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This greatly expanded third edition provides a comprehensive overview of clinical psychopharmacology, incorporating the major advances in the field since the previous edition's publication. Renowned experts from psychiatry, pharmacy, and nursing have integrated basic science, psychopharmacology, and clinical practice throughout the book in order to provide a thorough basis for prescribing. It covers all key psychiatric drugs and disorders and includes the latest data on efficacy, safety and tolerability. Adopting a pragmatic approach to drug nomenclature, both Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN) and older generic terminology are included in the text reflecting that clinicians are likely to use both systems. Many chapters refer to current National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, making this a crucial resource. Edited by leading authorities in the field, Professor Peter M. Haddad and Professor David J. Nutt, Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology emphasises evidence-based prescribing with the aim of achieving better clinical outcomes for patients.
Populism and authoritarian-populist parties have surged in the 21st century. In the United States, Donald Trump appears to have become the poster president for the surge. David Ricci, in this call to arms, thinks Trump is symptomatic of the changes that have caused a crisis among Americans - namely, mass economic and creative destruction: automation, outsourcing, deindustrialization, globalization, privatization, financialization, digitalization, and the rise of temporary jobs; all breeding resentment. Rather than dwelling on symptoms, Ricci focuses on the root of our nation's problems. Thus, creative destruction, aiming at perpetual economic growth, encouraged by neoliberalism, creates the economic inequality that fuels resentment and leads to increased populism. Ricci urges political scientists to highlight this destruction meaningfully and substantively; to use empirical realism to put human beings back into politics. Ricci's sensible argument conveys a sense of political urgency, grappling with real-world problems and working to transform abstract speculations into tangible, useful tools. The result is a passionate book, important not only to political scientists, but to anyone who cares about public life.
The Virginia School's economics of natural equals makes consent critical for policy. Democracy is understood as government by discussion, not majority rule. The claim of efficiency unsupported by consent, as common in orthodox economics, appeals to social hierarchy. Politics becomes an act of exchange among equals where the economist is only entitled to offer advice to citizens, not to dictators. The foundation of natural equality and consent explains the common themes of James Buchanan and John Rawls as well as Ronald Coase and the Fabian socialists. What orthodox economics treats as efficient racial discrimination violates the fair chance entitlement to which people consent in a market economy. The importance of replication stressed by Gordon Tullock, developing themes from Karl Popper, is another expression of natural equality since the foresight of replication induces care into research. The publication of previously unpublished correspondence and documentation allows the reader to judge recent controversy.
Since the collapse of the housing market in 2008, demand for housing has consistently outpaced supply in many US communities. The failure to construct sufficient housing - especially affordable housing - in desirable communities and neighborhoods comes with significant social, economic, and environmental costs. This book examines how local participatory land use institutions amplify the power of entrenched interests and privileged homeowners. The book draws on sweeping data to examine the dominance of land use politics by 'neighborhood defenders' - individuals who oppose new housing projects far more strongly than their broader communities and who are likely to be privileged on a variety of dimensions. Neighborhood defenders participate disproportionately and take advantage of land use regulations to restrict the construction of multifamily housing. The result is diminished housing stock and higher housing costs, with participatory institutions perversely reproducing inequality.
On the eve of the early modern age, Ming emperors ruled around one-quarter of the globe's population, the majority of the world's largest urban centers, the biggest standing army on the planet, and the day's most affluent economy. Far from being isolated, the Ming court was the greatest center of political patronage in East Eurasia, likely the world. Although the Ming throne might trumpet its superiority, it understood its need for allegiance from ruling elites in neighbouring regions. In this major new study, David M. Robinson explores Ming emperors' relations with the single most important category of Eurasian nobles: descendants of Ghengis Khan and their Mongol supporters. Exploring the international dimensions of Chinese rule, this revisionist but accessible account shows that even rulers such as the Ming emperor needed allies and were willing to pay for them.
Difficulties with the diagnosis, management and treatment of fetal growth problems start with defining which small fetus or newborn is affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR). A small for gestational age (SGA) fetus is diagnosed when its estimated fetal weight (EFW), or its components such as abdominal circumference (AC), fall below the 10th centile for the given gestation. This definition will include both healthy small fetuses and those who fail to reach their growth potential and who are considered to have FGR. There are many factors known to contribute to the reduction of fetal growth velocity, such as chromosomal anomalies, genetic syndromes and infections as well as maternal and environmental factors, including poor periconceptual diet and cigarette smoking. Other known risk factors for FGR include maternal co-morbidities, especially preexisting hypertensive disorders, the use of assisted reproductive techniques, and obstetric complications like heavy, recurrent vaginal bleeding or loss of co-twin.
