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This work aimed to evaluate the effects of sire's and dam's biological type, dam's age class at calving and individual heterozygosis, and to estimate variance components for weaning weight adjusted to 210 days (WW210) in beef cattle of different breed groups. Records of 13 687 animals, obtained from 2000 to 2007, were used. Bulls from the biological types Zebu (N), Adapted (A), British (B), Continental (C) and ¼N|¼A|¼B|¼C were mated with purebred zebu (N) and crossbred females (½C|½N and ½B|½N). Dam age at calving was 3–12 years. The influence of several effects on WW210 was tested using the least square method. Variance component analysis was performed using a Bayesian approach. The model included contemporary group, dam's age class at calving, sire's and dam's biological types as systematic effects, animal's age and individual heterozygosis as linear covariates, and direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual effects as random effects. The progeny of bulls from biological type B and the crossbred cows showed higher WW210 means. Cows at 6–7 years old weaned heavier calves. Direct and maternal heritability estimates for WW210 were 0.5 ± 0.04 and 0.1 ± 0.02, respectively. Calves with 100% individual heterozygosis weighed on average 25.98 kg more at weaning compared to progenies from pure breeds. Sire's and dam's biological types influence the WW210 of the crossed progenies. Crossbred cows produce heavier calves compared to biological type N cows. These results and the obtained direct and maternal heritabilities suggest it is possible to choose the lines of sires and dams that could be used to make the crosses to obtain progenies with better performance for WW210.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
To investigate the prevalence and socio-economic inequalities in breast milk, breast milk substitutes (BMS) and other non-human milk consumption, by children under 2 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We analysed the prevalence of continued breast-feeding at 1 and 2 years and frequency of formula and other non-human milk consumption by age in months. Indicators were estimated through 24-h dietary recall. Absolute and relative wealth indicators were used to describe within- and between-country socio-economic inequalities.
Nationally representative surveys from 2010 onwards from eighty-six LMIC.
394 977 children aged under 2 years.
Breast-feeding declined sharply as children became older in all LMIC, especially in upper-middle-income countries. BMS consumption peaked at 6 months of age in low/lower-middle-income countries and at around 12 months in upper-middle-income countries. Irrespective of country, BMS consumption was higher in children from wealthier families, and breast-feeding in children from poorer families. Multilevel linear regression analysis showed that BMS consumption was positively associated with absolute income, and breast-feeding negatively associated. Findings for other non-human milk consumption were less straightforward. Unmeasured factors at country level explained a substantial proportion of overall variability in BMS consumption and breast-feeding.
Breast-feeding falls sharply as children become older, especially in wealthier families in upper-middle-income countries; this same group also consumes more BMS at any age. Country-level factors play an important role in explaining BMS consumption by all family wealth groups, suggesting that BMS marketing at national level might be partly responsible for the observed differences.
Although organizational climate may affect faculty’s mentoring behaviors, there has not been any way to measure that climate. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of two novel scales to measure organizational mentoring climate importance and availability at two public research universities.
We developed 36 content-valid mentoring climate items in four dimensions: Structure, Programs/Activities, Policies/Guidelines, and Values. In total, 355 faculty completed an anonymous, structured, online survey asking about the importance (very important to very unimportant) and availability (no, don’t know, yes) of each of the items. We conducted reliability analyses and construct validity testing using exploratory common factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and oblique rotation.
The majority of the predominantly female, White non-Hispanic, senior, tenure-track faculty were not currently mentoring another faculty or being mentored. Analyses demonstrated a 15-item solution for both the Organizational Mentoring Climate Importance (OMCI) and the Availability (OMCA) Scales, with three factors each: Organizational Expectations, Mentor–Mentee Relationships, and Resources. Standardized Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.74 to 0.90 for the subscales, and 0.94 (OMCI) and 0.87 (OMCA) for the full scales. Faculty rated all items as somewhat to very important; however, perceived availability was very low ranging from mentor training programs (40%) to guidelines for evaluating mentoring success or managing conflict (2.5%).
The scales will allow studying of how organizational climate may affect mentoring behavior and whether climate can be changed to improve faculty mentoring outcomes. We provide recommendations for furthering the science of organizational mentoring climate and culture.
