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We argue that the ways in which we as humans derive well-being from nature – for example by harvesting firewood, selling fish or enjoying natural beauty – feed back into how we behave towards the environment. This feedback is mediated by institutions (rules, regulations) and by individual capacities to act. Understanding these relationships can guide better interventions for sustainably improving well-being and alleviating poverty. However, more attention needs to be paid to how experience-related benefits from nature influence attitudes and actions towards the environment, and how these relationships can be reflected in more environmentally sustainable development projects.
The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology.
Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals. For non-dissolvable packs, the re-bleed rates for Rapid Rhino and Merocel were similar, but were higher with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste packing. Rapid Rhino packs were the most tolerated non-dissolvable packs. Evidence indicates that 96 per cent of re-bleeding occurs within the first 4 hours after nasal pack removal. Limited evidence suggests that dissolvable packs are effective and well tolerated by patients. There was a lack of evidence relating to: the duration of pack use, the economic effects of pack choice and the appropriate care setting for non-dissolvable packs.
Rapid Rhino packs are the best tolerated, with efficacy equivalent to nasal tampons. FloSeal is easy to use, causes less discomfort and may be superior to Merocel in anterior epistaxis cases. There is no strong evidence to support prophylactic antibiotic use.
Six clusters forming part of the Hydra-Cen Supercluster and its extension on the opposite side of the galactic plane are under study at 21 cm with the Parkes radiotelescope. The infrared Tully-Fisher relation is used to determine the relative distances of the clusters. These clusters exhibit significant and generally positive peculiar velocities ranging from essentially zero for the Hydra cluster to as much as 1000 km/sec for the Pavo and Centaurus clusters. An upper limit of 500 km/sec was previously found in the study of clusters accessible from Arecibo. Data collection is not yet complete, however, and is further subject to unstudied systematic errors due to present reliance on photographic galaxy diameters. Nevertheless, these preliminary results support the notion of a large scale (and presumably gravitationally) disturbed velocity field in the second and third quadrants of the supergalactic plane.
The U.K. 1.2 metre Schmidt Telescope acquired its first full aperture objective prism in 1975. This was a very low dispersion prism (2400 Å/mm at 4300 Å) which has been found to be particularly useful in searching for faint QSO’s.
In 1975, Hoessel, Elias, Wade and Huchra commenced a near infrared survey of 80 fields in the northern Milky Way with the Palomar 1.2 m Schmidt telescope, (Hoessel et al. 1979). This has now been issued as an atlas reproduced in the form of photographic paper prints. In 1977, the SRC 1.2 m Schmidt telescope at Siding Spring was authorized to commence a complementary survey of the southern Milky Way, consisting of the 151 ESO/SRC survey fields which have centres within 10° of the galactic plane and negative declinations (see Fig. 1). A further 12 fields have subsequently been added to the survey to permit coverage of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.
It now appears almost certain that the precursor of SN 1987a was the brighter of the components of Sk-69 202, a blue supergiant, with a precursor mass of perhaps 12-16 solar masses. Prior to the explosion the precursor had a core mass of order six solar masses, and 0.1 to 0.2 solar masses of residual hydrogen envelope. The compact nature of this star can account for many of the odd features of the subsequent light curve and spectral evolution.
An analysis of the light curve and colour evolution shows four distinct epochs, which probably relate to the initial expansion of the fireball and the escape of shock-deposited thermal energy, the hydrogen-rich layers becoming optically thin, the exposure of the helium core, and the increasing transparency of the helium core.
The supernova appeared to be at its maximum on May 10, but is dimmer than a normal Type II because its light is apparently derived from recombinations and the radioactive decay of 56Ni to 56Co to 56Fe rather than by the thermal energy deposited by the passage of the shock.
Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated oesophageal disease, only recently, but increasingly, recognised in the world literature. It is diagnosed and managed primarily by medical gastroenterologists and allergy specialists, and is a distinct disease entity, affecting both children and adults. Few studies have been published in otolaryngology journals, although otolaryngologists will encounter patients with undiagnosed eosinophilic oesophagitis. Patients may present with dysphagia, bolus obstruction or with other ENT disorders, such as atopic rhinitis, reflecting the underlying systemic allergic disorder.
This paper systematically reviews the evidence base published on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis, particularly as it relates to otolaryngology practice.
A statistical parallax algorithm (Clube and Dave, 1978a,b), using the technique of maximum likelihood, has been applied to a set of 103 ‘ab’ - RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood (r 2<kpc), using observational data from the Royal Greenwich Observatory Bulletins. A second set of 130 ‘ab’ - RR Lyrae stars has been kindly supplied to us by Dr. A. Heck (Université de Liège) to permit a comparison between our analyses. The purpose of this investigation was:
(a) to investigate the variations of kinematical parameters and absolute luminosities of these stars as functions of Preston's index ΔS and of log (Period).
(b) to identify those RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood which most closely resemble those in the galactic halo, those near the galactic center, and those in the Magellanic Clouds.
