute the exoplanetary radio emission that is released in the wind-exoplanet interaction. For the hot-Jupiters studied here, we find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy. These fluxes could become orders of magnitude higher when stellar eruptions impact exoplanets, increasing the potential of detecting exoplanetary radio emission.
Spectropolarimetric observations combined with tomographic imaging techniques have revealed that all pre-main sequence (PMS) stars host multipolar magnetic fields, ranging from strong and globally axisymmetric with ≳kilo-Gauss dipole components, to complex and non-axisymmetric with weak dipole components (≲0.1 kG). Many host dominantly octupolar large-scale fields. We argue that the large-scale magnetic properties of a PMS star are related to its location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This conference paper is a synopsis of Gregory et al. (2012), updated to include the latest results from magnetic mapping studies of PMS stars.
We present results of the X-ray monitoring of V4046 Sgr, a close classical T Tauri star binary, with both components accreting material. The 360 ks long XMM observation allowed us to measure the plasma densities at different temperatures, and to check whether and how the density varies with time. We find that plasma at temperatures of 1–4 MK has high densities, and we observe correlated and simultaneous density variations of plasma, probed by O VII and Ne IX triplets. These results strongly indicate that all the inspected He-like triplets are produced by high-density plasma heated in accretion shocks, and located at the base of accretion flows.
We present a preliminary 3D potential field extrapolation model of the joint magnetosphere of the close accreting PMS binary V4046 Sgr. The model is derived from magnetic maps obtained as part of a coordinated optical and X-ray observing program.
Recent results showed that the magnetic field of M-dwarf (dM) stars, currently the main targets in searches for terrestrial planets, is very different from the solar one, both in topology as well as in intensity. In particular, the magnetised environment surrounding a planet orbiting in the habitable zone (HZ) of dM stars can differ substantially to the one encountered around the Earth. These extreme magnetic fields can compress planetary magnetospheres to such an extent that a significant fraction of the planet's atmosphere may be exposed to erosion by the stellar wind. Using observed surface magnetic maps for a sample of 15 dM stars, we investigate the minimum degree of planetary magnetospheric compression caused by the intense stellar magnetic fields. We show that hypothetical Earth-like planets with similar terrestrial magnetisation (~1 G) orbiting at the inner (outer) edge of the HZ of these stars would present magnetospheres that extend at most up to 6.1 (11.7) planetary radii. To be able to sustain an Earth-sized magnetosphere, the terrestrial planet would either need to orbit significantly farther out than the traditional limits of the HZ; or else, if it were orbiting within the life-bearing region, it would require a minimum magnetic field ranging from a few G to up to a few thousand G.
This paper presents the results of a multiwavelength observational study of the active young F-type star HR 1817. The star was monitored at 4.80 and 8.64 GHz over 2 × 12 h allocations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array on 8 and 9 December, 2000. The Anglo-Australian Telescope was used for simultaneous optical spectropolarimetry during a 2 h period on 9 December.
The low levels of observed radio emission have characteristics that are similar to those seen in other active stars, and a gyrosynchrotron mechanism is proposed to explain them; this is supported by the relatively low fractions of circular polarisation measured in HR 1817.
Comparison of the emissions from 4.80 and 8.64 GHz shows a very strong cross-correlation peak, indicative of a common origin, although the shift of this peak indicates that 8.64 GHz variations tend to precede those at 4.80 GHz by, typically, ˜20 min.
The optical spectropolarimetry reveals polarisation signals characteristic of surface magnetic fields, with profile changes indicating a complex dynamo-type magnetic topology is present on the star. This result makes HR 1817 the star with the earliest spectral type on which dynamo magnetic fields have been detected directly up to now.
Radio and optical observations from December 2001 and January 2002 of the active RS CVn-like binary CC Eri are presented. The star was monitored at 4.80 and 8.64 GHz over 3 × 12 h allocations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array on 28 to 30 December 2001. The Anglo-Australian Telescope was used for simultaneous optical spectropolarimetry during a 0.5 h period on 30 December. Data from four nights of broadband photometry gathered around the same period are also included in this present multiwavelength study.