TiO2-(B)/SnO2 nanostructured composites have been prepared by the combination of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method (MRM) and a hydrothermal method. Its electrochemical properties were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion battery, and characterization was carried out by XRD, BET, Raman, FE-SEM, EDXS, and TEM. The as-prepared composites consisted of monoclinic phase TiO2-(B) nanoribbons decorated with cassiterite structure SnO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite electrode showed higher reversible capacity of 265 mAh/g than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, 79 mAh/g, after 50 cycles at 0.1 C in a voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at room temperature. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite remains at an average greater than 90% from the 2nd to the 50th cycles. The TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite presented the best balance between the mechanical support effect provided by TiO2-(B) that also contributes to the LIB capacity and the SnO2 that provides high specific capacity.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This is typically prevented by abstinence. The term Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Impulsivity has been hypothesised are likked with CIP.
This study examined the relationship between CIP and substance consumption variables and impulsivity disorders including ADHD (Axis I) and Borderline personality disorders (BPD) (Axis II), and attempted to evaluated their link as a risk factors for CIP.
Trained psychiatrists systematically conducted a structured interview in which the conclusions from the psychotic symptoms were summarized. We used the CADDID to evaluate Adult ADHD, SCID II for axis II disorders, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11).
We evaluated 163 (34,16 yo, 85,80% men) cocaine-dependent patients, according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found statistically significant association between CIP and Early age at onset of cocaine addiction (p = 0,04), cocaine use per day 6 months before starting treatment (p = 0,03), Barrat cognitive impulsivity subscale (p < 0,004), and Adult ADHD (p < 0,041). No relationship between BPD and CIP was found.
We confirm previous findings that Impulsivity disorders as ADHD or high impulsivity trails are liked to CIP. Coinciding with our previous findings, relationship between early age of onset cocaine dependence or high amounts of cocaine use and CIP was found. CIP are related with impulsivity disorders spectrum.
Phenytoin used to prevent seizures linked to brain cancer neurosurgery has shown many undesirable side effects and drug interactions with chemotherapy.
To evaluate the incidence of depression, insomnia, mood instability and early post surgery seizures, after Phenytoin (PHE) vs. Levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapy in patients with brain tumour subjected to a supratentorial brain tumour resection.
A prospective study in patients with supratentorial cancer diagnosis subjected to neurosurgery of resection was done. Patients were consecutive randomized to be treated with PHE (n = 26) 15 ml/kg IV-bolus, 125 mg/8 h IV x48 h, 100 mg/8 h O x7 days or with LEV (n = 34) 500 mg/12 h IV x48 h, 500 mg/12 h O x 7 days. Clinical, histological, TAC, EEG, seizures and undesirable side effects were analyzed.
Results and discussion
60 patients (53% male, aged 52.5 ± 20 years) with glioblastoma multiform 45%, meningioma 43%, Ewing's sarcoma 6.7%, others 5.3% (size between 3–6 cm, in the right brain site-65.2%, in the frontal lobe-56.2%) were subjected to followed for a week after tumour resection. Undesirable side effects (USE) were (%LEV/%PHE): total (7.3%/31.5%), somnolence (0%/32.8%), headache (6.1%/22.3%), dizziness (0%/25.6%), difficulty with coordination (0%/23.5%), depression (6.2%/18.7%), lack of energy/strength (12.5%/33.8%), insomnia (11.3%/37.9%), mood instability (12.5%/22,6%), leukopenia (0%/16.9%) after surgery (p < 0.05). None of the patients taking Levetiracetam vs. 4 of the patients taking Phenytoin (0% vs. 15.3%) had seizures after surgery (p < 0.05).
Levetiracetam showed lower depression, insomnia, mood instability and seizures incidence than Phenytoin after supratentorial tumour neurosurgery.
The underlying genetic heterogeneity in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has led to the search of potential markers associated with subtypes of the disorder; as such, age at onset (AAO) could be considered as a factor that defines more genetically homogeneous subgroups.
To analyze the modal distribution of a BD population according to the AAO of the disorder, as well as the clinical characteristics related to the distribution findings.
