To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study reports the effects of a high-fat (HF) diet on the iron (Fe) status of growing rats over 8 weeks. Tissue Fe levels were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and whole-body adiposity was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Histopathology and morphometry of adipose tissue were performed. Liver homogenates were used for measuring ferroportin (Fpn)-1 protein levels by immunoblotting, and transcript levels were used for Fe genes measured by real-time PCR. Tissue Fe pools were fit to a compartmental biokinetic model in which Fe was assessed using 14 compartments and 27 transfer constants (kj,i from tissue “i” to tissue “j”) adapted from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 69. Ten kj,i were calculated from the experimental data using nonlinear regression, and 17 were estimated by allometry according to the formula kj,i = a · Mb. Validation of the model was carried out by comparing predicted and analysed Fe pool sizes in red blood cells (RBCs), the liver and the spleen. Body adiposity was negatively associated with serum Fe levels and positively associated with liver Fe stores. An inferred increase in Fe transfer from bone marrow to the liver paralleled higher hepatic Fe concentrations and ferritin heavy-chain mRNA levels in the HF diet-fed animals, suggesting that liver Fe accumulation occurred at least in part due to a favoured liver RBC uptake. If this feeding condition were to be prolonged, impaired Fe decompartmentalization may occur, ultimately resulting in dysmetabolic Fe overload.
There has been a growing interest in the study of writing from the perspective of its potential contribution to language development. However, scant attention has been paid to key methodological considerations regarding the analysis of the connection between L2 writing processes, reflection on language while writing, and language learning. In an attempt to advance in this domain, and informed by models of L2 writing, and cognitive L2 writing research framed in the problem-solving paradigm, this study provides a comprehensive description of the language reflection individual writers engage in when solving the linguistic problems they face while completing writing tasks in their L2. The think-aloud protocols generated by 21 EFL learners while writing an individual argumentative essay were analyzed on the basis of a reconceptualization of language-related episodes as problem-solving strategy clusters. The result is a comprehensive, theoretically motivated, and empirically based coding system that is offered as a basis for future research in the domain. We discuss the methodological implications of our analytic approach and advance some theoretical implications for future debates on the language learning potential of individual writing tasks.
Survival and infectivity of trypanosomatids rely on cell-surface and secreted glycoconjugates, many of which contain a variable number of galactose residues. Incorporation of galactose to proteins and lipids occurs along the secretory pathway from UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). Before being used in glycosylation reactions, however, this activated sugar donor must first be transported across the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes by a specific nucleotide sugar transporter (NST). In this study, we identified an UDP-Gal transporter (named TcNST2 and encoded by the TcCLB.504085.60 gene) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. TcNST2 was identified by heterologous expression of selected putative nucleotide sugar transporters in a mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. TcNST2 mRNA levels were detected in all T. cruzi life-cycle forms, with an increase in expression in axenic amastigotes. Confocal microscope analysis indicated that the transporter is specifically localized to the Golgi apparatus. A three-dimensional model of TcNST2 suggested an overall structural conservation as compared with members of the metabolite transporter superfamily and also suggested specific features that could be related to its activity. The identification of this transporter is an important step toward a better understanding of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and the role NSTs play in this process in trypanosomatids.
Movement disorders associated with exposure to antipsychotic drugs are common and stigmatising but underdiagnosed.
To develop and evaluate a new clinical procedure, the ScanMove instrument, for the screening of antipsychotic-associated movement disorders for use by mental health nurses.
Item selection and content validity assessment for the ScanMove instrument were conducted by a panel of neurologists, psychiatrists and a mental health nurse, who operationalised a 31-item screening procedure. Interrater reliability was measured on ratings for 30 patients with psychosis from ten mental health nurses evaluating video recordings of the procedure. Criterion and concurrent validity were tested comparing the ScanMove instrument-based rating of 13 mental health nurses for 635 community patients from mental health services with diagnostic judgement of a movement disorder neurologist based on the ScanMove instrument and a reference procedure comprising a selection of commonly used rating scales.
