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Platelet serotonin-binding (Bmax), using tritiated-seroionin as the ligand, was determined in 75 patients suffering from major depression with melancholia and in 26 patients diagnosed from dysthymic disorder. Twenty-five normal subjects were used as a control group. The melancholic group had significantly lower Bmax values (mean: 6.7 ± 6.1 pmol/108 platelets) than either dysthymic (9.3 ± 3.9 pmol/108 platelets) or control (9.2 ± 4.8 pmol/108 platelets) groups, while there were no significant differences between the two latter groups. There was also a significant difference on postdexamethasone Cortisol between melancholic (6.3 ± 7.1 μg/dL) and dysthymic (1.4 ± 1.4 μg/dL) groups, with a higher rate of nonsuppressors in melancholic groups. Although both tests were abnormal in the melancholic group, no relationship was found between platelet serotonin-binding and the dexaniethasone suppression test.
The HCV has been associated with significant impairment of quality of life, irrespective of the degree of liver injury. The association of this disease with psychiatric comorbidities, especially depression, has been well described in the scientific literature. However, despite also significantly affect the quality of life of individuals, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has not been well studied in this population.
Evaluate whether individuals perceive the liver disease as a potentially traumatic experience and investigate the impact of PTSD diagnosis on health-related quality of life in hepatitis C virus-infected subjects.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 127 consecutive hepatitis C-infected outpatients. We investigated Traumatic Experiences and the subject's perception about the disease using the Trauma History Questionnaire. PTSD and others psychiatry diagnoses were assessed trough M.I.N.I. PLUS. Quality of life was assessed by the Short-Form 36.
Approximately 38.6% of the patients perceived the hepatitis C as a traumatic experience, 60.7% had PTSD diagnosis. It were no associate with the disease severity (been eligible for transplant), however there was a significant association with diagnosis of PTSD (p = 0.003). Roughly 22% of the sample showed PTSD diagnosis. PTSD imposed a significant impairment in quality of life of individuals in seven of the eight domains in the bivariate and multivariate analysis. This difference remained significant after adjustment for covariates such as major depressive disorder comorbidity.
The results suggest high prevalence of PTSD diagnosis in VHC infected patients and it impose impairment in their quality of life.
Fatigue is an important clinical finding in Hepatitis Virus Chronic Infection. However, the absence of scales to measure fatigue, translated and validated for Brazilian Portuguese, prevents access to information essential to clarify specific clinical conditions in this population.
To determine the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use (D-FIS), in Brazilian Portuguese, in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection.
In this cross-sectional study, the authors evaluated the D-FIS in 101 outpatients, followed at the reference hospital.
Relevant psychometric D-FIS results were: floor effect proved to be 1%; skewness was 0.46; item homogeneity was 0.59 and SEM (SD = 8.51) was 2.4. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.920 and item-total correlation yielded coefficients ranging from 0.65 (item 1) to 0.85 (item 3). In a linear regression model, fatigue and depression influenced the self-report quality of life.
This study concludes that the Fatigue Scale for Daily use in Brazilian Portuguese can be considered as a useful tool to verify the presence of fatigue in patients with hepatitis viruses B and C.
Leprosy is an infectious disease with high physical disability and is strongly associated with chronic pain, since there may be significant impairment of the peripheral nervous system. Additionally, the stigma associated with the label of leprosy persists and imposes a high social commitment of the disease.
Describe the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in leprosy patients and check if they had been previously diagnosed and were in psychiatric care.
The study was conducted with a sample of 120 leprosy patients treated at two hospitals for leprosy: Hospital Dom Rodrigo de Menezes and University Hospital of Federal University of Bahia, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Survey participants were older than 18 years of age, had confirmed the diagnosis of leprosy and were in antimicrobial treatment. Patients were evaluated face to face with a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINIPlus) in Portuguese. The period of data collection was limited from October 2009 to June 2012.
The assessment using the MINI-Plus showed that 34 (28.33%) patients did not have any psychiatric diagnosis and 86 (71.66%) had at least one. Of these 86 patients, 25(20.83%), met the criteria for one diagnosis, 26 (21.66%) had two diagnoses and the rest, 35 (29.16%), had three or more psychiatric diagnoses. All patients with moderate or high risk for suicide had one or more psychiatric comorbidities.
