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Neusticemys neuquina (Fernández and de la Fuente, 1988) is a turtle from the Upper Jurassic of the Neuquén Basin, Patagonia, Argentina. Here we describe in detail a new skull, lower jaw, and a vertebra, utilizing both traditional anatomical description and computed tomography (CT). New diagnostic cranial characters of Neusticemys neuquina are: a round depression on the ventral surface of the basisphenoid, a relatively larger oval foramen nervi trigemini, and reduced and steepened triturating surfaces on both the maxilla and dentary. The new morphological information presented in this study was included in a phylogenetic analysis, the primary result of which was recovery of Neusticemys neuquina within Thalassochelydia. Characters recognized as synapomorphies of this clade include: (1) anterolateral recess of the anterior surface of the quadrate positioned lateral to the processus trochlearis oticum, (2) presence of a fossa on the supraoccipital-opisthotic-exoccipital contact area, (3) foramina anterius caroticus cerebralis located close together but independently perforating the basisphenoid, and (4) the presence of the splenial in the mandible. Two contrasting dispersal scenarios could explain how this species of Thalassochelydia can be found outside of Europe. The presence of Neusticemys neuquina in the Neuquén Basin could be the consequence of an early dispersion event, for which we lack intermediate forms, or it could be the result of a later event once the clade was already established in Europe.
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. A total of 16 dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments (two treatments each), in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 days. In both experiments alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33:67) remained constant. The concentrate in experiment 1 consisted of barley, maize and soybean meal (concentrate rich in starch), whereas it included soybean hulls replacing 25% of barley and 25% maize in experiment 2 (concentrate rich in NDF). As a result, the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio was 3.1 in experiment 1 and it decreased to 0.8 in experiment 2. Both concentrates were administered either alone or in combination with 30 g/day of linseed oil. Animal performance parameters were not affected by experimental treatments. In contrast, major changes were observed in milk FA profile due to lipid supplementation and the type of concentrate. Linseed oil significantly raised vaccenic and rumenic acids as well as α-linolenic acid and its biohydrogenation intermediates while decreased medium-chain saturated FA (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. Milk fat contents of odd and branched-chain FA and trans-10 18:1 responded differently to linseed oil supplementation according to the concentrate fed.
Suicide is a major public health problem, especially in young people. It is one of the most significant causes of mortality and potential years of life lost. Medical students are a vulnerable group presenting mental health problems.
To study the prevalence of common mental illnesses among medical students from the university of Valladolid in order to assess the need for intervention programs.
Cross-sectional study in which, 584 students participated during the academic year 2015–2016 by completing an online self-administered questionnaire. Mental health outcomes were measured by different batteries of depression, anxiety and suicide (BDI, GAD-7 and MINI). Information about possible related risk factors was also obtained. Statistical Chi2 and Student t-tests were applied to estimate associations between socio-demographic, socioeconomic data and clinical results.
We found a prevalence of 15.8% for depression, 11.6% for ideation suicide and 38.5% for anxiety, with gender differences in the latter case. Prevalence rates were higher than those described in general population. Compared to other international studies, prevalence estimates were also higher among our sample.
This study shows for the first time data of these three psychiatric disorders among medical students in Spain. It suggests the urge to implementing preventive activities to alleviate maladaptive behaviors, academic stress, improve the quality of life and adaptation of students to college life. Larger, prospective, multicentre studies are needed to draw conclusions about the causes and consequences of students’ stress, since evidence shows that mental health problems are perpetuated throughout professional performance.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is related to high prevalence of somatic comorbidities, health care costs, and premature mortality . Some evidence supports the view of BD as chronic, progressive and multisystem disorder in which not only mental system, but also somatic systems are involved .
To investigate differences in physical health in patients with bipolar disorder at different stages (early vs. late) of the disease.
Cross-sectional, naturalistic, multicenter study. Sample: 110 outpatients with BD [68 early stage (diagnosed at least 5 years earlier) and 42 late stage (at least 20 years earlier)]. Assessment: demographic and clinical variables; psychopathology: HDRS, YMRS and CGI; biological information: anthropometric, vital signs and lab results.
Early stage group: mean age 40.1 (11.9), 66.2% females and CGI = 3.6 (1.4). Late stage group: mean age 55.8 (8.2), 69.0% females and CGI = 4.0 (1.4). Patients in early stage have significantly higher levels of glucose (t = −4.007, P < 0.001), urea (t = −2.724, P = 0.008), creatinine (F = 0.560, P = 0.022), triglycerides (t = −3.501, P = 0.001), Fe (t = 2.871, P = 0.005) and insulin (t = −3.223, P = 0.002). Moreover, they have higher Body Max Index (BMI) (t = −3.728, P < 0.000), abdominal circumference (t = −4.040, P < 0.000) and greater number of somatic comorbidities (t = −2.101, P = 0.041).