Interreliability analysis showed no systematic difference between raters in their prediction of any antipsychotic-associated movement disorders category. On criterion validity testing, the ScanMove instrument showed good sensitivity for parkinsonism (90%) and hyperkinesia (89%), but not for akathisia (38%), whereas specificity was low for parkinsonism and hyperkinesia, and moderate for akathisia.
The ScanMove instrument demonstrated good feasibility and interrater reliability, and acceptable sensitivity as a mental health nurse-administered screening tool for parkinsonism and hyperkinesia.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) recurrence ranges from 16% to 43% and presents significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to disseminate, implement and evaluate whether an existing intervention, consisting of decolonization and decontamination procedures, which has been determined to be effective in hospital intensive care unit settings, can be implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” conducting home visits prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA and transmission within their households for patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 4 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants are randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention or usual care, which includes hygiene education. The highly engaged stakeholder team meets monthly to review interim results, identify areas for refinement and new research questions, and develop and implement strategies to improve participant engagement and retention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively. 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had one or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had one or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. The “warm handoff” approach, developed and implemented by the stakeholder team to engage patients from their initial consent to return of lab results and scheduling of the home visits, helped improve completion of baseline home visits by 14%, from 45% to 59% of eligible participants. Home visits have demonstrated that 60% of households had at least one surface contaminated with S. aureus. Of the surfaces that tested positive in the households, nearly 20% were MRSA and 81% were MSSA; 32.5% of household members had at least one surveillance culture positive for S. aureus (MRSA: 7.7%, MSSA: 92.3%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the systems-level, patient-level, and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators of implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the weak evidence base for implementation of strategies to reduce SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are commonly seen in primary care, with recurrence rates that range from 16% to 43%, and present significant challenges to clinicians, patients, and families. This comparative effectiveness research study aims to develop and evaluate a home-based intervention implemented by Community Health Workers (CHWs) or “promotoras” to prevent recurrence of CA-MRSA in patients presenting to primary care with SSTIs and transmission within their households. This presentation will examine associations between wound microbiology, clinical presentation, and housing characteristics, including housing density and household surfaces contamination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In partnership with 3 Community Health Centers and 3 community hospitals in NYC, this study will recruit patients (n=278) with confirmed MRSA SSTIs and their household members. Participants will be randomized to receive either a CHW/Promotora-delivered decolonization-decontamination intervention (based on the REDUCE MRSA trial) or usual care. The highly engaged stakeholder team finalized the intervention protocol, developed and implemented CHW and clinician training, and developed an online health portal application for data management and exchange. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have collected 923 isolates from 237 individuals, including 240 wound culture isolates and 683 surveillance culture isolates (nares, axilla, groin). MRSA and MSSA were found in 19% and 21.1% of wound cultures, respectively; 59.5% with MRSA+ wound culture had 1 or more MRSA+ surveillance culture; 67.8% with MSSA+ wound culture had 1 or more MSSA+ surveillance culture. Of those with MRSA or MSSA infections, 70% of subjects were male, with an average age of 37.9 (SD=15.9 y). The most frequent sites of infection were the leg (20%), axilla (18%), buttock (17%), and abdomen/torso (12%). There was no association between the location and type of infection (MRSA/MSSA) (p-value=0.09). The kitchen floor (14.05%) and bedroom floor (14%) were the most common surfaces contaminated with MRSA. These were also the most common surfaces contaminated with MSSA, which was recovered from 10.2% and 9.1% of kitchen floors and bedroom floors, respectively. For individuals with an MRSA or MSSA wound infection, there was an average number of 3.2 (SD=1.6) co-residents per household, and 36.5% of household members were colonized with either MRSA or MSSA. There is no association between household density (number of co-residents) and type of infection (MRSA/MSSA) (Fisher’s p-values=0.171 and 0.371, respectively). In households of participants with MSSA wound infections, the number of colonized sites is positively associated with the level of household MSSA contamination (p=0.027). Further analyses will examine the associations between molecular subtypes, wound location, household surface contamination and household member colonization and infection. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study aims to understand the patient-level and environmental-level factors associated with SSTI recurrence, surface contamination and household transmission, and to examine the interactions between bacterial genotypic and clinical/phenotypic factors on decontamination, decolonization, SSTI recurrence and household transmission. This study will evaluate the barriers and facilitators to implementation of home visits by CHWs in underserved populations, and aims to strengthen the evidence base for implementation of strategies to identify and reduce household reservoirs and then control SSTI recurrence and household transmission.
