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A good practice carried to an extreme and worked in accordance with the letter of the law becomes a positive evil.
A military historian once remarked that the history of man is the history of war and the history of war is the history of man. History tells us that peace is not the norm despite mankind's efforts to achieve lasting peace. For much of history, conflict has been a barbaric clash of wills with the strong prevailing. In large measure, good rarely triumphed over evil. Though early attempts were made to extend some type of civility to the battlefield, use of law and regulation in protecting combatants is a modern phenomenon. Only in the past fifty years have we seen a comprehensive legal regime evolve that attempts to regulate conduct in conflict.
Despite the establishment of the laws of armed conflict in the past century, modern conflict involves actors who do not follow any international norms and who ignore basic humanitarian principles. The dirty wars of the twentyfirst century will mirror conflict not seen since the Dark Ages. Actors in these conflicts choose to use fear, terror, and suffering as a weapon of war, preying upon the most vulnerable members of society – mainly women and children.
The international community is not prepared to predict, prevent, and fight in these types of conflicts. Even though the development of law in this area has flourished and the jurisprudence from the various international tribunals has developed the ability to hold combatants who do not follow the rule of law on the battlefield accountable, conflict itself has moved backward in many parts of the world where the standard is “no quarter.” Kill or be killed is the new norm in this evolving century.
Along with this devolution in conflict, we see the world in extremes as the final visages of the fifty-year-long Cold War slide away into history. It can be argued that the twentieth century was almost a century-long conflict that historians have broken up into three wars: World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.
The Balkan Wars, the Rwanda genocide, and the crimes against humanity in Cambodia and Sierra Leone spurred the creation of international criminal tribunals to bring the perpetrators of unimaginable atrocities to justice. When Richard Goldstone, David Crane, Robert Petit, and Luis Moreno-Ocampo received the call - each set out on a unique quest to build an international criminal tribunal and launch its first prosecutions. Never before have the founding International Prosecutors told the behind-the-scenes stories of their historic journey. With no blueprint and little precedent, each was a path-breaker. This book contains the first-hand accounts of the challenges they faced, the obstacles they overcame, and the successes they achieved in obtaining justice for millions of victims.
We measured redshifts for a random subsample of 286 objects, m (Shapley) ≤ 16.5, drawn from the catalogue of the Horologium region published by Shapley. The distribution of the sample objects on the celestial sphere is shown in Fig. 1, the characteristics of the redshift distribution are represented in Figs. 2 and 3.
New observations of the radio nucleus of the nearby bright spiral galaxy M81 (NGC 3031) show that the structure of the nucleus is considerably more complex than previously thought. The radio nucleus has a slightly inverted, variable spectrum (de Bruyn et al. 1976; Crane, Guffrida, and Carlson 1976). The variability and VLBI observations (Kellermann et al. 1976; Jones, Sramek, and Terzian 1981) both indicate a linear dimension of ~1500 AU. The recent VLBI observations of Bartel et al. (1982) determined that nearly 100% of the emission originates in an elongated region with linear dimensions of 1000–4000 AU. Peimbert and Torres-Peimbert (1981) have classified the optical nucleus of M81 as Seyfert type 1.5 (the weakest known) with the narrow-emission-line region extending over ~5″ (Münch 1959).
The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of 148Pm have been studied using 149Sm(d, 3He) and 148Nd(p, nγ) reactions. Combining these measurements with estimates for E2/M1 decay branching ratios leads to the tentative conclusion that 148Pmg,m are in thermal equilibrium during the s-process. The branch at 148Pm then leads to an inferred s-process neutron density of 3 × 108 cm−3.
The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14–16 weeks’ gestation to receive HN001 (6×109 colony-forming units) (n 212) or placebo (n 211) daily. GDM at 24–30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) (P=0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P=0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P=0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v. 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group (P=0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
Various types of sea-ice and snow-cover data are required for operational purposes in real time, for engineering assessments of associated hazards and for regional to global-scale modeling of the climate system. Data on the primary characteristics of ice and snow (extent, depth or thickness, and ice concentration) are becoming available to meet many present types of modeling requirement but secondary properties such as snow-water content, ridging intensity, open-water fraction and ice drift are less readily available.
Data for these major variables of snow and ice cover are considered with respect to problems encountered in obtaining and using digital information necessary for modern computer analyses. Such problems include the limitations of the basic observations (observational or sensor accuracy), the spatial and temporal resolution of different data sets, varying national practices of observing and reporting, and the problems of meshing data collected by different means and having spatial differences and temporal changes of observation time, site location, sensor system and resolution, etc. The relative reliability and climatic “information content” of some historical data sets are briefly examined and available digital data sets on modern global ice- and snow-cover conditions are described.
There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts. The framework addresses the essential characteristics of the program and of teacher. MBPs: are informed by theories and practices that draw from a confluence of contemplative traditions, science, and the major disciplines of medicine, psychology and education; underpinned by a model of human experience which addresses the causes of human distress and the pathways to relieving it; develop a new relationship with experience characterized by present moment focus, decentering and an approach orientation; catalyze the development of qualities such as joy, compassion, wisdom, equanimity and greater attentional, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and engage participants in a sustained intensive training in mindfulness meditation practice, in an experiential inquiry-based learning process and in exercises to develop understanding. The paper's aim is to support clarity, which will in turn support the systematic development of MBP research, and the integrity of the field during the process of implementation in the mainstream.