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Novel methods are needed to traverse the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to specific targets in the brain. To this end, MS2 bacteriophage was explored as a multifunctional transport and targeting vector. The MS2 capsid exterior was modified with two different targeting moieties for delivery across the BBB and targeting specific regions of interest in the brain. Successful modification of MS2 capsids with a brain targeting peptide and NMADAR2D-targeting antibody was confirmed by immunoblotting and fluorescence detection. To measure transport efficiency of MS2 particles across an in vitro BBB model, a highly sensitive RT-qPCR protocol was developed and implemented. Finally, in order to demonstrate the potential of MS2 as a drug delivery vehicle, nucleotide-mediated loading of capsids was investigated with the MRI contrast agent Gd-DOTA modified with psoralen.
Over the last decade, the impact of emergencies on the American state has become the subject of renewed interest. While early literature in the post-9/11 era often overlooked the historical development of crisis governance in the United States, many scholars have begun to uncover the precedents that continue to shape modern emergency management. In an effort to clarify the main analytical assumptions of the existing scholarship, I construct three models of emergency statebuilding: permanent emergency state, national security state, and contract state. The models each share an underlying framework of historical institutionalism, which defines the state as a stabilized material institutional structure that is disrupted by emergency conditions—exogenous shocks that cannot be incorporated into the normal statebuilding processes or legal order. Yet this perspective is ill-equipped to explain institutional change. I propose discursive institutionalism as an approach that emphasizes how discourse and ideas construct emergencies as objects of government management—in different ways, at different times. I then illustrate the utility of this perspective by demonstrating the influence of national planning ideas on efforts to prepare the state for emergencies before they occur.
1. A body of people drawn from the mother-country to inhabit some distant place.
Osiris, or the Bacchus of the ancients, is reported to have civilized the Indians, planting colonies and building cities. Arbuthnot on Coins.
Samuel Johnson’s lifetime circumscribed the most momentous political episode in eighteenth-century English history, the rise and fall of the British empire in North America. His notorious hostility towards America rested on a potent mixture of insular nationalism and cosmopolitan humanitarianism, which fueled his lifelong hatred of imperialism and racism. Few other major English authors wrote more, or more passionately, about America than he did.
Home and colonies
Home undoubtedly came first to Johnson, as it did to his countrymen. Colonists were a new and suspect category of citizenry unknown to ancient common law. In his Dictionary, a definition of land as “Nation; people” is a revealing conflation of soil and subjects, of locality and loyalty. This nativism had feudal origins in the unwritten British constitution for an agrarian society, where landholding meant subsistence and allegiance to the monarch as supreme owner of the island’s real property. The homeland was a largely self-sufficient entity for survival and civilization, and had precedence over extra-territorial concerns of foreign trade and distant empire: “We have at home,” Johnson wrote, “all that we can want, and … we need feel no great anxiety about the schemes of other nations for improving their arts, or extending their commerce” (Works, 10:125).
The implantation of Ag into MgO (100) single crystals, followed by thermal annealing at 1100°C, leads to dramatic changes in their optical properties. The changes in the optical properties are due to the presence of small Ag clusters which are formed in the annealed samples. The small Ag clusters are obtained by thermal annealing of the implanted MgO crystals between 600°C and 1100°C to investigate the changes in cluster sizes and to correlate with changes in their optical properties. Sample characterization is carried out using optical spectrophotometry to confirm the effective presence of Ag clusters and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to study the profile of Ag clusters.
The continued decrease in critical dimensions and increasing integration levels in Si CMOS technology is imposing ever tighter constraints on quality control parameters for the IC manufacturing industry. One very important issue is the need to ensure a uniform, high quality Si substrate, i.e. minimise defect/dislocation densities and eliminate strain distributions in the starting wafer material. A comprehensive Synchrotron X-Ray Topography (SXRT) study was applied to commercially supplied 200mm diameter Si wafers. These wafers, which all included a surface Si epilayer growth were supplied from manufacturers from around the globe. The study revealed not only differences in the overall quality of the wafers, but also differences in the quality of the individual Silicon epilayers and substrates. In all wafers the substrate quality varied dramatically with position across the wafer, as measured by the distribution of oxygen precipitates and stacking faults in the wafer. This distribution also varied significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer. The strain fields induced by the growth of lightly doped Si epilayers were also observed to qualitatively vary with location on a wafer, together with (as expected) thickness of the epilayers. The results clearly indicate that optimal quality control for such commercial wafers has not yet been achieved.