The unsteady global dynamics of a gravitational liquid sheet interacting with a one-sided adjacent air enclosure (commonly referred to as nappe oscillation configuration) is addressed under the assumptions of potential flow and the presence of surface tension effects. From a theoretical viewpoint the problem is challenging, because from previous literature it is known that the equation governing the evolution of small disturbances exhibits a singularity at the vertical station where the local flow velocity equals the capillary wave velocity (local critical condition), although the solution to the problem has not yet been found. The equation governing the local dynamics resembles one featuring the forced vibrations of a string of finite length, formulated in the reference frame moving with the flow velocity, and exhibits both slow and fast characteristic curves. From the global system perspective the nappe behaves as a driven damped spring–mass oscillator, where the inertial effects are linked to the liquid sheet mass and the spring is represented by the equivalent stiffness of the air enclosure acting on the displacement of the compliant nappe centreline. A suited procedure is developed to remove the singularity of the integro-differential operator for Weber numbers less than unity. The investigation is carried out by means of a modal (i.e. time asymptotic) linear approach, which is corroborated by numerical simulations of the governing equation and supported by systematic comparisons with experimental data from the literature, available in the supercritical regime only. As regards the critical regime for the unit Weber number, the major theoretical result is a sharp increase in oscillation frequency as the flow Weber number is gradually reduced from supercritical to subcritical values due to the shift of the prevailing mode from the slow one to the fast one.
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common CHD. Its association with early valvular dysfunction, endocarditis, thoracic aorta dilatation, and aortic dissection is well established.
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of cardiac events in adults with bicuspid aortic valve.
We carried out a retrospective analysis of cardiac outcomes in ambulatory adults with bicuspid aortic valve followed-up in a tertiary hospital centre. Outcomes were defined as follows: interventional – intervention on the aortic valve or thoracic aorta; medical – death, aortic dissection, aortic valve endocarditis, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, or ischaemic heart disease requiring hospital admission; and a composite end point of both. Kaplan–Meier curves were generated to determine event rates, and predictors of cardiac events were determined by multivariate analysis.
A total of 227 patients were followed-up over 13±9 years; 29% of patients developed severe aortic valve dysfunction and 12.3% reached ascending thoracic aorta dimensions above 45 mm. At least one cardiac outcome occurred in 38.8% of patients, with an incidence rate at 20 years of follow-up of 47±4%; 33% of patients were submitted to an aortic valve or thoracic aorta intervention. Survival 20 years after diagnosis was 94±2%. Independent predictors of the composite end point were baseline moderate–severe aortic valve dysfunction (hazard ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–7.54; p<0.01) and aortic valve leaflets calcification (hazard ratio, 4.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–11.64; p<0.005).
In this study of bicuspid aortic valve, the long-term survival was excellent but with occurrence of frequent cardiovascular events. Baseline aortic valve calcification and dysfunction were the only independent predictors of events.