Case report data and a matched case-control study were used to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children in Shenzhen, China between 2008 and 2011. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with severity of infection. Laboratory tests were performed to determine aetiological identification for samples from 163 severe and fatal cases as well as an outpatient-based HFMD sentinel surveillance system (n = 446). All identified EV71 belonged to sub-genotype C4a. No major changes in the CA16 and EV71 viruses were found until the end of 2011. Annual attack rates and the case-severity ratios (CSRs) rose from 0·82/1000 and 0·56/1000, respectively, in 2008 to 2·12/1000 and 6·13/1000 in 2011. The CSR was higher in migrants than in local residents. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having a severe attack for being a migrant was 2·45, having a fever >39°C (OR 5·77), visiting a private clinic (OR 2·65), longer time from symptom onset to diagnosis (OR 1·49), visiting a doctor (OR 1·51), early use of intramuscular pyrazolone (OR 3·36), early use of intravenous glucocorticoids (OR 2·28), or the combination of both (OR 3·75). The mortality and increasing case severity appears to be associated with socioeconomic factors including migration and is of worldwide concern.
To describe a case of unwitnessed lithium ion disc battery ingestion, with a review of radiology findings and current best practice management.
A three-year-old girl presented following ingestion of a foreign body, which her four-year-old brother claimed was a one pound coin. The patient was managed non-urgently and transferred for specialist ENT assessment 6 hours following the initial ingestion, with no evidence of airway compromise. A corroded battery was removed from the level of the cricopharyngeus after 8 hours, with an associated circumferential mucosal burn.
There is increasing concern regarding the acknowledged rising incidence of lithium ion disc battery ingestion. The lack of a high index of suspicion and the inability to recognise subtleties on imaging may lead to suboptimal management with a higher degree of unnecessary immediate and delayed morbidity. The recently published American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines may guide the approach to managing battery ingestions.
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks)
experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP
spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2
and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work
towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world’s first 10 m3-scale directional
Dark Matter detector.
To review the currently available literature on iatrogenic injury of the adult chorda tympani.
Systematic literature review.
Five electronic databases and one search engine were used to access available English language literature on the chorda tympani, focusing on iatrogenic injury.
The chorda tympani is most often injured during middle-ear surgery, after which at least 15–22 per cent of patients experience symptoms, mostly changes in taste and dryness of the mouth. Numerous factors influence whether injury to the chorda tympani causes symptoms, including the extent of injury, type of surgery, age of the patient, anatomical variables and subjective adaptation. Although most patients experience gradual symptomatic recovery, complaints can be persistent and troublesome.
Care should be taken to preserve the chorda tympani during middle-ear surgery, and to warn patients pre-operatively about this potential complication. This is particularly important if surgery is bilateral.
The chorda tympani is at risk of iatrogenic injury throughout its course. This paper reviews the clinical anatomy of the nerve in adults.
Systematic literature review.
Relevant English-language articles were identified using five electronic databases and one search engine. Data from approximately 70 scientific papers were supplemented with information from selected reference texts.
The anatomy of the chorda tympani differs from standard descriptions, particularly regarding its exit from the middle ear and area of lingual innervation. Whilst it is known to convey taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, the chorda tympani probably has additional sensory and secretomotor functions.
A detailed understanding of the anatomy of the chorda tympani may help to reduce the risk of iatrogenic injury during head, neck and middle-ear surgery, and to explain the variable consequences of such injury.
In a previous paper, we presented a general theoretical treatment of the effect of stress on defect diffusion in Si (M. S. Daw, W. Windl, N. N. Carlson, M. Laudon, and M. P. Masquelier, to be published in Phys. Rev. B). In this paper, we discuss the calculation of the parameters governing the stress dependence of the diffusivity, which are volume quantities, and present the fully anisotropic volume tensor for vacancy formation in Si.
The Embedded Atom Method (EAM), a modem theory of metallic bonding, has been developed to provide a simple but accurate method of evaluating the energy and forces for an arbitrary arrangement of atoms. The relationships between the EAM and the underlying electron density theory will be discussed. Specific examples of EAM calculations of surface reconstruction for (110) fcc materials will be predicted and compared to experiment. The examples will include temperature effects in gold. The results of molecular dynamics calculations of the mechanical properties of nickel also will be presented. Topics to be discussed include dislocation mobility and dislocation emission from a stressed crack in nickel. The dislocation calculations will be related to continuum modelling.
The computer simulation of the structure and fracture of interfaces on an atomic scale requires a computationally efficient prescription for the total energy that is reliable both for small deviations from the bulk as well as for the free surfaces produced during fracture. The recently developed Embedded Atom Method is such a method. It will be briefly described and compared to traditional pair interaction approaches. In particular, it will be shown that the many-body effects inherent in the Embedded Atom Method are essential to correctly describe the experimentally observed surface reconstructions of Au surfaces.
The necessary first step in simulating the fracture of an interface, such as a grain boundary, is the determination of the initial or equilibrium atomic configuration of the interface. Equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations using the Embedded Atom Method can determine this structure. This approach will be outlined and various results for grain boundary structure in fcc metals will be presented. The atomic structure of symmetric tilt boundaries is found to be significantly different from that deduced from energy minimization techniques. In addition, the Monte Carlo technique allows for the determination of thermal effects such as the vibrational amplitudes at the interface and the thermal expansion of the interface.
Two classes of interatomic interactions, the embedded atom method and the model generalized pseudopotential theory are used to calculate the structure of tilt boundaries in bcc metals.These interactions differ in the inclusion of explicitlyangular dependent interactions. The results show that these different models of the interactions can lead to qualitatively different predictions for the atomic structure of the boundary. The applicability of the embedded atom method to bcc transition metals is also discussed.