The low levels of radio emission were circularly polarised at ∼20% with slightly positive spectral indices of ∼0.26. Two flare-like increases were observed on successive nights with steep positive spectral indices and no detectable polarisation. Cross-correlation analysis of the 4.80 and 8.64 GHz intensities over the stronger flare showed that the higher frequency emission preceded that at the lower frequency by ∼5 min, a result consistent with the propagation of a hydromagnetic disturbance outwards through the corona. On the same night, a significant cross-correlation in the ‘quiescent’ emission indicates the presence of micro-flaring, although its low intensity does not permit the evaluation of a time delay. The emission parameters on the three nights are compatible with a gyrosyncrotron mechanism, in which the radio source becomes optically thick during strong flaring. We develop a simple model, which is based on assuming that the number of radiating electrons is a given function of the magnetic field in the source region, and derive feasible values for the field, source radius, and number of emitting electrons, which are not strongly dependent on the field modelling function or the aspect ratio of the source. Spectropolarimetry demonstrates the presence of a strong surface magnetic field. Optical photometry, covering a sufficient amount of the orbit, indicates a maculation region of significant size (∼14° radius).
The results help develop a three-dimensional picture of a large stellar magnetically active region and encourage more detailed follow-up multiwavelength studies of this and similar stars.
We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convection and temperature at photospheric level, using simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field component, the core emission of the Ca II infrared triplet, the line-depth ratio of selected photospheric lines and the radial velocity of the star.
Magnetic fields of cool stars can be directly investigated through the study of the Zeeman effect on photospheric spectral lines using several approaches. With spectroscopic measurement in unpolarised light, the total magnetic flux averaged over the stellar disc can be derived but very little information on the field geometry is available. Spectropolarimetry provides a complementary information on the large-scale magnetic topology. With Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI), this information can be retrieved to produce a map of the vector magnetic field at the surface of the star, and in particular to assess the relative importance of the poloidal and toroidal components as well as the degree of axisymmetry of the field distribution.
The development of high-performance spectropolarimeters associated with multi-lines techniques and ZDI allows us to explore magnetic topologies throughout the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, on stars spanning a wide range of mass, age and rotation period. These observations bring novel constraints on magnetic field generation by dynamo effect in cool stars. In particular, the study of solar twins brings new insight on the impact of rotation on the solar dynamo, whereas the detection of strong and stable dipolar magnetic fields on fully convective stars questions the precise role of the tachocline in this process.
A four-component solid-phase capture enzyme immunoassay was set up to test for serum IgM antibody to respiratory syncytial (RS) virus and was compared with immunofluorescence assay (IFA).
A total of 128 young children with acute respiratory infections were studied. Thirty-six were shown to be RS virus-positive by the detection of RS virus in nasopharyngeal secretions and 92 were RS virus-negative. A serum specimen was collected after admission to the hospital (days 0–4) and a further specimen was obtained during days 10–14. Out of 36 RS virus-positive patients, 28 (77·7%) were found to be positive for IgM by both capture-ELISA and IFA. Out of 92 RS virus-negative patients 5 (5·4%) were IgM-positive. Four false-positive results were obtained by IFA due to the presence of rheumatoid factor.
The capture-ELISA was shown to be a reliable technique in detecting specific IgM antibody to RS virus.
Sun-like stars are able to continuously generate a large-scale magnetic field through the action of a dynamo. Various physical parameters of the star are able to affect the dynamo output, in particular the rotation and mass. Using the NARVAL spectropolarimeter (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, France), it is now possible to measure the large-scale magnetic field of solar analogues (i.e. stars very close to the Sun in the mass-rotation plane, including strict solar twins). From spectropolarimetric time-series, tomographic inversion enables one to reconstruct the field geometry and its progressive distortion under the effect of surface differential rotation. We show the first results obtained on a sample of main-sequence dwarfs, probing masses between 0.7 and 1.4 solar mass and rotation rates between 1 and 3 solar rotation rate.