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Neusticemys neuquina (Fernández and de la Fuente, 1988) is a turtle from the Upper Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin, Patagonia, Argentina. Here we describe in detail a new skull, lower jaw, and a vertebra, utilizing both traditional anatomical description and computed tomography (CT). New diagnostic cranial characters of Neusticemys neuquina are: a round depression on the ventral surface of the basisphenoid, a relatively larger oval foramen nervi trigemini, and reduced and steepened triturating surfaces on both the maxilla and dentary. The new morphological information presented in this study was included in a phylogenetic analysis, the primary result of which was recovery of Neusticemys neuquina within Thalassochelydia. Characters recognized as synapomorphies of this clade include: (1) anterolateral recess of the anterior surface of the quadrate positioned lateral to the processus trochlearis oticum, (2) presence of a fossa on the supraoccipital-opisthotic-exoccipital contact area, (3) foramina anterius caroticus cerebralis located close together but independently perforating the basisphenoid, and (4) the presence of the splenial in the mandible. Two contrasting dispersal scenarios could explain how this species of Thalassochelydia can be found outside of Europe. The presence of Neusticemys neuquina in the Neuquén Basin could be the consequence of an early dispersion event, for which we lack intermediate forms, or it could be the result of a later event once the clade was already established in Europe.
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. A total of 16 dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments (two treatments each), in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 days. In both experiments alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33:67) remained constant. The concentrate in experiment 1 consisted of barley, maize and soybean meal (concentrate rich in starch), whereas it included soybean hulls replacing 25% of barley and 25% maize in experiment 2 (concentrate rich in NDF). As a result, the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio was 3.1 in experiment 1 and it decreased to 0.8 in experiment 2. Both concentrates were administered either alone or in combination with 30 g/day of linseed oil. Animal performance parameters were not affected by experimental treatments. In contrast, major changes were observed in milk FA profile due to lipid supplementation and the type of concentrate. Linseed oil significantly raised vaccenic and rumenic acids as well as α-linolenic acid and its biohydrogenation intermediates while decreased medium-chain saturated FA (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. Milk fat contents of odd and branched-chain FA and trans-10 18:1 responded differently to linseed oil supplementation according to the concentrate fed.
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played “Professor Layton and the curious village”® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.
Phase changes from Be to Be-shell and/or B normal, and conversely, presently remain unpredictable in Be stars (except in some binaries where the transition to a shell phase seems to be associated with the orbital period). Because of their unpredictable character, these phenomena have been monitored in very few cases and are still very poorly understood. However, the existence of phase transitions have strong modelling implications. Under the disk model, the inclination of the star's rotation axis determines the type of spectrum, Be or Be-shell, that a given Be star may exhibit. It is obvious that this picture is contradicted by phase transitions (Doazan 1982).
We present fax UV observations of Pleione made with the IUE satellite at two epochs: in 1979, when the star exhibited a strong shell spectrum and, in 1991, when it showed a Be-type spectrum. Between these two epochs, the 2200 Å bump changed dramatically, thus, rendering it inadequate for interstellar extinction/distance determination.
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P<0.001), whereas the OLI milk FA profile resembled that of the Control diet. In contrast, although FO drastically diminished the contents of stearic and oleic acids (P<0.001), all the saturated even-numbered carbon FAs from 6:0 to 14:0 increased (P<0.05). FO also produced the highest levels of c9,t11-18:2 (2.21%) and n-3 FAs, 20:5 n-3 (0.58%), 22:5 n-3 (0.48%) and 22:6 n-3 (0.40%). The high levels of trans-11 18:1 (7.10%) obtained from the FO diet would suggest that Ca soaps only confer partial protection in the rumen. In contrast, the lack of significant differences in trans-10 18:1 levels (P>0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.
The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a set of absorption features, some of which are broad (“diffuse”), that are formed in the diffuse ISM. Since their discovery nearly a century ago their numbers have increased to over 500. The strongest of these are known to be ubiquitous in the universe. There is general consensus that they are produced by large carbon-bearing molecules; however, no specific identification of any single DIB has survived scrutiny. The overwhelming majority of DIBs are at optical and very near infrared wavelengths. In 1990 two DIBs were identified in J-band spectra, at 1.18 μm and 1.31 μm by Joblin et al. (1990); until recently these were the longest wavelength examples known.
Bismuth superconducting oriented fibers of the compositions 2:2:1:2: and 2:2:2:3 have been grown by the Laser Floating Zone (LFZ) method. Growth conditions have been optimized in order to improve the superconducting properties. The 108 K onset in susceptibility measurements (associated to the 2:2:2:3 phase) only appears well defined when starting from Sr-defective precursors.
A comparative study of lithium insertion in W4Nb26O77 and W3Nb14O44, two block structure type phases, has been carried out. This process is, in both cases, reversible for a similar number of lithium ions incorporated to total metal atoms ratio (Li/ΣM), 1.15 in W3Nb14O44 and 1.23 in W4Nb26O77. No significant structural changes are seen by X-ray diffraction upon insertion. Sodium insertion in W3Nb14O44 has been also studied observing a substantial reduction on the number of ions incorporated when compared with lithium (Na/ΣM: 0.03).
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are interesting candidates for the reinforcement in robust composites and for conducting fillers in polymers due to their fascinating electronic and mechanical properties. For the first time, we report the incorporation of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into silica-glass surfaces by means of partial surface-melting caused by a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. MWNTs were detected being well incorporated in the silica-surface. The composites are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman-spectroscopy. A model for the composite-formation is proposed based on heatabsorption by MWNTs and a partial melting of the silica-surface.