Leprosy patients have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. Beyond that, most of them had no previous psychiatric diagnosis and the absolute majority were not in treatment.
To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF.
Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.
The identification of threats to migratory species of conservation concern and the relevance of protected areas for them is often biased towards breeding areas. The European Roller Coracias garrulus is a long-distance migrant experiencing a pronounced decline throughout its breeding range, which has been attributed to the degradation of open agricultural habitats. However, its conservation status in non-breeding areas in Africa remains unstudied. Land cover change is a major threat affecting migratory birds in their wintering grounds, therefore identifying important areas for their protection at this stage is a priority. Here we used occurrence data during the wintering season and ecological niche models to identify key land cover and areas used by Rollers in Africa. First, we used 33 filtered locations from six satellite-tracked birds breeding in Spain to describe suitable wintering areas for the Spanish population (westernmost part of the Eurasian breeding range). We also used 1,167 occurrence data in southern Africa from open-access databases and bird atlases to characterise the overall wintering range of the species. The Spanish population occupied a relatively small area in the north-western part of southern Africa, and a narrow range of land covers. Open grassland, less steep areas and those with sparse tree cover are correlated with suitability. In all, 18.06% of suitable wintering areas for the Spanish population overlapped with protected areas. The overall population of Rollers occupied a wider area and range of land cover. Tree cover was the most important variable affecting suitability, with areas without tree cover being the least suitable. We found that 9.58% of suitable wintering areas for the overall population overlapped with protected areas. Our results suggest that Rollers from different origins (breeding populations) use separate, but overlapping, wintering areas and may have different habitat requirements, and therefore, population-specific conservation strategies in these areas might be needed to fully protect the species.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Goal—broaden the academic offer to enhance clinical and translational research productivity and cost effectiveness. Objective—implement a distance learning program on conducting proficient research management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Needs assessment attested students’ interest in enrolling and willingness to recruit graduates by the research industry and academia. A master of science in clinical research management and regulatory compliance (MS-CRMRC) was developed using the Core Competency Domains for Clinical Research Professional. Experts from research academia, pharmaceutical industry, composed a Proposal Development Committee. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Access of a distance learning MS-CRMRC program for students with time constrains. Competent research professional graduates working side by side with the principal investigator on onsite teamwork management, to streamline research processes in compliance to regulations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Improvement of clinical and translational research productivity and efficient use of grants funds prevails as a generalized concern. The MS-CRMRC offers an accessible alternative to empower the research enterprise by developing knowledgeable skilled professionals to tackle this need.
The fragmentation of jaguar Panthera onca populations as a result of habitat loss is considered to be one of the main challenges for the conservation of the species. Corridors have been proposed as a means of maintaining connectivity and the long-term viability of jaguar populations. The corridor that connects the jaguar conservation units of Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos in Mexico has been considered to be a link for the movement of individuals between these units but its functionality had yet to be verified. During 2012–2014 we divided the corridor into four sections, where we used camera traps to verify the corridor's functionality. We obtained 106 photographs of jaguars, proving the presence of jaguars (including resident jaguars and females) in three of the corridor sections. We did not record any individuals in more than one section of the corridor. The presence of several resident jaguars and females throughout the corridor suggests that portions of the corridor should be incorporated into the Calakmul and Laguna de Terminos jaguar conservation units. Nevertheless, to confirm that the corridor is fully functional it is necessary to obtain evidence of movement of jaguars among the various sections of the corridor. Our results suggest that the area should be included in regional conservation strategies.
Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of infected insects of the subfamily Phlebotominae. Current drug therapy shows high toxicity and severe adverse effects. Recently, two oligopeptidases (OPBs) were identified in Leishmania amazonensis, namely oligopeptidase B (OPB) and oligopeptidase B2 (OPB2). These OPBs could be ideal targets, since both enzymes are expressed in all parasite lifecycle and were not identified in human. This work aimed to identify possible dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis. The three-dimensional structures of both enzymes were built by comparative modelling and used to perform a virtual screening of ZINC database by DOCK Blaster server. It is the first time that OPB models from L. amazonensis are used to virtual screening approach. Four hundred compounds were identified as possible inhibitors to each enzyme. The top scored compounds were submitted to refinement by AutoDock program. The best results suggest that compounds interact with important residues, as Tyr490, Glu612 and Arg655 (OPB numbers). The identified compounds showed better results than antipain and drugs currently used against leishmaniasis when ADMET in silico were performed. These compounds could be explored in order to find dual inhibitors of OPB and OPB2 from L. amazonensis.