We present the results of characterization of linear absorption and nonlinear refractive index of Au, Ag, Cu and Sn ion implantation into LiNbO3. Silver was implanted at 1.5 MeV to fluences of 2 to 17 × 1016/cm2 at room temperature. Gold and copper were implanted to fluences of 5 to 20 × 1016/cm2 at an energy of 2.0 MeV. Tin was implanted to a fluence of 1.6 × 1017/cm2 at 160 kV. After heat treatment at 1000°C a strong optical absorption peak for the Au implanted samples appeared at ∼620 nm. The absorption peaks of the Ag implanted samples shifted from ∼450 nm before heat treatment to 550 nm after 500°C for lh. Heat treatment at 800°C returned the Ag implanted crystals to a clear state. Cu nanocluster absorption peaks disappears at 500°C. No Sn clusters were observed by optical absorption or XRD. The size of the Ag and Au clusters as a function of heat treatment were determined from the absorption peaks. The Ag clusters did not appreciably change in size with heat treatment. The Au clusters increased from 3 to 9 nm in diameter upon heat treatment at 1000°C. TEM analysis performed on a Au implanted crystal indicated the formation of Au nanocrystals with facets normal to the c-axis. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive indices made using the Z-scan method showed that Ag implantation changed the sign of the nonlinear index of LiNbO3 from negative to positive.
Thermal processing steps in the production of packaged integrated circuits can lead to thermomechanical stresses. Additionally, the process of bonding wires to contact pads can lead to strain fields attributable to these. Synchrotron x-ray topography has been applied to packaged EEPROM Si ICs in order to produce maps of the strain fields induced by such processing steps. This technique allows for depth-resolved mapping with resolutions currently in the region of 5–10 μm throughout the entire mapping volume.
We report the results of characterization of linear and nonlinear optical properties of a light guide structure produced by MeV Ag ion implantation of LiNbO3 crystal (z-cut) in relation to the mechanisms of formation.
My assertions are for the most part purely negative; I deny the existence of Fingal, because in a long and curious peregrination through the Galic regions I have never been able to find it.
William Shaw (with Samuel Johnson), A Reply to Mr. Clark's Answer (1782)
William Shaw the Highlander came out of nowhere into Johnson's later life of writing. Their first meeting coincided with the revival of the Ossian controversy, instigated by A Journey to the Western Highlands of Scotland. Their forgotten friendship originated in a common desire to further the study of Gaelic and climaxed in a heated war of words over Macpherson's popular pseudo-Gaelic poetry near the end of Johnson's life. While Scots upheld farfetched Ossianic claims as a matter of national honor, Irishmen objected to historical revisionism slighting the primacy of their Gaelic identity. Englishmen in their turn could regard the noisy dispute with aloof neutrality or invincible skepticism reflecting a superiority complex toward other subjects in the British Isles at a perilous time of American Revolution. Within a context of smoldering culture wars at home exacerbated by insurrection abroad, Shaw emerged in the literary debate as a Scottish Gaelic scholar with Johnsonian allegiances, a true British composite of ideological dichotomies making him seem a traitor in his countrymen's eyes and a defender of truth in his own.
Little did I once think of seeing this region of obscurity, and little did you once expect a salutation from this Verge of European Life. I have now the pleasure of going where nobody goes, and of seeing what nobody sees. Our design is to visit several of the smaller Islands, and then pass over to the Southwest of Scotland.
