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Harbour (2016) argues for a parsimonious universal set of features for grammatical person distinctions, and suggests (ch. 7) that the same features may also form the basis for systems of deixis. We apply this proposal to an analysis of Heiltsuk, a Wakashan language with a particularly rich set of person-based deictic contrasts (Rath 1981). Heiltsuk demonstratives and third-person pronominal enclitics distinguish proximal-to-speaker, proximal-to-addressee, and distal (in addition to an orthogonal visibility contrast). There are no forms marking proximity to third persons (e.g., ‘near them’) or identifying the location of discourse participants (e.g., ‘you near me’ vs. ‘you over there’), nor does the deictic system make use of the clusivity contrast that appears in the pronoun paradigm (e.g., ‘this near you and me’ vs. ‘this near me and others’). We account for the pattern by implementing Harbour's spatial element χ as a function that yields proximity to its first- or second-person argument.
Scholars and observers worry that Congress has lost its capacity to perform its functions in the American political system. Drawing on an array of data on Congress’s activities and processes along with in-depth interviews with long-serving lawmakers and high-level staffers, we take stock of how changes to internal processes have affected Congress’s institutional capacities. In doing so, we make two interrelated arguments. First, we argue that Congress can take transformative action whether the legislative process is centralized and leadership-led or whether it is decentralized and committee-led. Second, we argue that Congress is better able than in previous eras to engage in conflict-clarifying representation in order to express and educate the public on the positions of the parties. We conclude that changes to congressional processes in recent years should be viewed as adaptations to the challenges of contemporary lawmaking. These adaptations help preserve Congress’s institutional capacity, but they have undoubtedly had negative consequences for open deliberation and individual member input into legislation.
Investigations into an outbreak of foodborne disease attempt to identify the source of illness as quickly as possible. Population-based reference values for food consumption can assist in investigation by providing comparison data for hypothesis generation and also strengthening the evidence associated with a food product through hypothesis testing. In 2014–2015 a national phone survey was conducted in Canada to collect data on food consumption patterns using a 3- or 7-day recall period. The resulting food consumption values over the two recall periods were compared. The majority of food products did not show a significant difference in the consumption over 3 days and 7 days. However, comparison of reference values from the 3-day recall period to data from an investigation into a Salmonella Infantis outbreak was shown to support the conclusion that chicken was the source of the outbreak whereas the reference values from a 7-day recall did not support this finding. Reference values from multiple recall periods can assist in the hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing phase of foodborne outbreak investigations.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS:.Outline the development and purpose of the partnership brokering database in REDCap. Provide an overview of the tool and how it works. Discuss how this tool facilitates partnership-brokering activities and discuss plans for future use METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) is a secure, web-based application developed at Vanderbilt University to assist with systematic data management of small and medium sized projects. CCH utilized REDCap to build a custom data management warehouse entitled the Partnership Brokering Tool. Information compiled in various formats (handwritten notes, spreadsheets, etc.) over the past 10 years by CCH staff, was then systematically organized and entered into the Partnership Brokering Tool. The tool captures information such as individual contact information, organizational affiliation (academic, community, faith, government etc.), research interests (35 categories - asthma, diabetes, heart disease, etc.), communities of foci (children, elderly, LGBTQ, ethnicity, etc.), and target geographic community served (Chicago north, south, suburban, Illinois, etc.). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Data was compiled on 451 community groups and organizations and 77 partners in academia thus far. Community organizations represent a range of community sectors including advocacy and policy groups, community-based, faith-based organizations, foundations, media, schools, etc. throughout the Chicagoland area. Data analysis activities are underway, however, results will also be shared regarding characteristics of the communities these organizations serve including:. Age range. Special populations (as defined by the CSTI grant). Underrepresented racial and ethnic communities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The Partnership Brokering Tool has provided a format for CCH to systematically gather information about the relationships staff have cultivated with community groups and organizations. Unlike an email management system, this REDCap project is highly useful in capturing the parameters of our partner pool, identifying partnership gaps, and matching individuals interested in collaborating with researchers or community organizations that have a particular skill set or research interest. The Partnership Brokering Tool has also facilitated stakeholder engagement dedicated to guiding the centers’ overall goals, objectives, and programming. Finally, utilizing REDCap has streamlined efforts in reporting quantitative and qualitative data about these organizations. In the next phase of this project, CCH will utilize the database to assess the nature of the relationship between CCH and community groups and organizations.