357 patients with a BD diagnosis were included in the study. AAO was defined as the age when the patient first met DSM-IV criteria for a major mood episode. Using an admixture analysis, patients were distributed among different parameters; and parametric analyses were conducted in order to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics between groups.
The model that best fit the observed distribution was a mixture of three Gaussian distributions (mean ± SD): 17±3.7 years, 26±8.8 years, and 35.5±12.54 years. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to social status, course of illness, suicidal behavior, rapid cycling, medical co-morbidities and lithium response (p<0.05).
Our results support the existence of a tri-modal distribution in BD defined by AAO, each one with different clinical characteristics; and suggest that early-onset and late-onset BD reflect an underlying genetic heterogeneity in bipolar disorder, being early-onset BD implicitly a more serious subtype of disorder.
The schizophrenic patients have a standardized mortality rate greater than expected for the rest of the population. The metabolic syndrome has high prevalence among them, that prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in schizophrenic patients and the sociodemographic, antropometric, clinical, and psychopharmacological variables which are related to it. We aimed to know the coronary risk and its relation with the metabolic syndrome.
Cross-sectional study. We include 136 patients, between 18 and 65 years old, admitted throughout the year 2004 in the Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín with a schizophrenic diagnose and more than two years of evolution, validated through the SCID-I. Metabolic syndrome and coronary risk were defined according to the criteria of the NCEP-ATP III.
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 36% (95% CI = 29.4 - 45.59). It is outstanding the high prevalence of abdominal obesity (78.7%) in women. We can't find any relation between the metabolic syndrome and the different studied variables. The coronary risk in the next 10 years is moderate in 52.3% and high in 2.9% of the cases. The increase in the risk associates with suffering the metabolic syndrome and taking antipsychotics.
The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in schizophrenic patients and, therefore, the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of its components is an essential aim to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these subjects.
The Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity (ADDH) is now, a frequent diagnosis in Paediatrics Psychiatry. This real neurobiological syndrome has a variable incidence (3-12%), an early beginning (before 7 years) and an important permanency in adult age (15-20% keep diagnosis and 65% residual symptoms). It represents a risk factor for posterior psychiatric diseases, antisocial behaviour and relation problems. This makes the early diagnosis and treatment necessary. The 70-90% of the patients responds to simpatico mimetic treatment and the methylphenidate is the most used. Patients must carry out the clinical criteria and nowadays there is not any recognized helpful test for the diagnoses except the clinical one. The medium latency auditory evoked response (MLAER) appears 10-70 ms after the cochlear receptor activation and it has cortical and subcortical generators.
We studied MLAER in ADDH: their morphology, changes with treatment and relation between morphology changes and clinical response to treatment.
Patients (53) had ADDH clinical criteria, methylphenidate treatment chosed, not comorbidity neither hearing loss. First phase without treatment and second with it where we did MLAER and tronco-encephalic auditory evoked response during wakefulness and sleep.
Without treatment 76% responses were asymmetric (51% of them with a specific type). The rest 23% were normal. With treatment 63% changed the morphology and 70% had a good response to treatment. Only 11% of patients without alterations had a good clinical development.
An ADDH diagnosis has different physiopathologic mechanism. The MLAER in ADDH could predict the treatment response.
Despite the high prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms located around 2-3% of the population, there continue to be cases where the characteristics of the patient or the circumstances of their environment, they fall short queries mental health or when they do not for the disorder itself, but for another reason obsessional symptoms worsen.
Expose using clinical case, the existence of patients with obsessive pathology whose characteristics do not seek mental health consultation, until this is associated with a new disease that interferes significantly in vital organization.
We report the case of a man of 88 years old, married at 60, was admitted to the psychiatric consultation at the request of his wife 29 years his junior, for behavioral disorders several years of evolution and history of obsessive symptoms compulsive, which did not interfere with their daily lives by the lack of insight and poor social environment
OCD is included in anxiety disorders.
It is characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions that interfere with personal, work and / or patient's social.
There are cases that own personality traits of the patient, this disorder is not diagnosed early and choose to go only when associated with worsening cognitive impairment rituals and interfere with family life.
Adequate pathways to care are a prerequisite for early detection and intervention in First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Two systematic reviews examined the influence of ethnicity, social and clinical factors on psychosis care pathways. Accessibility to health services differs for under 18s, yet differences in care pathways between age groups and the impact of family factors have not been investigated.