We provide an expanded and updated, 2-locus phylogeny (mtSSU, nuLSU) of the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae, with a total of 196 ingroup OTUs, in order to further refine generic delimitations and species concepts in this family. As a result, the following 15 clades are recognized as separate genera, including five newly established genera: Aptrootia, Architrypethelium, Astrothelium (including the bulk of corticate species with astrothelioid ascospores; synonyms: Campylothelium, Cryptothelium, Laurera), Bathelium s. str. (excluding B. degenerans and relatives which fall into Astrothelium), the reinstated Bogoriella (for tropical, lichenized species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Constrictolumina gen. nov. (for tropical, lichenized species of Arthopyrenia), Dictyomeridium gen. nov. (for a subgroup of species with muriform ascospores previously placed in Polymeridium), Julella (provisionally, as the type species remains unsequenced), Marcelaria (Laurera purpurina complex), Nigrovothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium tropicum group), Novomicrothelia gen. nov. (for an additional species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Polymeridium s. str., Pseudopyrenula, Trypethelium s. str. (T. eluteriae group), and Viridothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium virens group). All recognized genera are phenotypically characterized and a discussion on the evolution of phenotypic features in the family is given. Based on the obtained phylogeny, species delimitations are revised and the importance of characters such as thallus morphology, hymenial inspersion, and secondary chemistry for taxonomic purposes is discussed, resulting in a refined species concept.
The experiment, conducted at Bahia, Brazil, from May to August 2010, aimed to evaluate the nitrogen (N) balance, urea excretion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed pelleted concentrates with the addition of crude protein (CP), obtained by replacing alfalfa hay with soybean meal. The diets consisted of different levels of CP and 200 g of roughage (Tifton 85 hay)/kg. Maize and mesquite bran were used as the energy source, with maize replaced by mesquite bran in the ratio of 1·7:1. Eight female Saanen goats were used, confined in individual pens and allocated to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The N balance in the body was positive, and loss of body weight (–0·03 g/day) was observed for the diet with 190 g CP/kg. The concentration (mg/dl) of urea in urine, milk and blood plasma was positively influenced in a linear form, and the highest rate of increase was found in urine, with 2 mg/dl for every 10 g CP/kg added to the diet. The microbial protein synthesis was not affected, but the diets reduced the microbial protein (44 g/day) and its ruminal production efficiency (30 g/kg total digestible nutrients). The levels above 190 g of CP are not recommended because of the energy expenditure required to excrete the urea.
Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge–disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).
Salamanca lies on the right bank of the river Tormes, a tributary of the Douro, on the northern sub-plateau of the Iberian peninsula (fig. 1). Although hardly mentioned in Roman historical sources, it is a reference point for work on Roman territory because the surveyor Frontinus (De Agrorum Qualitate [ed. Thulin 1971] 1–2) used Salmantica (in Lusitania) and Palantia (in Citerior) to exemplify ager per extremitatem mensura comprehensus, the system of land organization characteristic of stipendiary cities. Frontinus was writing in Flavian times, but the creation of ager mensura comprehensus in Lusitania occurred in the Augustan period, as is confirmed by remarkable epigraphic documentation. In N Lusitania, a total of 11 boundary-stones (termini Augustales) are known, nine from the reign of Augustus (and two of these provide explicit reference to Salmantica) and two from that of Claudius. The dates provided by Augustus’ tribunicia potestas allow us to date the surveying operations delimiting the urban territories to between A.D. 4–5 (the inscriptions from Peroviseu and Ul) and A.D. 5–6 (the inscriptions from Sao Salvador, Ledesma, Ciudad Rodrigo, and the new one from Jarandilla de la Vera). The Augustan ager mensura comprehensus may have conditioned the model of the subsequent rural settlement by creating a framework for territorial occupation being organized around the villa from the Flavian period on. The villa would dominate the rural countryside, until it disappeared around the first decades of the 5th c. as part of a process that can be associated with the breaking down of imperial authority and the arrival of the Germanic peoples in the year 409. Almost nothing is known about Salamanca’s territory during the Islamic occupation until the first official repopulation took place under the king of Leon, Ramiro II, in 939–49. The lack of attested settlements in the Douro valley between the 8th and 10th c. is a key question for the organization of the border area between the Islamic state of Al-Andalus and the kingdom of Leon, but scholars generally reject the thesis formulated in 1966 by C. Sánchez Albornoz, which tended to present the lands of the Douro valley as practically depopulated.