Majority leaders of the contemporary Congress preside over parties that are more cohesive than at any point in the modern era, and power has been centralized in party leadership offices. Do today’s majority parties succeed in enacting their legislative agendas to a greater extent than the less-cohesive parties of earlier eras? To address this question, we examine votes on all laws enacted from 1973–2016, as well as on the subset of landmark laws identified by Mayhew. In addition, we analyze the efforts of congressional majority parties to pass their agendas from 1985 to 2016. We find that enacting coalitions in recent congresses are nearly as bipartisan as they were in the 1970s. Most laws, including landmark enactments, continue to garner substantial bipartisan support. Furthermore, majority parties have not gotten better at passing their legislative programs. Contemporary congressional majorities actually fail on their agenda items at somewhat higher rates than the less-cohesive majority parties of the 1980s and 1990s. When majority parties succeed on their agenda priorities, they usually do so with support from a majority of the minority party in at least one chamber and with the endorsement of one or more of the minority party’s top leaders.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm), a parasitic nematode, is expanding its distribution. Human infection, known as angiostrongyliasis, may manifest as eosinophilic meningitis, an emerging infectious disease. The range and incidence of this disease are expanding throughout the tropics and subtropics. Recently, the Hawaiian Islands have experienced an increase in reported cases. This study addresses factors affecting the parasite's distribution and projects its potential future distribution, using Hawaii as a model for its global expansion. Specimens of 37 snail species from the Hawaiian Islands were screened for the parasite using PCR. It was present on five of the six largest islands. The data were used to generate habitat suitability models for A. cantonensis, based on temperature and precipitation, to predict its potential further spread within the archipelago. The best current climate model predicted suitable habitat on all islands, with greater suitability in regions with higher precipitation and temperatures. Projections under climate change (to 2100) indicated increased suitability in regions with estimated increased precipitation and temperatures, suitable habitat occurring increasingly at higher elevations. Analogously, climate change could facilitate the spread of A. cantonensis from its current tropical/subtropical range into more temperate regions of the world, as is beginning to be seen in the continental USA.
The commercial release of crops with engineered resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba will alter the spatial and temporal use of these herbicides. This, in turn, has elicited concerns about off-target injury to sensitive crops. In 2014 and 2015, studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, to describe how herbicide (2,4-D and dicamba), herbicide rate (1/75 and 1/250 field use), and application timing (20, 40, and 60 DAP) influence watermelon injury, vine development, yield, and the accumulation of herbicide residues in marketable fruit. In general, greater visual injury and reductions in vine growth, relative to the non-treated check, were observed when herbicide applications were made before watermelon plants had begun to flower. Although the main effects of herbicide and rate were less influential than the timing of applications with respect to plant development, the 1/75 rates were more injurious than the 1/250 rates; dicamba was more injurious than 2,4-D. In 2014, the 1/75 and 1/250 rates of each herbicide reduced marketable fruit numbers 13 to 20%, but only for the 20 DAP application. The 1/75 rate of each herbicide when applied at either 20 or 40 DAP reduced the number of fruit harvested per plot in 2015. Dicamba residues were detected in marketable fruit when the 1/75 rate in 2014 and 2015 and the 1/250 rate in 2015 was applied to plants at 40 or 60 DAP. Residues of 2,4-D were detected in 2015 when the 1/75 and 1/250 rates were applied at 60 DAP. Across both years, the maximum level of residue detected was 0.030 ppm. While early season injury may reduce watermelon yields, herbicide residue detection is more likely in marketable fruit when an off-target contact incident occurs closer to harvest.
Many novel therapeutic options for depression exist that are either not mentioned in clinical guidelines or recommended only for use in highly specialist services. The challenge faced by clinicians is when it might be appropriate to consider such ‘non-standard’ interventions. This analysis proposes a framework to aid this decision.
Declaration of interest
In the past 3 years R.H.M.W. has received support for research, expenses to attend conferences and fees for lecturing and consultancy work (including attending advisory boards) from various pharmaceutical companies including Astra Zeneca, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Janssen, LivaNova, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovion. D.M.B.C. has received fees from LivaNova for attending an advisory board. In the past 3 years A.J.C. has received fees for lecturing from Astra Zeneca and Lundbeck; fees for consulting from LivaNova, Janssen and Allergan; and research grant support from Lundbeck.