To investigate the influence of family factors in help-seeking pathways for adolescents with FEP.
Naturalistic crossectional study of 1351 FEP (14-35 years) referred to Early Intervention Psychosis teams (London, UK; 2003-2009). Care pathways included accounts on who initiated help-seeking process, initial contact points (GP, emergency services, education, social services, police and court/prison), and family factors (social support, living arrangements and family load of mental illness).
For the majority of adolescents (n=118) and adults (n=1232), first and second contact points were GP (30% vs 42%) and emergency services (18% vs 23%). However, these two services accounted for less than half of the adolescents’ sample. Adolescents made higher use of education (p<0.001). Family factors, such as good social support (p=0.036), living with carers (p<0.001) and family load of mental illness (p=0.018), were associated with family taking a leading role in problem recognition.
Adolescents with psychosis differ from adults in their contact points when seeking help. Problem recognition is a complex process which involves identifying and legitimizing mental health concerns. Parental awareness and perception of problems revealed as a key step in seeking help for adolescents.
Cannabis use has demonstrated an association with earlier onset of psychosis. Investigation of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in association with cannabis use in adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has resulted in inconsistent findings. The clinical profile of cannabis users amongst adolescents with FEP remain widely understudied.
To investigate the frequency of cannabis use, and its association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in adolescent-versus adult-onset FEP.
Naturalistic cross-sectional study of 1363 FEP cases aged 14-35 (136 with adolescent-onset psychosis) referred to Early Intervention Services for psychosis in London (UK) (2003-2009). Sociodemographic and clinical data (age of psychosis onset, symptom domains, substance misuse, insight, violence, global functioning, and duration of untreated psychosis [DUP]) were collected at entry to EIS.
Cannabis users were more likely to be male (78.2%), White (43.0%) and unemployed (72.0%). No significant difference was found in cannabis abuse/dependence frequencies between adolescents (28.4%) and adults (24.7%). Cannabis abuse/dependence was associated with an earlier onset of psychosis by 2 years (p<0.001), greater manic and positive symptoms (p<0.001), increased violence (p=0.011), and poorer functioning (p=0.013) and insight (p=0.003). For adolescents, cannabis abuse/dependence was associated with greater positive symptoms, poorer functioning and longer DUP.
Cannabis use shapes the clinical presentation of FEP individuals. Similar frequencies of cannabis use between age groups suggest that substance misuse services should be provided to all, aiming to reducing consumption. Greater vigilance amongst clinicians would enable earlier detection of psychosis in substance misusing adolescents, to reduce DUP and minimise associated poor outcomes.
In this exhibition we aim to describe a clinical case and the different consequences that may present additional problems with eating disorders, focusing with emphasis on development and clinical picture. This disorder usually occurs in non-obese adolescents accused, showing symptoms significantly related to interpersonal functioning of these adolescents, who tend to be isolated or seek company of younger guys. They are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorders related or unrelated to the food. Dietary restriction involves biological and physical changes, highlighting the alteration of hypothalamic and endocrine system, leading to signs and symptoms such as amenorrhea, cold intolerance, hypotension … Neurochemical changes have also been attributed to malnutrition.
The present case is a 31 year old woman. Initiates contact with Mental Health at age 15 by anorexia nervosa. Patient requests for worsening nutritional status, family relationships, and alcohol consumption, being the turning point and main motivation, the birth of his daughter. 8 months ago gave birth, being an unexpected delivery at home. Unaware that pregnancy, justifying as secondary amenorrhea eating disorder and abdominal inflammation malnutrition. Daughter born seven months income requires low weight and withdrawal symptoms during pregnancy as continuous with anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment.
It has a favorable, always maintaining therapeutic commitment announced at the beginning of tratamiento. Currently still in out patient reviews with Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology, Nursing and Nutrition.
Gender Incongruence (GI) is a rare condition in adolescence characterized by a marked incongruence between one's experienced gender and the assigned sex. It presents as a combination of: a strong discomfort and/or intense rejection of the behavior/attributes of the born gender, a strong desire to live (and be treated) of the experienced gender, and/or a determination to follow the process of transition (i.e. hormonal therapy, sex reassignment surgery). Psychological functioning and treatment outcome has shown significant variation across transgender individuals.
