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Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is the remote elemental analysis technique used by the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity rover. LIBS involves remotely ablating material from rocks and soils with a focused high-energy laser, which generates an optically excited plasma from which the elements in the rock or soil sample are quantitatively determined. The LIBS technique offers many advantages for remote chemical analysis. LIBS provides very rapid analyses without the need for any sample preparation. LIBS is capable of detecting all elements present above the detection limits independent of the atomic mass. LIBS quantitative analysis continues to evolve and produce accurate compositions with decreasing uncertainties. Furthermore, the matrix effects that tend to complicate most elemental analysis techniques like LIBS are increasingly exploited to extract more sample details. The focus of this chapter is to describe the current state of LIBS chemical analysis for remote planetary science.
Exposure to threat-related early life stress (ELS) has been related to vulnerability for stress-related disorders in adulthood, putatively via disrupted corticolimbic circuits involved in stress response and regulation. However, previous research on ELS has not examined both the intrinsic strength and flexibility of corticolimbic circuits, which may be particularly important for adaptive stress responding, or associations between these dimensions of corticolimbic dysfunction and acute stress response in adulthood.
Seventy unmedicated women varying in history of threat-related ELS completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan to evaluate voxelwise static (overall) and dynamic (variability over a series of sliding windows) resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of bilateral amygdala. In a separate session and subset of participants (n = 42), measures of salivary cortisol and affect were collected during a social-evaluative stress challenge.
Higher severity of threat-related ELS was related to more strongly negative static RSFC between amygdala and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and elevated dynamic RSFC between amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Static amygdala-DLPFC antagonism mediated the relationship between higher severity of threat-related ELS and blunted cortisol response to stress, but increased dynamic amygdala-rACC connectivity weakened this mediated effect and was related to more positive post-stress mood.
Threat-related ELS was associated with RSFC within lateral corticolimbic circuits, which in turn was related to blunted physiological response to acute stress. Notably, increased flexibility between the amygdala and rACC compensated for this static disruption, suggesting that more dynamic medial corticolimbic circuits might be key to restoring healthy stress response.
We propose that early in ontogeny, children's core cognitive abilities are shaped by culturally dependent “software updates.” The role of sociocultural inputs in the development of children's learning is largely missing from Lake et al.'s discussion of the development of human-like artificial intelligence, but its inclusion would help move research even closer to machines that can learn and think like humans.
Jacqueline E. A. K. Bamfo, Subspeciality Trainee in Maternal FetalMedicine, Fetal Medicine Unit, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK,
Matthew D. Phillips, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK,
M. Kingston, Consultant Physician in Genitourinang Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK,
K. Chan, Consultant Obstetrician, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine Unit, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK,
Ian Clegg, Consultant Anaesthetist, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, UK
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus acquired by direct inoculation of infected bodily fluids. This is most often during sexual intimacy, but may also result from contaminated needles or iatrogenic interventions, such as blood transfusion or surgical procedures with contaminated products. The infection is lifelong and if untreated significant morbidity and mortality arise from HIV-associated infections and malignancies; this is termed the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). During infection, HIV enters cells presenting CD4 receptors, the most common being the CD4+ T lymphocyte. Within the hosting cell, HIV replication, virion release and eventual cell death occur. The main measurable and prognostic parameters widely used are quantification of peripheral CD4 cells (the CD4 count), and the level of viraemia (HIV viral load). The likelihood of AIDS-defining illness developing increases with progressive CD4+ cell depletion, which occurs steadily over time from infection and more rapidly in individuals with a higher HIV viral load.
The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the late 1990s transformed the management of HIV-positive patients, and the infection is now generally treatable with a good prognosis, particularly when detected early. In addition to this, effective HAART together with appropriate obstetric management, infant antiretroviral prophylaxis and avoidance of breastfeeding has reduced rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV significantly. Universal screening for HIV in UK antenatal clinics from 1999 onwards, followed by appropriate management of mothers and their babies, has resulted in MTCT rates falling from between 20–30%, depending on maternal viral load in the mid-1990s to less than 1% in 2010. Worldwide, of the 34 million people living with HIV, 69% reside in sub-Saharan Africa, with other high-prevalence areas including Asia, the Caribbean and Eastern Europe. Many HIV-positive parturients receiving their antenatal care in the UK have acquired HIV whilst residing in one of the pandemic areas. The estimated UK prevalence in 2009 was 2.2 per 1000 women giving birth; most of these live in urban areas, with London having the highest rates.