In the past 3 years A.C. has received fees for lecturing from pharmaceutical companies namely Lundbeck and Sunovion. In the past 3 years A.L.M. has received support for attending seminars and fees for consultancy work (including advisory board) from Medtronic Inc and LivaNova. R.M. holds joint research grants with a number of digital companies that investigate devices for depression including Alpha-stim, Big White Wall, P1vital, Intel, Johnson and Johnson and Lundbeck through his mindTech and CLAHRC EM roles. M.S. is an associate at Blueriver Consulting providing intelligence to NHS organisations, pharmaceutical and devices companies. He has received honoraria for presentations and advisory boards with Lundbeck, Eli Lilly, URGO, AstraZeneca, Phillips and Sanofi and holds shares in Johnson and Johnson. In the past 3 years P.R.A.S. has received support for research, expenses to attend conferences and fees for lecturing and consultancy work (including attending an advisory board) from life sciences companies including Corcept Therapeutics, Indivior and LivaNova. In the past 3 years P.S.T. has received consultancy fees as an advisory board member from the following companies: Galen Limited, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Europe Ltd, myTomorrows and LivaNova. A.H.Y. has undertaken paid lectures and advisory boards for all major pharmaceutical companies with drugs used in affective and related disorders and LivaNova. He has received funding for investigator initiated studies from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Lundbeck and Wyeth.
Timing of weed emergence and seed persistence in the soil influence the ability to implement timely and effective control practices. Emergence patterns and seed persistence of kochia populations were monitored in 2010 and 2011 at sites in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. Weekly observations of emergence were initiated in March and continued until no new emergence occurred. Seed was harvested from each site, placed into 100-seed mesh packets, and buried at depths of 0, 2.5, and 10 cm in fall of 2010 and 2011. Packets were exhumed at 6-mo intervals over 2 yr. Viability of exhumed seeds was evaluated. Nonlinear mixed-effects Weibull models were fit to cumulative emergence (%) across growing degree days (GDD) and to viable seed (%) across burial time to describe their fixed and random effects across site-years. Final emergence densities varied among site-years and ranged from as few as 4 to almost 380,000 seedlings m−2. Across 11 site-years in Kansas, cumulative GDD needed for 10% emergence were 168, while across 6 site-years in Wyoming and Nebraska, only 90 GDD were needed; on the calendar, this date shifted from early to late March. The majority (>95%) of kochia seed did not persist for more than 2 yr. Remaining seed viability was generally >80% when seeds were exhumed within 6 mo after burial in March, and declined to <5% by October of the first year after burial. Burial did not appear to increase or decrease seed viability over time but placed seed in a position from which seedling emergence would not be possible. High seedling emergence that occurs very early in the spring emphasizes the need for fall or early spring PRE weed control such as tillage, herbicides, and cover crops, while continued emergence into midsummer emphasizes the need for extended periods of kochia management.
Ketamine has recently become an agent of interest as an acute treatment for severe depression and as the anaesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Subanaesthetic doses result in an acute reduction in depression severity while evidence is equivocal for this antidepressant effect with anaesthetic or adjuvant doses. Recent systematic reviews call for high-quality evidence from further randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
To establish if ketamine as the anaesthetic for ECT results in fewer ECT treatments, improvements in depression severity ratings and less memory impairment than the standard anaesthetic.
Double-blind, parallel-design, RCT of intravenous ketamine (up to 2 mg/kg) with an active comparator, intravenous propofol (up to 2.5 mg/kg), as the anaesthetic for ECT in patients receiving ECT for major depression on an informal basis. (Trial registration: European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT): 2011-000396-14 and clinicalTrials.gov: NCT01306760.)
No significant differences were found on any outcome measure during, at the end of or 1 month following the ECT course.
Ketamine as an anaesthetic does not enhance the efficacy of ECT.
Due to large uncertainties in many of the parameters used to model sea ice,
it is possible that models with significantly different physical processes
can be tuned to obtain realistic present-day simulations. However, in
studies of climate change, it is the response of the model it various
perturbations that is important, in studies response can be significantly
different in sea-ice models that include or exclude various physical
feedback mechanisms. Because simplifications in sea-ice physics are
necessary for general circulation model experiments, it is important to
assess which physical processes are essential for the accurate determination
of the sensitivity of the ice pack to climate perturbations. We have
attempted to address these issues using a new coupled ice-thickness
distribution ocean mixed-layer model. The sensitivity of the model to
surface heat-flux perturbations is examined and the importance of the ice
ocean and ice-albedo feedback mechanisms in determining this sensitivity is
analyzed. We find that the ice ocean and ice-albedo feedback processes are
not mutually exclusive, and that they both significantly alter the model
response to surface heat flux perturbations.