– patients with bipolar disorders in late stages have worse physical health than those in early stage.
– these results could be an indication that bipolar disorder might better viewed as a multisystem disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played “Professor Layton and the curious village”® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P<0.001), whereas the OLI milk FA profile resembled that of the Control diet. In contrast, although FO drastically diminished the contents of stearic and oleic acids (P<0.001), all the saturated even-numbered carbon FAs from 6:0 to 14:0 increased (P<0.05). FO also produced the highest levels of c9,t11-18:2 (2.21%) and n-3 FAs, 20:5 n-3 (0.58%), 22:5 n-3 (0.48%) and 22:6 n-3 (0.40%). The high levels of trans-11 18:1 (7.10%) obtained from the FO diet would suggest that Ca soaps only confer partial protection in the rumen. In contrast, the lack of significant differences in trans-10 18:1 levels (P>0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.
Immigration in Spain is from the early ‘90s phenomenon of demographic and economic importance, according to INE, in January 2011 first residing in the country nearly 6.7 million people born outside our borders. In recent years, many immigrants are living in especially difficult circumstances.
Show that these people undergo a series of very specific stressors and duels: precarious and harsh working conditions, poor diet, loneliness and lack of social support… This would enhance the appearance of psychiatric symptoms in various areas, closely related to lifestyles that maintain and in some cases precipitate substance use in this group, primarily those that have a sedative profile.
We will present the clinical case of a 34 year old Nigerian male. No somatic or psychiatric history of interest. Cannabis smoker since adolescence. A year after his arrival in Spain admitted to our inpatient unit due to clinical psychotic. Was a challenge from the point of view of psychopharmacological have many side effects with low doses of typical antipsychotics
Disappearance of psychotic and affective symptoms to approach the case from a pharmacological perspective, social and cultural.
Addressing the relationship between life stressors and cannabis as a trigger or catalyst for psychotic episodes in individuals predisposed. Pathological elaborations of cultural integration of an immigrant (whether by denial of the original culture or over-identification with the host culture) facilitates the use of toxic either for blending with Western consumer culture or cultural consumption radicalization toxic in some East African countries.
Given the high prevalence, severity and difficulty recognizing psychiatric disorders in patients with TBI, it is necessary to conduct a detailed history, gathering information on the location of the lesion and its relationship with the table in the psychopathological examination.
Illustrated by a clinical case, the close relationship between the injury of specific brain areas and the emergence of psychopathology that allows us to deepen the understanding of the biological substrate of mental disorders.
Exposure of a clinical picture and brief literature review of the existing literature.
We report the case of a man of 49 years old, no personal or family history was admitted to the hospital after a traffic accident with severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) scan shows intraparenquematoso right temporal hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma right, pneumocephalus front right, front left fracture of both orbits and right maxillary sinus.
The interest in the study and the relationship of psychiatric symptoms with the location of the lesions, we can provide improved understanding of the biological basis of mental disorders.
The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a set of absorption features, some of which are broad (“diffuse”), that are formed in the diffuse ISM. Since their discovery nearly a century ago their numbers have increased to over 500. The strongest of these are known to be ubiquitous in the universe. There is general consensus that they are produced by large carbon-bearing molecules; however, no specific identification of any single DIB has survived scrutiny. The overwhelming majority of DIBs are at optical and very near infrared wavelengths. In 1990 two DIBs were identified in J-band spectra, at 1.18 μm and 1.31 μm by Joblin et al. (1990); until recently these were the longest wavelength examples known.
The presence of comorbid personality pathology with other psychiatric disorders, imposes a worse prognosis in the development of therapeutic intervention. Additionally, this construct is usually related to stigma effect in clinical settings. Information about this effect, associated with psychiatric disorders in adolescence, is limited and little recognized.
The clinical diagnosis of personality disorder in adolescence tends to be conservative and unspecific.
To examine the prevalence of personality disorder, and the involvement of stigma effect in adolescents with Axis I psychiatric disorders.
A sample of 100 patients with psychiatric disorders (M = 15.8, SD = 0.9 years, range 15-17, 70% women), were assessed and diagnosed for personality disorders in a mental health public centre.
The prevalence of PD identified by clinicians (12%), differs from the prevalence identified by the semi-structured interview (34–37%) showing a greater number (p < .001) of people affected. In the present sample most of the cases identified by clinicians are related to personality disorders (PD) not otherwise specified, while with the implementation of semi-structured interviews, most of the sample met criteria for Cluster B PDs. Additionally, 11% of the sample has dimensional pathological features (probable PD) without complying categorically the criteria for a full PD.
In clinical settings, a considerable proportion of adolescents with psychopathology meet features for PD, although few of them have a confirmed clinical diagnosis. Considerations about impact of the stigma are discussed.