Johnson to Hester Thrale, 6 September 1773
A survey of critical reaction to Ossian and its fraudulent underpinnings from the perspective of Johnson's love of truth and interest in antiquarianism provides a needed backdrop for an examination of his direct involvement in the controversy. This chapter, therefore, focuses on the first stage of his part in the business, his search for the truth about Ossian in the Highlands, and his notorious feud with Macpherson after his famous travel book appeared in 1775. Johnson “from the first” considered Ossian fraudulent and awful poetry, and it is fitting that a Scot, James Boswell, recorded Johnson's possibly earliest reaction to Macpherson and his work. On 14 July 1763 the celebrated biographer-to-be, who had originally supported Ossian fully and financially as an early subscriber and knew its author well, told his famous new friend about Macpherson's iconoclasm, “how he railed at all established systems. ‘So he would tumble in a hog-sty,’ said Johnson, ‘as long as you look at him and cry to him to come out. But let him alone, never mind him, and he'll soon give it over.’”
James Macpherson's famous hoax, publishing his own poems as the writings of the ancient Scots bard Ossian in the 1760s, remains fascinating to scholars as the most successful literary fraud in history. This study presents the fullest investigation of his deception to date, by looking at the controversy from the point of view of Samuel Johnson. Johnson's dispute with Macpherson was an argument with wide implications not only for literature, but for the emerging national identities of the British nations during the Celtic revival. Thomas M. Curley offers a wealth of genuinely new information, detailing as never before Johnson's involvement in the Ossian controversy, his insistence on truth-telling, and his interaction with others in the debate. The appendix reproduces a rare pamphlet against Ossian written with the assistance of Johnson himself. This book will be an important addition to knowledge about both the Ossian controversy and Samuel Johnson.
Forgery is one of the most dangerous and extensive evils to which men are subjected by the combinations of society and the regulations of civil life.
Sir Robert Chambers, A Course of Lectures on the English Law (1766–70)
A biographical sketch is in order: the perpetrator of literary deception was an ambitious young author, large of frame and irritable in disposition, who was university educated but lacking a degree. Wanting to escape the obscurity of schoolteaching, he made his bid for literary fame in the metropolis by publishing some anonymous poetry. Notoriety, however, was difficult to come by, until he turned to the first major project of his writing career. This was a work of almost complete fabrication, composed rather quickly over several years and based on very meager original materials or, mostly, none at all. From slight cues he invented a whole cast of characters and imposed a monotone declamatory style of high drama on his literary creation for a pervasive nobility of sentiment. Initially he probably felt no serious qualms of conscience about a seemingly harmless manipulation of minimal sources, as the duped public responded well to his efforts. His virtual authorship, despite hints and suspicions, remained widely unknown until after his death, and burial in Westminster Abbey crowned his worldly successes. This is the true story of James Macpherson, creator of Ossian (1760–3), and this is the true story of Samuel Johnson, creator of the Parliamentary Debates (ca. 1740–3).
Concerning Samuel Johnson, a very close friend affirmed that “no man had a more scrupulous regard for truth; from which, I verily believe, he would not have deviated to save his life.” No writer angered Johnson more than did James Macpherson for perpetrating what arguably became the most successful literary falsehood in modern history. With the monumental exception of his Lives of the English Poets (1779–81), Johnson's most notable literary undertaking in old age after his edition of Shakespeare (1765) involved debunking Macpherson's bogus poetry. Exposing Macpherson's fabricating ways was a fitting activity for an author ranked as England's greatest moralist. This book, therefore, is fundamentally a study about Johnson and Ossian, Johnson's interest in Gaelic culture and linguistics, and his involvement in a controversy smoldering throughout the British Isles for almost the final quarter-century of his life. The present chapter briefly reviews the enormous amount of scholarship published about Macpherson since 1800. The subsequent focus of attention lies on much of the pre-1800 critical response by Scottish, English, and Irish participants in a Celtic Revival, which unleashed national cultural wars over historical origins and political precedence for an ethnically mixed people. The contest over the authenticity of Macpherson's pseudo-Gaelic productions became a seismograph of the fragile unity within restive diversity of imperial Great Britain in the age of Johnson.