To evaluate the association between weight gain in the first two years of life and the occurrence of wheezing, asthma, serum IgE, skin reactivity and pulmonary function.
The metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
The association was studied between 1997 and 2005 in 669 children up to 11 years of age. Data were collected on asthma and risk factors, both current factors and those present in the first years of life. Weight gain was considered fast when the Z-score was >0·67. Poisson regression was used in the multivariate statistical analysis.
Wheezing was reported in 25·6 % of the children. Weight gain was considered fast (Z-score >0·67) in 29·6 % of the children and slow (Z-score <−0·67) in 13·9 %. Children in the slow weight gain group had 36 % fewer symptoms of asthma (prevalence ratio = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·99).
Slower weight gain in the early years of life may constitute a protective factor against symptoms of asthma. The relevance of this finding for public health is not yet certain, since it is known that children with slow and fast weight gain may be more likely to develop adverse health consequences related to both these situations.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
A helicopter model has been identified and validated for flight conditions defined by altitudes, speeds, loadings and centre of gravity positions. To identify the helicopter models, 2-3-1-1 multistep control inputs were performed by the pilot to excite all helicopter modes. Then, each estimated signal has to remain in tolerance margins defined by the Federal Aviation Administration. Three methods were used to observe the system outputs from its states: a fuzzy logic method, a linear method optimised with a neural network algorithm and a classical method. Because of random effects when gathering data, classical method did not give good enough results. The fuzzy logic method was not robust enough so that output plots showed peaks that could be felt by the pilot. Then, because the model could be implemented in a simulator for the pilot training, the pilot feedback is very useful in order to compare the reality with the results of the mathematical model. When the outputs are obtained from the measured state variables, the linear method gave the best results.
To evaluate the association between overweight and the occurrence of asthma and atopy in a cohort of children of 4–12 years of age living in the city of Salvador in 2005.
Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort.
The metropolitan region of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
The study included 1129 children of 4–12 years age who presented complete information on the variables used here. Skin tests for allergy, spirometry, faecal parasitology, serum IgE and anthropometric surveys were conducted. Poisson's multivariate regression was adopted.
Wheezing was found in 29·1% and asthma in 22·8% of children, both conditions being more common in those under 6 years of age and 34% more common in overweight children (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1·34; 95% CI 1·07, 1·67) following adjustment. The ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1s and forced vital capacity was associated with overweight (PR = 1·35; 95% CI 1·11, 1·61). No statistically significant association was found between overweight and allergen-specific IgE or with wheezing.
These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that overweight is associated with asthma and pulmonary function, even following adjustment for intervening variables known to be associated with the pathogeny of asthma.
We review some of the problems where the graphs have been applied to the study of the global classification of stable maps.
AMS Classification: 57R45, 57M15, 57R65
Key words: Stable maps; foliations; graphs; global classification
Let M and N be manifolds, M compact and f : M → N. Assume that f defines an extra structure on any neighborhood of a point p ∈ M. The point p is said to be regular with respect to the extra structure if there exists a neighborhood Up of p such that for any q ∈ U there exists also a neighborhood Uq so that the extra structure is equivalent on the two neighborhoods. The study of the structure on Up leads to a local problem. The study of the decomposition of M in maximal subsets with an homogeneous structure leads to a global problem. One way to achieve the global problem is to associate a graph to this decomposition.
This method has been applied to the study of the global classification of flows and maps. The approach in each case goes as follows: Once the local and multi-local behaviour of the critical set has been described, the relevant global topological information is codified in a graph, possibly with labels in either the vertices, the edges, or both. The typical questions then are:
Determine all the (labelled) abstract graphs that can be associated to some of the objects under study (Realization Problem).