Effect of HIV on pregnancy
HIV infection itself does not cause sub-fertility, although HIV-positive women may have decreased fertility due to associated conditions such as concurrent infections or illnesses, opiate use and low weight. HAART itself, particularly protease inhibitors, has been associated with preterm delivery in some studies, but not in others.
In this paper, we examine the increasing global attention being given to the German organizational form of the Mittelstand over the past decade. We do so, especially, in consideration of the construction of Australian analogues to the Mittelstand. Such translations have been posited as a solution to the current crisis facing Australian manufacturing. Translation out of context always poses problems: can a specifically national form of organization, such as the German Mittelstand, be something that can, potentially, be translated to other nations and industrial contexts? The Australian case offers an empirical setting in which to explore understandings of transnational translation of management innovations. Our findings demonstrate how globally theorized models subject to translation align abstract value orientations with local templates. Our discussion focuses on the translation of a Bavarian model of organization into very different locations, such as Geelong, Australia.
The Deltatrac™ II Metabolic Monitor (Datex-Ohmeda Inc.) is considered the standard reference machine in indirect calorimetry; however, it is no longer commercially available thus there is a need for new machines. The gas exchange measurement (GEM; GEM Nutrition Ltd) and the ECAL (Health Professional Solutions) are alternative measuring systems. The aim of this study was to compare the ECAL and GEM with Deltatrac for measures of RMR and the GEM to the Deltatrac for measures of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). Twenty healthy participants were tested on test day 1 (T1) and test day 2 (T2). RMR was measured in a randomised order for 30 min on the Deltatrac, the GEM and the ECAL. Following this, a 1553 kJ meal was consumed and DIT was measured on the Deltatrac and the GEM in alternating 15 min intervals for 4 h. The GEM reported consistently higher values than the Deltatrac for VO2, VCO2, RMR and fat oxidation (P < 0·005). The ECAL was significantly higher than the Deltatrac for measures of VO2, RMR, carbohydrate oxidation (T2) and respiratory quotient and fat oxidation (T1, T2) (P < 0·05). There were no significant differences within repeated RMR measures on the ECAL, the GEM or the Deltatrac. DIT measures were consistently higher on the GEM (T1) (P < 0·005); however, there were no significant differences between repeated measures. The findings suggest that while the GEM and the ECAL were not accurate alternatives to the Deltatrac, they may be reliable for repeated measures.
Barley β-glucan (BG) has been shown to reduce glycaemic response (GR) in some studies. It is hypothesised that this reduction may be a function of its physical properties that delay gastric emptying (GE). The effect of these changes in GR and GE on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is not known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BG of different molecular weights and purities on GR, GE and DIT in healthy subjects. This was a randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures design where fifteen healthy subjects were tested on three occasions following an overnight fast. Following the baseline measurements, the volunteers were fed a soup containing high-molecular-weight BG (HBG), a soup containing low-molecular-weight BG (LBG) or a control soup with no BG (CHO). Following the consumption of the breakfast, GR was measured using finger-prick blood samples, GE was determined using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test and DIT was measured using indirect calorimetry. There was a difference in GR AUC between the soups after 60 min but not after 120 min. The CHO and LBG meals had a greater GR than the HBG meal. There were differences in all GE time points, with the HBG meal having the slowest GE time. There was a correlation between the GR and the initial GE times. There were differences in total DIT between the three test meals with the HBG meal having the lowest DIT. The present study indicates that HBG has the ability to delay GE due to increased viscosity, resulting in a decreased GR and DIT.
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) was used to examine the morphologies of selfassembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs). In order to induce the self-assembly, unlike the conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) growth method, spatial thermal modulations in nanoscale were created in-situ on strained-but-flat InGaAs surfaces in a Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth reactor by applying interferential irradiations of laser pulses (IILP). As-irradiated surfaces were examined using an attached ultra-high vacuum (UHV) STM. STM images indicate that the irradiation of 7 nano second laser pulse induces self-assembly of QDs. The average size of laser-induced QDs is smaller while their density is larger than that of QDs formed by annealing strained but flat epilayers conventionally. Furthermore, the dot density is modulated sinusoidally with a periodicity commensurate with that of the interference, which suggests that the placement of QDs can be controlled on the scale of the optical wavelength used. QD volume analysis suggests that dots grow faster laterally than vertically so that dots become flattened as they get larger.