The effects of infection by Trypanosoma brucei and DNA virus on the ultrastructure of the salivary gland cells in Glossina pallidipes Austen were investigated. Cytoplasm of uninfected cells contains a dense ribosomal population and rough endopiasmic reticulum, scattered Golgi areas and mitochondria. In infected ceils of salivary glands the ultrastructural integrity of the cytoplasm is profoundly changed due to cellular proliferation giving rise to a stratified epithelium and gland enlargement; cell degeneration characterized by formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles, chromatin margination, disorganization and elimination of cell organelles and gland hypertrophy. The virus particles are found in the nucleoplasm as well as the cytoplasm of cells. The ultrastructural evidence indicates that the virus are largely assembled in nuclei of cells and virions pass through the nuclear membrane. The trypanosomes are found within the degenerating cytoplasm and lumen of the cell.
The implications of the features observed in the infected cells are discussed, and possible suggestions are made regarding alteration of the metabolic functions due to infection.