Lipari, an active volcanic island in the Aeolian magmatic arc, is an excellent area to determine the effects of multiple source lithology, climate, weathering, transport and depositional environment on epiclastic sand composition. Volcaniclastic sand samples from 12 modern beaches were petrographically characterized using the Gazzi–Dickinson method, and the proportions of source rocks in combination with topography in associated coastal drainage basins were quantified using GIS. Several types of bedrock in the 12 drainage basins that are the likely prominent sources for sand at each sampled beach were recognized, and divided into two categories of provenance lithotypes: lavas and pyroclastic rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesitic, to andesitic, to rhyolitic. Volcanic lithic fragments from Lipari beach sand consist of colourless and black glassy volcanic fragments with lathwork, felsitic, vitric and microlitic textures. Moreover, high amounts of detrital less durable minerals, such as pyroxene, olivine and Fe oxides, illustrate how the analysed sands preserve the source rock(s) provenance signals. Applying the concept of Sand Generation Index we see that these lithotypes have different propensities to create detritus, in terms of both grain-size and composition. Clastic contribution from pyroclastic rock outcrops such as pumice is not found in the size ranges studied, suggesting that these pumiceous source rocks probably only produce gravel or very fine sand and silt. This finding has implications for the stratigraphic record because pumice clasts, ranging from medium to fine grain-size, could be underrepresented in older volcaniclastic deposits and overrepresented in other size fractions.
Mg-based implants have promising applications as biodegradable materials in medicine for orthopedic, dental, and cardiovascular therapies. During wear and degradation microdebris are released. Time-lapse multidimensional microscopy (MM) is proposed here as a suitable tool to follow, in fixed intervals over 24-h periods, the interaction between cells and particles. Results of MM show interactions of macrophages (J774) with the magnesium particles (MgPa) that led to modifications of cell size and morphology, a decrease in duplication rate, and cell damage. Corrosion products were progressively formed on the surface of the particles and turbulence was generated due to hydrogen development. Changes were more significant after treating MgPa with potassium fluoride. In order to complement MM observations, membrane damage as detected by a lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and mitochondrial activity as detected by a WST-1 assay with macrophages and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were compared. A more significant concentration-dependent effect was detected for macrophages exposed to MgPa than for osteoblasts. Accordingly, complementary data showed that viability and cell cycle seem to be more altered in macrophages. In addition, protein profiles and expression of proteins associated with the adhesion process changed in the presence of MgPa. These studies revealed that time-lapse MM is a helpful tool for monitoring changes of biodegradable materials and the biological surrounding in real time and in situ. This information is useful in studies related to biodegradable biomaterials.
Household consumption is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. Some behaviours (for example energy use and vehicle use) may have far larger impacts than others (for example green consumerism of household products). Here, the driving forces of green consumerism and two domestic energy uses (electricity consumption and vehicle fuel use) are compared. This study found that environmental attitudes predicted green consumerism, but not electricity consumption or vehicle fuel use. Furthermore, green consumerism was correlated with income and individual level demographic factors, while energy consumption was primarily predicted by household size and structural constraints. Because household energy consumption has greater environmental impacts than green consumerism, policies that aim to improve pro-environmental attitudes may not be effective in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Policies should rather aim to change structural constraints influencing transportation and household energy decisions and improve the conspicuousness of household energy consumption.
The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage – low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage – low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage – high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size.
While more and more long-period giant planets are discovered by direct imaging, the distribution of planets at these separations (≳5 AU) has remained largely uncertain, especially compared to planets in the inner regions of solar systems probed by RV and transit techniques. The low frequency, the detection challenges, and heterogeneous samples make determining the mass and orbit distributions of directly imaged planets at the end of a survey difficult. By utilizing Monte Carlo methods that incorporate the age, distance, and spectral type of each target, we can use all stars in the survey, not just those with detected planets, to learn about the underlying population. We have produced upper limits and direct measurements of the frequency of these planets with the most recent generation of direct imaging surveys. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign observed 220 young, nearby stars at a median H-band contrast of 14.5 magnitudes at 1”, representing the largest, deepest search for exoplanets by the completion of the survey. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey is in the process of surveying 600 stars, pushing these contrasts to a few tenths of an arcsecond from the star. With the advent of large surveys (many hundreds of stars) using advanced planet-imagers we gain the ability to move beyond measuring the frequency of wide-separation giant planets and to simultaneously determine the distribution as a function of planet mass, semi-major axis, and stellar mass, and so directly test models of planet formation and evolution.