We first published on the subject of pregnancy management via fetal reduction (FR) 30 years ago . Dramatic changes have occurred in medical technology, outcomes, and patient choices – large demographic and cultural shifts that have driven the pace and direction of progress and research [2, 3].
Gene therapy uses a vector to deliver a gene to its required site, where expression of the protein can produce a therapeutic effect. In the last decade there have been significant therapeutic breakthroughs, with clinical trials of postnatal gene therapy showing efficacy for a variety of diseases, such as hemophilia, congenital blindness, congenital immunodeficiency and neuromuscular disorders, and the first gene therapy for familial hyperlipidemia was approved in the European Union (EU) in 2012.
Individuals with epilepsy, and their family and friends, are impacted by system-based barriers arising from public policies, affecting their quality of lives. Policies on driving, education, employment, ethics, and research are widespread, and often lead to unwarranted complications.
Chapter 4, “Black City” shifts from eastern and central to western Mongolia. It focuses on the only Great Yuan city for which administrative documents survive from the post-1368 period. Qara-Qoto or Black City is located in the southwestern corner of today’s Inner Mongolia. Saved from extinction by arid conditions and long centuries of neglect, the Qara-Qoto documents reveal that Great Yuan regional governance continued after 1368. Documents occasionally mention military mobilization against impending Ming attack, but most focus on daily governance. This may not seem exciting, but it reminds us that 1368 as a transformative moment was in part a narrative creation of the Ming court meant to change contemporary perceptions of both the Great Yuan and the Great Ming courts. The documents also reveal Chinggisid nobles’ ongoing importance to Great Yuan governance in Qara-Qoto and surrounding regions after 1368.
Chapter 9, “The Chinggisid Fold,” explores Zhu Yuanzhang’s correspondence with two other groups with deep ties to the Chinggisid imperial enterprise. The first were senior Great Yuan military commanders and Mongol nobles, primarily those based in today’s Liaoning and Jilin provinces to the northeast, the southern Mongolian steppe, and in Gansu and eastern Xinjiang. The second group consists of the Moghul khanate and the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia. Memory of Chinggis Khan and the institutional arrangements of the Mongol empire (including hereditary relations of leadership) were defining elements of both groups. This chapter argues that Zhu Yuanzhang worked hard to win the first group’s allegiance through a combination of military pressure, economic incentives, and argumentation. If he failed to sway the Great Khans and the Prince of Liang, the Ming founder did have some success among this critical group of Chinggisid supporters. Zhu Yuanzhang and his advisors invoked the Mongol empire’s inheritance in communications with the Timurid and Moghul polities. However, the early Ming court’s Chinggisid narrative was not compelling to them.
Chapter 2, “Daidu’s Fall,” traces the fate of Mongol political and military power in eastern Eurasia during the decades following the Yuan ruling house’s flight to the steppe in 1368. This chapter examines the Yuan court’s efforts to maintain legitimacy in the eyes of former subjects and allies, which included Chinese, Mongol, Turkic, Jurchen, Korean, and Central Asian populations, by drawing on political emblems developed during the empire’s glory years. This chapter also explains the Yuan’s military and administrative strategies to come to terms with its new position in eastern Eurasia. After 1368, the Great Yuan court remained a powerful actor on the international stage; the Ming court was never the sole political patron available to ambitious individuals and communities.
Chapter 3, “Changing Fortunes,” explores the Yuan court's effort to regain ascendance in eastern Eurasia through military campaigns and diplomatic initiatives. Drawing upon spiritual, military, and political resources, the Great Yuan court pursued its claims to legitimacy and power in Eurasia, fielding powerful armies that clashed with the forces of the newly ascendant Ming court. If the Yuan court suffered defeats, until the late 1380s, it could also claim major triumphs. After the assassination of the Yuan's Great Khan in 1388, however, more Mongol commanders confronted the choice of remaining loyal to the Chinggisids or offering their allegiance to the Ming throne.