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We study buoyant displacement flows with two miscible fluids of equal viscosity in the regime of low Atwood number and in ducts that are inclined close to horizontal. Using a combination of experimental, computational and analytical methods, we characterize the transitions in the flow regimes between inertial- and viscous-dominated regimes, and as the displacement flow rate is gradually increased. Three dimensionless groups largely describe these flows: densimetric Froude number , Reynolds number and duct inclination . Our results show that the flow regimes collapse into regions in a two-dimensional plane. These regions are qualitatively similar between pipes and plane channels, although viscous effects are more extensive in pipes. In each regime, we are able to give a leading-order estimate for the velocity of the leading displacement front, which is effectively a measure of displacement efficiency.
Infection with a myotropic Trypanosoma cruzi clone induces maternal fertility failure. In the current work, we evaluated whether reduction of maternal parasitaemia before mating has beneficial effects on pregnancy outcome. Female mice were subjected to benznidazole (Bz) treatment after infection. On day 30 of therapy, mating was assessed and pregnancy outcome was determined on day 14 of gestation. Fetal resorptions diminished in T. cruzi-infected Bz-treated mice compared with T. cruzi-infected untreated mice. This was in agreement with the reduction in the blood/solid tissue parasite load and with the percentage of necrotic foci in placental samples from T. cruzi-infected Bz-treated females. To study eventual changes in the immune homeostasis of T. cruzi-infected Bz-treated mice, activation of the immune system was evaluated at the end of Bz therapy and before mating. We found specific IgG1 reduction resulting in a predominance of specific IgG2a, reduced numbers of CD69+ CD4+ cells and diminished frequency and numbers of CD44+ T cells. Concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes from T. cruzi-infected Bz-treated mice produced higher amounts of IFN-γ than T. cruzi-infected untreated mice. These results indicate that reduction of maternal parasite load improves pregnancy outcome. These findings correlate with a favourable modulation of the immune response.
The interaction between interlamellar Lu(III) cations and the layered silicate structure has been studied by means of MAS-NMR, XRD and EDX. Irreversible fixation of exchangeable Lu(III) cations upon hydrothermal treatment at 300°C of Lu-saturated montmorillonite is reported, through the formation of the crystalline phase Lu2Si2O7. It is shown that the lowest temperature previously described for this reaction, 400°C, does not indicate a thermodynamic boundary. This basic solid-state finding is relevant for some clay applications such as those related to the safety of nuclear waste repositories with engineering barriers.
Structural differences which occur on heating La-montmorillonite have been studied and compared with those for montmorillonite saturated with Na(I) and Li(I). Rehydration experiments show that La-montmorillonite swells after preheating up to 500°C. However, FT-IR spectra suggest partial migration of the La(III) cations from the interlamellar region to the structural sheets and(or) deprotonation of hydrated La(III) cations, followed by migration of the resulting protons to vacant octahedral sites. Additional measurements of X-ray absorption spectra (EXAFS, XANES) and heating to 700°C suggest that interlamellar hydrated La(III) partially deprotonates producing polyoxocations.
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