There are currently a variety of one- and two-dimensional sea-ice models
being used for climate simulations and sensitivity studies. Though all the
models can be timed to simulate current-day conditions to some degree of
accuracy, the responses of each model to perturbations in forcing from the
atmosphere or ocean are different. Thus, climate-change prediction depends
on the choice of sea-ice model. In this study, the sensitivities of various
sea-ice models to external heat-flux perturbations are examined in a
systematic manner. Starting from similar baseline annual thicknesses, each
model is subjected to an applied heat-flux perturbation to assess icemelt.
Separate experiments are conducted to compare the response of each model to
heat fluxes applied at the atmospheric and the oceanic interfaces. It is
found that the magnitude of the heat-flux perturbation required to melt ice
varies greatly among different models, with the largest difference arising
between models that include ice dynamics vs those that do not. Most models
show an asymmetry in the response to heat-flux perturbations applied at the
top and bottom surfaces of the ice. This study has implications for the
choice of sea-ice models used for climate-change simulations. It also gives
insight to the accuracy required for observations and model simulations of
the surface heat fluxes.
Snow falling uniformly on a distribution of ice thicknesses results in a
distribution of snow-cover thicknesses. These snow depths depend on the
amount of snow-fall, the time of year at which it falls, and the thickness
of the underlying ice. The effect of snowfall on snow-ice-thickness
distribution is examined using a single-column ice ocean model. The time at
which snow begins to accumulate, and melt ponds and leads freeze, affects
the surface albedo. The rate of snowfall affects ice-growth rates and, as a
result, the ice-thickness distribution. During the period of rapid ice
growth between the autumn freeze and mid-winter, snow falling on newly
formed ice is rapidly depleted due to sublimation. Snow falling on thicker
ice remains throughout the winter to create a source of melt-water for ponds
and runoff into the ocean.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
Atmospheric gas samples (0.1m3) were collected at ground level during January/February 1984 in Las Vegas, Nevada for 14C/13C accelerator mass spectrometry and total abundance measurements of CO and CH4. During winter months in this locale, CO concentrations can occur at 10 to 100 times background, occasionally exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Methane concentrations show a slight enhancement (∼24%) above the background (non-urban troposphere) level. A comparison of CO and CH4 concentrations shows a good linear correlation which may indicate a common source. Preliminary 14C/13C results of the two species suggest that fossil emissions are the predominant source of excess CO and CH4 in the samples taken. Estimates of anthropogenic CO and CH4 are important for source apportionment of combustion emissions. In addition, this information is valuable for understanding the global CO and CH4 cycles and, therefore, human impact on climate and the stratospheric ozone layer.
We present an overview of recent multidisciplinary, multi-institutional efforts to identify and date major sources of combustion aerosol in the current and paleoatmospheres. The work was stimulated, in part, by an atmospheric particle “sample of opportunity” collected at Summit, Greenland in August 1994, that bore the 14C imprint of biomass burning. During the summer field seasons of 1995 and 1996, we collected air filter, surface snow and snowpit samples to investigate chemical and isotopic evidence of combustion particles that had been transported from distant fires. Among the chemical tracers employed for source identification are organic acids, potassium and ammonium ions, and elemental and organic components of carbonaceous particles. Ion chromatography, performed by members of the Climate Change Research Center (University of New Hampshire), has been especially valuable in indicating periods at Summit that were likely to have been affected by the long range transport of biomass burning aerosol. Univariate and multivariate patterns of the ion concentrations in the snow and ice pinpointed surface and snowpit samples for the direct analysis of particulate (soot) carbon and carbon isotopes. The research at NIST is focusing on graphitic and polycyclic aromatic carbon, which serve as almost certain indicators of fire, and measurements of carbon isotopes, especially 14C, to distinguish fossil and biomass combustion sources.
Complementing the chemical and isotopic record, are direct “visual” (satellite imagery) records and less direct backtrajectory records, to indicate geographic source regions and transport paths. In this paper we illustrate the unique way in which the synthesis of the chemical, isotopic, satellite and trajectory data enhances our ability to develop the recent history of the formation and transport of soot deposited in the polar snow and ice.