Na2Ti3O7, a potential negative electrode for Na batteries, is investigated by combining experiments and first-principles calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level. A structural model is proposed for the reduced phases (A2+xTi3O7), with all alkali ions in octahedral coordination, leading to a distorted rocksalt type structure. The calculated elastic constants support the mechanical stability of the proposed Na4Ti3O7 structure. Calculated average intercalation potentials are 0.37 V for Na insertion in Na2Ti3O7 and 1.46 V for Li insertion in Li2Ti3O7, being in very good agreement with the values observed experimentally (0.3 V and 1.6 V respectively). The higher polarizing character of Li ions vs Na ions acts as a key-factor to bring the Li intercalation voltage 0.7 V above that of Na intercalation in layered-A2Ti3O7 materials.
Epigenetic studies suggest that diseases that develop in adulthood are related to certain conditions to which the individual is exposed during the initial stages of life. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that offspring born to mothers maintained on high-Na diets during pregnancy have higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in adulthood. Although these studies have demonstrated the importance of prenatal phases to hypertension development, no evidence regarding the role of high Na intake during postnatal phases in the development of this pathology has been reported. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of Na overload during childhood on induced water and Na intakes and on cardiovascular parameters in adulthood were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in two groups of 21-d-old rats: experimental group, maintained on hypertonic saline (0·3 m-NaCl) solution and food for 60 d, and control group, maintained on tap water and food. Later, both groups were given water and food for 15 d (recovery period). After the recovery period, chronic cannulation of the right femoral artery was performed in unanaesthetised rats to record baseline MAP and heart rate (HR). The experimental group was found to have increased basal MAP (98·6 (sem 2·6) v. 118·3 (sem 2·7) mmHg, P< 0·05) and HR (365·4 (sem 12·2) v. 398·2 (sem 7·5) beats per min, P< 0·05). There was a decrease in the baroreflex index in the experimental group when compared with that in the control group. A water and Na intake test was performed using furosemide. Na depletion was found to induce an increase in Na intake in both the control and experimental groups (12·1 (sem 0·6) ml and 7·8 (sem 1·1), respectively, P< 0·05); however, this increase was of lower magnitude in the experimental group. These results demonstrate that postnatal Na overload alters behavioural and cardiovascular regulation in adulthood.
A high-resolution study of a marsh sedimentary sequence from the Minho estuary provides a new palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from NW Iberian based on geological proxies supported by historical and instrumental climatic records. A low-salinity tidal flat, dominated by Trochamminita salsa, Haplophragmoides spp. and Cribrostomoides spp., prevailed from AD 140–1360 (Roman Warm Period, Dark Ages, Medieval Climatic Anomaly). This sheltered environment was affected by high hydrodynamic episodes, marked by the increase in silt/clay ratio, decrease of organic matter, and poor and weakly preserved foraminiferal assemblages, suggesting enhanced river runoff. The establishment of low marsh began at AD 1380. This low-salinity environment, marked by colder and wet conditions, persisted from AD 1410–1770 (Little Ice Age), when foraminiferal density increased significantly. Haplophragmoides manilaensis and Trochamminita salsa mark the transition from low to high marsh at AD 1730. Since AD 1780 the abundances of salt marsh species (Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata) increased, accompanied by a decrease in foraminiferal density, reflecting climate instability, when droughts alternate with severe floods. SW Europe marsh foraminifera respond to the hydrological balance, controlled by climatic variability modes (e.g., NAO) and solar activity, thus contributing to the understanding of NE Atlantic climate dynamics.