The original impetus for this study of the Celtic Revival in the age of Johnson occurred during my years as a doctoral candidate under Walter Jackson Bate at Harvard University. John Kelleher, then dean of Irish Studies in the United States, urged me to probe Samuel Johnson's ties to Irish intellectuals involved in the controversy over James Macpherson's fraudulent Scottish Gaelic poetry (1760–3) attributed to the legendary bard, Ossian. I carefully stored the suggestion in my memory for possible use in the future. In the meantime my curiosity turned to other Johnsonian matters of travel, empire, law, and politics. My graduate-school interest in Macpherson did bear some early fruit at Columbia University, where I finally tracked down a copy of William Shaw's rare anti-Ossian pamphlet, published in 1782 with Johnson's little-known assistance. In 1987 I spoke about their collaboration at conferences sponsored by the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh and contributed an essay to Aberdeen and the Enlightenment (Aberdeen University Press, 1987), edited by Jennifer J. Carter and Joan H. Pittock. Having published on Ossian, I redirected my energies into two decades of scholarship focused on preparing the first biography of Johnson's friend, Sir Robert Chambers, and the first edition of Chambers's Vinerian Law Lectures, which Johnson helped to compose.
When I turned to completing this book, I was surprised to find that my essay on the Ossian controversy had provoked my own minicontroversy, with revisionist scholars bent on rehabilitating Macpherson's reputation.
The Irish people are alike strangers to the glory that is reflected from the ancient celebrity of their country, and to all the generous sympathies that flow from such a revelation. How powerfully Doctor Johnson felt the importance of this too long neglected inquiry is evidenced by his correspondence with Charles O'Conor. “I have long wished,” writes this profound thinker, “that the Irish literature were cultivated.”
John Dalton, “The Social and Political State of the People of Ireland” (1830)
Ireland can take justifiable pride in being first and foremost among nations to recognize Johnson's literary genius through the granting of its highest academic degree. The now-clichéd title of “Doctor” Johnson did not exist until Trinity College bestowed on him its doctorate in canon and civil law on 8 July 1765 in honor of the matchless elegance and usefulness of his writings (“ob egregiam scriptorum elegantiam et utilitatem”). That Ireland should have bestowed the first of his two honorary doctorates was singularly appropriate, not only because of his fame as a moralist-lexicographer praised in the document, but also in light of his less celebrated advocacy of Irish studies. Of the seven signatories listed on the totally unexpected diploma, only Dr. Francis Andrews and Rev. Thomas Leland seem to have had any claim to Johnson's notice. As the kindly provost of Trinity College, Andrews could count on solid Irish parliamentary support for funding professorships in Greek and mathematics, underwriting the addition of fellows and a chair of modern history, and beautifying the grounds with a building program resulting in the university's imposing west front facing College Green today.
Dr Johnson having a laudable passion for the Discovery of every useful matter hitherto hid in the old languages of Britain and Ireland, readily encouraged every attempt to throw light upon any Such matter.
Charles O'Conor to Joseph Cooper Walker, 10 January 1786
Ireland's greatest living poet, Seamus Heaney, made glowing reference to Samuel Johnson during his acceptance of the 1995 Nobel Prize for Poetry, in order to underscore his artistic quest to capture the Shakespearean wholeness of our human reality within the complicated context of divided national identity: “In such circumstances, the mind still longs to repose in what Samuel Johnson once called with superb confidence ‘the stability of truth,’ even as it recognizes the destabilizing nature of its own operations and enquiries.” This chapter and the next highlight a rarely discussed, but fruitful, issue of scholarship on the age of Johnson, namely, Ireland's complex connection to the political entity of Great Britain and the role of the Ossian controversy in elucidating contemporary pressures of awakening nationhood in the land. The Ossian cause célèbre figured importantly in early formulations of national self-definition in Ireland during a Celtic Revival, which culminated in a brilliant epoch for writers of the magnitude of Yeats and Joyce. The story of Johnson's part in the controversy extends to the generally neglected but significant Irish literary renaissance commencing in the eighteenth century.