Little information is available regarding predator-prey interactions in High-Antarctic coastal systems. In this study, the predation of Trematomus bernacchii (Pisces: Nototheniidae) on Adamussium colbecki (Mollusca: Pectinidae) is described and the related impact on the population structure of the mollusc is hypothesized. Fishes and scallops were collected during several expeditions between 1990/91 and 1997/98 summers, in nearshore waters at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Adamussium colbecki was the main food item of T. bernacchii and an ontogenetic prey-size selection was observed. The predation was mainly on medium size classes of the scallop. These were lacking in the A. colbecki population sampled in the same period suggesting that the impact of fish-feeding on the size structure of the natural population of the mollusc may be substantial. Two size classes of the Adamussium population were not preyed on. Large adults avoid predation either because of the limits for mouth gape in the fish or by swimming avoidance capability, while smaller scallops may not be preyed upon because they are attached through byssus threads to very mobile large adults.