This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic stability of GI in adolescents across ICD-10, DSM-IV-TR, DSM-5, and ICD-11.
Case series of four adolescents aged 16-17 (3 female-born and 1 male-born) with GI seen at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (London, UK) in 2012, who completed clinical assessments and questionnaires (Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and Gender identity/GD questionnaire for adolescents and adults).
GI diagnostic criteria varied across diagnostic systems regarding: (1) number of indicators required, (2) symptoms duration, and (3) presence of clinical distress/impairment. In our case series, the latter led to diagnostic instability: two adolescents did not fulfill DMS-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Nonetheless, the dimensional approach supported the GI diagnosis for the four adolescents.
Classification systems evolved in their conceptualization of GI over time evidenced by a shift in the condition name and diagnostic criteria. Diagnostic instability across classification systems may have an impact on their clinical utility. Evidenced-based investigations are required to further assess the clinical utility of the new classification systems.
Immigration in Spain is from the early ‘90s phenomenon of demographic and economic importance, according to INE, in January 2011 first residing in the country nearly 6.7 million people born outside our borders. In recent years, many immigrants are living in especially difficult circumstances.
Show that these people undergo a series of very specific stressors and duels: precarious and harsh working conditions, poor diet, loneliness and lack of social support… This would enhance the appearance of psychiatric symptoms in various areas, closely related to lifestyles that maintain and in some cases precipitate substance use in this group, primarily those that have a sedative profile.
We will present the clinical case of a 34 year old Nigerian male. No somatic or psychiatric history of interest. Cannabis smoker since adolescence. A year after his arrival in Spain admitted to our inpatient unit due to clinical psychotic. Was a challenge from the point of view of psychopharmacological have many side effects with low doses of typical antipsychotics
Disappearance of psychotic and affective symptoms to approach the case from a pharmacological perspective, social and cultural.
Addressing the relationship between life stressors and cannabis as a trigger or catalyst for psychotic episodes in individuals predisposed. Pathological elaborations of cultural integration of an immigrant (whether by denial of the original culture or over-identification with the host culture) facilitates the use of toxic either for blending with Western consumer culture or cultural consumption radicalization toxic in some East African countries.
Given the high prevalence, severity and difficulty recognizing psychiatric disorders in patients with TBI, it is necessary to conduct a detailed history, gathering information on the location of the lesion and its relationship with the table in the psychopathological examination.
Illustrated by a clinical case, the close relationship between the injury of specific brain areas and the emergence of psychopathology that allows us to deepen the understanding of the biological substrate of mental disorders.
Exposure of a clinical picture and brief literature review of the existing literature.
We report the case of a man of 49 years old, no personal or family history was admitted to the hospital after a traffic accident with severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) scan shows intraparenquematoso right temporal hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma right, pneumocephalus front right, front left fracture of both orbits and right maxillary sinus.
The interest in the study and the relationship of psychiatric symptoms with the location of the lesions, we can provide improved understanding of the biological basis of mental disorders.
Suicide is a public health problem of the first magnitude for both its costs and its implications for the population. The attention to suicide attempts is itself one of the first reasons for psychiatric consultation, if not the first, in hospitals. Among the risk factors for suicide is the presence of mental disorders on Axis I and II, and the existence of previous attempts.
Studying the behavior of some of the risk factors for suicide known (psychiatric history and previous attempts) in a sample from service Emergency Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez
Performed a retrospective analysis (for a period of 6 months of 2013) of the risk factors associated with suicidal behavior of patients seen in the emergency department of our hospital for attempted suicide.
In an interim analysis found that up to 50% of patients treated for attempted suicide had made ??previous attempts. Most of them had any axis I disorder (> 75%) and were or had been in outpatient psychiatric follow. Extensive treatment with psychotropic drugs performed most (> 80%)
The high number of cases with previous attempts provides a clear example of the problem of suicidal behavior relapse. The importance of this is increased when you consider that most were receiving or had received psychiatric treatment, reflecting the limitations in our daily clinical practice we have to control this pubic health problem.