In order to evaluate the influence of rearing system (free-ranging (FR) v. confinement (C)) on buffalo heifer efficiency to reach age of puberty and on behavioural and immune functions, two experiments were conducted from September 2010 to October 2011. In Experiment I, 32 subjects aged 8 to 9 months at the start of experiment were used. A total of 16 animals (group C) were group housed in an indoor slatted floor pen (4 m2/animal) with an outdoor paddock (4 m2/animal); 16 others grazed on a Mediterranean natural pasture of 40 ha (group FR). Behavioural data were collected and organic matter digestibility, blood metabolites and progesterone were determined. At the end of the experiment, a novel object test and a skin test were conducted, and the avoidance distance (AD) at the manger was measured. Free-ranging animals were able to express natural behaviours such as wallowing and grazing. C animals devoted more time to the novel object than FR animals, whereas AD at manger was lower in group FR than in group C (P<0.01). Cellular immune response was higher in FR heifers than in C animals (P<0.01). FR animals also showed a higher digestibility of organic matter (P<0.01). Heifers from group FR had higher plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.001) and lower concentrations of glucose than heifers from group C (P<0.001). C animals showed higher daily weight gains (P<0.01) and weight at the puberty (P<0.05), but there were no differences in terms of age of puberty between the two groups. The intakes of dry matter (DM), CP and energy to reach the age of puberty were similar in both groups. In order to verify whether the results obtained in Experiment I could be replicated in different rearing conditions (reduced pasture availability, different location and altitude), a second experiment was conducted on 26 animals, where only onset of age of puberty and metabolic profile were monitored. In Experiment II, 13 heifers grazed on a natural pasture of 5 ha, other 13 received the same space as indicated for Experiment I. Results from Experiment II generally confirmed those of Experiment I. Only the intakes of DM and energy to reach the age of puberty were higher in group C than in FR (P<0.001). A lower competition with human nutrition, reproductive performances similar to those shown by confined animals and the indications given by immune and behavioural variables, suggest that a free-range-based system may be conveniently used for buffalo heifer farming purposes.
Oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Our objective was to determine whether plasma glutathione or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were abnormal in bipolar disorder and therefore useful as possible biomarkers.
Blood samples were collected from subsyndromal, medicated bipolar I patients (n = 50), recruited from OXTEXT, University of Oxford, and from 50 matched healthy controls. Total and oxidized glutathione levels were measured using an enzymatic recycling method and used to calculate reduced, percentage oxidized, ratio of reduced:oxidized and redox state. BDNF was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Self-monitored mood scores for the bipolar group were available (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale) over an 8-week period.
Compared with controls, bipolar patients had significantly lower levels of total glutathione and it was more oxidized. BDNF levels were not different. Age of illness onset but not current mood state correlated with total glutathione levels and its oxidation status, so that lower levels of total and reduced glutathione were associated with later onset of disease, not length of illness.
Plasma glutathione levels and redox state detect oxidative stress even in subsyndromal patients with normal BDNF. It may relate to the onset and development of bipolar disorder. Plasma glutathione appears to be a suitable biomarker for detecting underlying oxidative stress and for evaluating the efficacy of antioxidant intervention studies.
La société vénitienne des XVe et XVIe siècles est généralement décrite selon une tripartition entre patriciat, groupe citoyen et popolo. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser ce qu’était le popolo et qui étaient les popolani à Venise en articulant une étude terminologique et conceptuelle de ces catégories avec une analyse sociologique des individus qui les composaient. L’histoire de la genèse des groupes sociaux révèle ainsi toute la complexité de la définition du popolo à Venise entre la fin du Moyen Âge et le début de l’époque moderne. En considérant la « condition » des popolani, il s’agit d’analyser comment ceux-ci établissaient ce qu’ils étaient et le cadre de leur action, en fonction des dispositions, des espaces et des institutions dans lesquels ils interagissaient.